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Full text of "The history and topography of the county of Essex, comprising its ancient and modern history. A general view of its physical character, productions, agricultural condition, statistics &c. &c"

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THE HISTORY 



THE COUNTY OF ESSEX 



BOOK II. — CHAPTER V. 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 
GOSFIELD. 
The parish of Gosfield is bounded northward by Sible Hedinghani, and extends to CHAP. V 



Bocking southward, to Halstead eastward, and on the west is bounded by Wethers- Gosfield. 
field. The general situation of this parish is considerably elevated, the grounds 
gradually rising in almost every direction; the soil is in various proportions mixed 
with sand and gravel, and generally very productive.* The name is supposed to be from 
the Saxon joj^, a goose, or jojijt, a heath, and peld a field, and in records is written 
Gocefeild, Gorefeld, Gorsfeild, Gosfeld, and Gosfend. When Domesday-book was com- 
piled, Gosfield was included in the lordships of Hedingham Castle, Halstead, Bocking, 
Wethersfield, and Gestingthorp;f but Avas separated and made a distinct parish in the 
time of Henry the second, as is evident from a charter of Alberic de Vere, J and from 
the ancient family of De Gosfend having flourished here about that time. 

This parish is distant from Halstead two, from Braintree four, and from London 
forty-five miles. 

The ancient and stately mansion of Gosfield Hall is much altered from its original Gosfield 

Hall 

appearance, yet presents one of the most perfect specimens of the castellated mansions 
of the nobility of this country, in the time of Henry the seventh; who, strictly 
enforcing the ancient prerogative of the crown, which prohibited his subjects from 
erecting fortresses, gave occasion to the introduction of this mode of constructing 
houses, possessing the impregnability without the appearance of castles. This building 

* Average annual produce per acre— wheat 22, barley 32 bushels. 

+ Therefore it is not mentioned in that recoid. 

t The second earl of Oxford, who succeeded his father in 1194: his charter for the endowment of the 
nunnery of Hedingham Castle, mentions Gosfield as '* boscum de Gosfeld qui appellatur Ruthebrake. 
quod est feodo de Heghnm. "—3Ionastic. Anglic, vol. i. p. 1021. 
VOL. II. B 



2 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

HOOK 11. jjjjg underg-one the greatest alteration on the north, east, and south, and only the 
western l"a9ade has preserved its original character. It was an extensive brick build- 
ing, consisthig of suites of apartments, inclosing a quadrangular court, into which all 
the windows of the lower floors opened, there being originally no windows on the 
outside, except to the upper story, and those strongly barricaded; which rendered it 
difficult to force an entrance by any other method than that of effecting a breach in 
the walls, which were of astonishing strength and thickness. The original ground 
plan allowed of only one apartment in breadth, and there was no passage but from 
one apartment to another: it was therefore found convenient, in the new arrange- 
ment, to cut off a passage the whole length of the interior court, from the north and 
south tiers of rooms; and outwardly, the north, east, and south fronts were rebuilt 
by John Knight, esq. and much improved in elegance and convenience. The west 
side remains nearly in its former state, and the first floor is occupied by an apartment 
one hundred and six feet in length, and twelve in width, which has received the appel- 
lation of queen Elizabeth's gallery, in commemoration of that queen having tAvice 
visited lady Rich, at Gosfield. 

In the library room there is an ancient sculptured stone chimney-piece of con- 
siderable interest, from its subject and execution. It represents, in bold relief, the 
memorable battle of Bosworth Field, between Richard the third and the earl of 
Richmond, and contains twenty-four figures on horseback, with the king lying pros- 
trate under his own charger. Most of the personages introduced are known by the 
armorial bearings on their shields. Among others are the duke of Norfolk, the earls 
of Surrey and Northumberland, sir Simon Digby, sir Walter Blount, sir William 
Herbert, lord Stanley, sir George Stanley, sir William Brandon, lord Edward 
Stafford, sir Gilbert Talbot, sir R. Ratcliff"e, sir J. Tyrell, Edward lord Lovell, 
and the earl of Oxford. At the extremities of the chimney-piece there are small 
statues of Henry the seventh and his queen, exactly resembling those on the monu- 
ment at Westminster Abbey. The exact date of this sculpture is not known, but it 
is of indisputable antiquity, having been removed from Bois Hall in the year 1687; 
and one of the earls of Oxford, the proprietors of that place, was a partisan of the 
earl of Richmond. 

The park is extensive, and ornamented by a great number of fine old trees. " Gos- 
field," says Arthur Young, " in my opinion merits much attention, from the circum- 
stance of having been formed, about sixty years ago, by the late earl Nugent, before 
the spirit of decoration took place: he did it himself. The lake is a happy effbrt, and 
just what Brown would have executed: the plantations are so disposed as to attract 
the eye in every direction; and, were the hedges cleared of pollards for a few miles 
around the village, the woods would be seen in a very magnificent outline on every 
side." 



I 




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HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 3 

The labouring population of Gosfield have received substantial benefit from the CHAP. V. 
introduction of the straw-plat manufacture, by the marquis and marchioness of 
Buckingham, which, though at first of difficult establishment, has now spread over 
the country to a considerable distance.* 

From the Grey family this lordship passed by sale to the Millingtons, in the com- 
mencement of the eighteenth century; and was soon afterwards conveyed to John 
Knight, esq. who, on his decease in 1733, bequeathed it to his wife Anne; and this 
lady was married to Robert Nugent, esq. afterwards earl Nugent, from whom the 
estate passed, in 1788, to George, marquis of Buckingham. Gosfield Hall is now 
the seat of G. E. Bernard, esq. 

The manor of Gosfield, or Bellowes, continued, for several ages after the Conquest, 
in possession of the noble family of Vere, forming part of the demesne lands of the 
honour of Hedingham Castle. Adam de Gosfend held it under Aubrey, the first earl, 
and was succeeded by his son, styled Ralph, the son of Adam ; William Fitz- Adam, 
the next recorded possessor of the estate, in the reign of Henry the third, is believed 
to have been Ralph's brother and heir; in the two succeeding reigns of Edward the 
first and Edward the second, it was in the possession of sir John Bellowe; in 1344, 
a court was held in the names of John Galaunt and John Calth; and, in the same year, 
John Hawkwood, Margery his wife, and John their son and heir, held their first 
court here. John Hawkwood held this possession in 1353, and in the court rolls of 
that period the manor is called Hawkwoods Gosfield, from which it appears that the 
name of Bellowes had not been appropriated to it at that time, though it has since. 
It soon after came into the Rolfe family. 

The estate formerly named Gosfield manor, Monthermers, Mohermers, and Har- Manor of 
mers, extended into the parishes of Gosfield, Bocking, and Finchingfield. Ralph de or Mont'- 
Monthermer, the first possessor of this estate on record, was esquire to Gilbert de 
Clare, earl of Gloucester and Hertford, who died in 1295, having had the honour of 
marrying Joan of Acre, second daughter of king Edward the first, who, after his 
decease, took this Ralph for her husband, without the licence and authority of the 
king, her father, who in consequence ordered his imprisonment, and her lands to be 
seized. These were both, however, soon afterwards restored, and her husband, for 
his good conduct, particularly in the wars in Scotland, was created earl of Athol. 
During her life he bore this and the title of earl of Gloucester and Hertford; but, 
after her decease in 1307, had only the title of baron Monthermer, by which he was 
summoned to nearly all the parliaments of the reign of Edward the second. He had 

* The first hats produced were of a coarse and unsightly appearance, vvhicli no person would wear, 
and it seemed hopeless to attempt their introduction as articles of dress; but lady Buckingham decorated 
one with ribbons, and wore it in sight of the whole village; the marquis went to church in another; 
and, at length, by extraordinary perseverance, their benevolent purpose was completely accomplished. 



4 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

fiOOK II. by her two sons, Thomas and Edward: the latter of whom died soon after his mother. 
The baron's second wife was Isabel, widow of John de Hastings, sister and co-heiress 
of Audomar de Valence, earl of Pembroke. On his decease in 1326, he was suc- 
ceeded by his son Thomas, slain in a sea-fight, in 1340, leaving Margaret, his only 
daughter and heiress, married to sir John Montacute, brother to William, earl of 
Salisbury, who died in 1389, holding this among his other estates. Margaret, his 
widow, also held this manor, one moiety of which is said to lie in Gosfield, holden 
under tlie earl of Oxford; the other lying in Booking and Finchingfield, and holden 
under the prior of Christchurch, in Canterbury: she died in 1394, and was succeeded 
by her eldest son, sir John Montacute,* who, upon the death of his uncle William, 
in 1398, became earl of Salisbury. He was slain in a popular tumult at Cirencester, 
in 1399, and being opposed to the interests of king Henry the fourth, and one of 
the friends and supporters of Richard the second, he was declared a traitor by the 
parliament, and all his lands and possessions seized; therefore, Thomas, his son and 
heir, does not appear to have had possession of this estate: he died in 1432, and in 
the inquisitions it is stated that " John Mowbray, duke of Norfolk, held one fee in 
Gosfield and Bocking, which Ralph de Monthermer once had :" John was his son and 
heir. In 1466, Tywer, son of Philippa, grand-daughter of John Brokeman, was in 
possession of this manor, which ultimately passed to the heirs of Thomas Rolfe, esq. 

Hodings, The manor called Hodings, or Church Hall, had the mansion-house near the 

Hall. ""^ church, and was at an early period in possession of the family of Hodenge, of Wansted 
and Bm-nham. In 1246, John de Hodenge held this estate of the earl of Oxford, as 
did also several of the same surname, in the reign of king Edward the first; and it 
was holden, by Thomas de Hodenge, as a quarter of a knight's fee, in 1326 and 1360: 
in 1371, Thomas de Vere, earl of Oxford, is recorded to have died, having, among 
his possessions, this quarter of a fee in Gosfield, without any under tenant; from 
whence it may be inferred that the family of Hodenge had become extinct. The 
Rolfe family were soon afterwards possessed of this estate. 

I'aik Hall. Park Hall was a very ancient manor, with an extensive park, named Winshey, or 
Edwin's Hoy, near Codham Field. Some of the lands extended into Gestingthorp, 
forming part of the manor of Overhall, in that parish. 

In 1256, it was holden, by Otto Fitz- William, of the earl of Gloucester, as two 
carucates in Gestingthorp and Gosfield, by the service of one knight's fee; and, in 
1260, it was holden as two hamlets, by William Fitz-Otto; succeeded by Thomas in 
1274, and in 1282 by his son. 

The next recorded owner is sir John Botetourt, in 1338. In 1360, sir John 
Hawkwood held a court here, as did also Nicholas Hawkwood, chaplain, and others, 

* He married Maud, daughter and heiress of sir Adam Francis, by whom he had Thomas, Richard, and 
three daughters. Arms of Montacute : Argent, three lozenges in fesse, gules. 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 5 

in 1363, and Roger Keterich in 1376: the same person held it of the duke of CHAF. V. 
Gloucester in 1392, at which time it is stated to have been separated from Over- 
hall. 

Sir William Bourchier, John Tyrell, John Doreward, junior, John Green, Richard 
Fitz-Nicholas and others, kept court here, supposed as trustees, in 1416; and, in 1420, 
John Doreward, esq. of Bocking, held Park Hall of the earl of March, as of his 
honour of Gloucester, by the service of half a knight's fee: his son, also, of the same 
name, held it at the time of his decease, in 1476, of Cicely, duchess of York. 

The ancient knightly family of Liston were the first recorded possessors of the J-i'^to" 
manor which has retained their name. In 1266, Geofrey de Liston died, holding this 
manor of the earl of Oxford, as the fourth part of a knight's fee: and it was retained 
by the same family till toward the close of the reign of king Edward the third. 

Richard Lyons, beheaded in London by the insurgents under Wat Tyler, was the 
next recorded proprietor, by whom, previous to his murder in 1381, it was con- 
veyed to Lady Alice de Neville: it afterwards passed to Thomas Hodings, and to 
John Helyon, who died in 1450. It afterwards belonged to the heirs of Thomas 
Rolfe, esq. Avhose daughter Editha, by her second husband, John Green, esq. had 
two daughters; Mary, married to sir Herny Tey; and Agnes, to sir William Fin- 
derne, and they jointly did homage for this estate in 1497. In 1524, it belonged to 
Thomas Finderne, Esq. 

In 1552, it was holden by Thomas Neville, and by Thomas Winterflood in 1558; 
and Richard Winterflood died in possession of it, in 1563, leaving Thomas his son 
and heir. It appears to have passed afterwards to the Wentworth family. 

During the reign of Edward the third, the Shardlowe family was in possession of ^^'^'d- 
the estate which has retained their name;* it was holden of the earl of Oxford, 
by Thomas de Shardlowe, in 1352, 1360, and 1371, but the family seat was at 
Tilbury, near Clare. 

It afterwards belonged to Richard Lyons, and to John Doreward, esq. in 1480, in 
whose family it remained till 1495; afterwards passing to the Wentworth family, it 
was sold, by sir John Wentworth, to George Coe, of Byham Hall, on whose decease, 
in 1625, it descended to his son, Isaac Coe, esq. of Lincoln's-inn, whose executors 
sold it, in 1649, to John Green, esq. recorder of London; after whose death it was 
sold, in 1668, to Andrew Harrington, of Gosfield, who sold it again, in 1669, to 
William, lord Grey, of Werke, from whom it passed with the other estates. 

The site of the manor of Morells cannot now be ascertained, but it was on the Morelis. 
borders of Wethersfield and Sible Hedingham; it was in the possession of John 
Doreward, esq. in 1420, and the proprietor of the estate of the same name, in 1476, 
is believed to have been his son. 

* Arms of Shardlowe : Argent, a chevron gules, between three cross crosslets, fitche, azure. 

VOL. II. C 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. 

-Ayle- 

wards. 

Biggs. 



Gosfield 
Place. 



Sparrow 
family. 



The manor of Aylewards was in the possession of Richard Ayleward in 1416, and, 
as the other estates, passed to the Wentworth family. 

The manor of Big-gs, in 1534, was in the possession of William Bigg-s, who is 
believed to have been of the family of Bigge, of Ridgwell and Toppestield. 

In 1541, it was holden under John Wentworth, es(|. by Henry Parker; aiid, in 
1592, was holden in mortgage of Peter White, by Matthew Alliston. This estate 
afterwards became the property of the Sparrow family. 

The modern mansion-house of the manor of Biggs is Gosfield Place, the elegant 
seat of James Goodeve Sparrow, esq. It is a handsome building, inclosed in a park. 
The approach from the London road is over a light iron bridge, across a stream of 
water, and through a shrubbery. The mansion is on an elevated bank, the eastern 
front opening towards a spacious lawn, on either side of which rows of finely formed 
trees, of ample dimensions, with shrubs of varied appearance, supply shady and retired 
walks. Convenience and elegance are particularly observable on entering the haU, 
from which a geometrical stone staircase, of an elliptical form and very superior work- 
manship, conducts to the upper apartments, and to the drawing room, fitted up with 
various appropriate ornaments, particularly some pure white marble statuary, ex- 
quisitely beautiful, by Italian artists. 

The balcony under the window of this apartment affords a pleasing prospect of rural 
Nature, with a view, though limited, highly interesting, over rising grounds, with 
forest trees of luxuriant growth, and woods and water, and the village church forming 
an interesting object in the distance. 

William Sparwe, or Sparrow, the ancestor of the family of that name, resident at 
Gosfield Place, which formerly gave the name to a mansion-house called Sparrows, 
in Sible Hedingham, was of West Harling, in Norfolk, and a person of some celebrity 
in the reign of Edward the third: Robert Sparrow, of Long Melford, in Suffolk, was 
his descendant. By his wife Marion he had Robert and William. 

Robert Sparrow, esq. his eldest son and successor, was the first of the family that 
held the estate of Combe wells, in the parish of Sible Hedingham. He married 
Agnes, sister of Roger Martin, esq. of Long Melford, by whom he had an only son, 
Thomas. 

Thomas Sparrow, esq. succeeded to the family inheritance on the death of his father, 
toward the close of the reign of king Edward the fourth. His residence was at 
Bocking, where he died, at a very great age, about the year 1595. He had, by his 
wife Joan, two sons, John and Clement, and two daughters. 

.John, the eldest son, lived at Earl's Colne, and was steward to John de Vere, earl 
of Oxford. He married Agnes, daughter and co-heiress of John Worthie, esq. of 
Blamsters, by Elizabeth his wife, daughter of John Warner, esq. of Boys Hall, in 
Halstead. The offspring of this connexion were John, Anthony, Edward, Thomas, 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 7 

William, and a daughter, Agnes. The second son, Anthony, was of Maldon, and he CHAP, v, 
had also an estate at Cowledge, in Suffolk, He died in 1567. 

John, the eldest son, who succeeded his father, lived at Sparrows, in Sible Hedingham, 
and was descended, by the mother's side, from the Worthies, Warners, Helyons, Swin- 
bornes, Botetourts, and Gernons, all ancient families, of whom the two last were of the 
old nobility. By his first wife he had Richard; Catharine, Anne, and Susan; and, by 

his second Avife Joan, daughter of Jackson, of this county, he had W^illiam, John, 

and Rachael. Richard, the eldest son, died before his father, and had three daughters, 
who died unmarried. (John, the second son by the second wife, was of Gestingthorp 
parsonage; Anne, daughter of Robert Buckminster, esq. of Poynton, in Lincolnshire, 
was his wife ; and sir John Sparrow, of Gestingthorp, was his descendant. ) 

William Sparrow, of Sible Hedingham, the eldest surviving son, succeeded his 
father, who died in 1589: he married Joan, daughter of John Finch, of Gestingthorp, 
by whom he had three sons, John, William, and Joseph, and two daughters, Jane and 
Barbara; the last of whom was married to Thomas Ady, M.D. of Wethersfield. 
William, the second son, was a clothier, father of William, attorney-at-law, of Sible 
Hedingham, and died in 1648. 

John, the eldest son, succeeded his father, on his death in 1611: he married Mar- 
garet, daughter of Stephen Cooke, of St. Edmundsbury; and had by her Margaret, 
married to John Wade, of Halstead: John and William, who both died in infancy, 
and a second John; also, Joseph and Benjamin, twins, who died infants, and Samuel, 
who married Elizabeth Newman, and died in 1696, leaving no surviving offspring. 

John, the third but eldest surviving son, succeeded his father. His first wife was 
Anne, daughter of William Harrington, of Wallasses, in Great Maplestead, by whom 
he had John, James, and Margaret, married to Jerome Richardson, of Halstead. 
John Sparrow's second wife was Frances Harrington, widow, by whom he had no 
children. He died in 1686, and was buried in the church at Sible Hedingham. 

John Sparrow, esq. the eldest son, succeeded; he was of Christ's College, Cambridge, 
in 1679, and about the same time admitted a member of Gray's-lnn, and called to the 
bar in Michaelmas term 1686. His wife was Elizabeth, daughter of Samuel Clarkson, 
esq. of Langham Lodge, (one of the masters in chancery), by Dorothy, daughter of 
James Cardhial, of Langham Valley, son and heir of William Cardinal, esq. of Great 
Bromley. John Sparrow, esq. died in 1720, leaving an only daughter, named Elizabeth. 

James, the second son of John Sparrow, esq. of Halstead, was born in 1665, and 
died in 1726. In 1690, he married Elizabeth Rose, daughter of John Rose, esq. of 
Morgan Hayes, in the county of Devon, and had by her John, who, in 1719, married 
Jane, only daughter and heiress of Robert Sparrow, esq. of Ofton, in Suffolk; by his 
wife, Jane Risby, of Thorp Morieux, one of the daughters and co-heiresses of 
Heigham Risby, esq. and Elizabeth his wife. He had by her James Sparrow, esq. 



8 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

bODK 11. of Gosfield, who, in 1750, married Margaret Bernard, one of the daughters and co- 
heiresses of the rev. Thomas Bernard, rector of Bardfield, vicar of Earl's Cohie, and 
rector of Wimbish, sinecure: he died in 1777, aged fifty-two; leaving Jane, married 
to Fiske Manistre, of Halstead; James, who died in infancy; Elizabeth, who died 
unmarried; rev. John Sparrow, born 1756, and died, unmarried, in 1786; Marg? -^ 
and James, both of whom died infants; Sarah, born in 1760, married to tue rev. C. E. 
Holden, of Great Cornard -vicarage, Suffolk; Mary died an infant; Thomas Bernard 
Sparrow, born in 1760, died unmarried in 1793; Martha, born in 1768, married to 
the rev. N. J. Stubbin, of Higham rectory, Suffolk; James Goodeve Sparrow, esq. 
who married, in 1799, Anne, youngest of the three daughters and co-heiresses of 
James Crowe, esq. of Lakenham, Norwich; who dying in 1813, he married, in 1817, 
his second wife Dorothy, the eldest daughter of the rev. Basil Bury Beridge, of Algar 
Kirk, Lincolnshire. By his first wife, Mr. Sparrow has only two daughters now 
surviving, Margaret and Jane; and by his second, three sons, Henry Weare, Basil, and 
John Beridge, and two daughters, Dorothy Emma, and Annette Rosalie.* 

After having some time remained divided, and in possession of several proprietors, 
the manors of Gosfield were united, and belonged successively to various families. 

Rolfe Thomas Rolfe,f esq. had two wives. Margaret and Anne: by the first he had his 

daughter of the same name, and by the second, supposed to have descended from sir 
John Hawkwood, junior, he had his daughter Editha, who, from Hawk^vood, in- 
herited the manor of Bellowes, and ultimately became her father's heiress. She was 
first married to John Helyon, who in her right held, in this parish, the manor of Bel- 
lowes, of Hodynges, and Liston Hall: their two daughters were Philippa and Isabel. 
After the death of her husband, in 1449 or 1450, Editha was married to her second* 
husband, John Green, who had been brought up to the profession of the law, under 
her father's tuition, and was the third son of John Green, of Widdington. He died 
in 1473, and his wife in 1498, having had, by this second husband, Elizabeth, Margery, 
and Agnes; the great estates of the families of Rolfe, Helyon, and Green, were divided 
between the daughters of John Helyon. Philippa, the eldest, married to sir Thomas 
Montgomery, having no children, her inheritance passed to her sister Isabel, one of 
the daughters of John Green; Elizabeth was an abbess at Dartford; Margery was 
married to Sir Henry Tey; Agnes was married to Sir William Finderne, and had 
with her Liston Hall; but, on the death of their grandson, Thomas Finderne, in 1523, 
it descended to Anne, the only daughter and heiress of Isabel: she was married to 
Humphrey Tyrell, esq. of Little Warley, third son of Sir John Tyrell, of Herons; 

* The ancient arms of Sparrow were— Vert, a stag tiippant, or: but they were altered by William 
Harvey Xorroy, king at arms, into or, three roses proper. Crest: An unicorn's head argent, on a mural 
crown, or. 

+ Anns of Rolfe: Argent, three cornish choughs, sable. 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 9 

and her only daughter, Anne Tyrell, by marriage, conveyed these and other great CHAP, v, 
estates to her husband, sir Roger Wentworth; who, in her right, enjoyed here the 
manors of Bellowes, Hodings, Shardlowes, Park Hall, Mohermers; and Liston Crofts, 
Bastardby, Jordans, Broome, Burnhall, nineteen acres of wood in Hawkswood, and 
' fo acres called Milliners and Monstronys, lying in Gosfield, Halstead, and Sible 
Hedingham. He died in 1539, his wife having died before him, in 1534. Of their 
several children, sir John, the eldest son, inheriting these estates, married Anne, 
daughter of John Bettenham, esq. of Pluckley, in Kent. He died in 1567, and his 
lady in 1575. Their only daughter Anne, lady Maltravers, was their successor, at 
that time a widow. Her first husband, sir Hugh Rich, second son of sir Richard, 
lord chancellor baron Rich, died in 1554. Her second husband, Henry Fitz-Alan, 
lord Maltravers, having died at Brussels in the nineteenth year of his age, in 1556: 
and having had for her third husband William Dean, esq.; the lady Anne died in 
1580, leaving no offspring by any of her husbands. John Wentworth, esq. of Little 
Horksley, the son of her uncle Henry, succeeded to her estates, and was the first of 
the family who resided at Gosfield : he received the honour of knighthood, and mar- 
ried two wives, but the maiden name of the second is not known: the first was Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Christopher St. Laurence, baron of Howth, in L-eland. On his 
decease in 1588,* he was succeeded by his son, sir John Wentworth, knt. and bart.f 
who, being extravagant, wasted his inheritance; and, in 1622, vested the manors of 
Gosfield, Bellowes, Codham, Aylewards, Hodinges, Withenfield, and Park Hall, in 
trustees, for the payment of his debts, when they were conveyed to sir John Gerard, 
knt.; and he, in 1629, sold them to Hugh Hare, lord Coleraine: who, in 1634, sold 
them, with the rectory and advowson of the vicarage, to Thomas Allen, esq. of 
Finchley, in Middlesex, from whom they were, in 1637, conveyed to Anne, widow 
of Dudley Carleton, viscount Dorchester, whose first husband was Paul, viscoimt 
Bayning; and this lady in 1638 had them, by deed, settled in trustees for her own life, 
remainder to her youngest daughter, Elizabeth Bayning, married to Francis, lord 
Dacre, of Hurst Monceux; and as part of her portion they Avere, in 1641, settled on 
them both, in her right, for the term of their lives: remainder to the heirs of the said 
lord Dacre. 

Sir John Wentworth, who had alienated these estates, married Katliarine, daughter 
of sir Moyle Finch, knt. and bart. by whom he had a son, who died young, and four 
daughters ; of these the two first died unmarried ; Katharine, the third, was married 
to sir William Grey, of Chillingham, in Northumberland, created baron Grey, of 
Werke, in 1624. Lucy, the other daughter and co-heiress, was the second wife of 

* He had the estates left by lady Maltravers, except that of VVlston, in Suffolk, and lands in Norfolk, 
t He had another son and four daughters. Arms of Wentworth : Sable, a chevron, between three 
leopards' faces, or. 



10 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

liOoK II. Thomas Wentworth, earl of Cleveland, who had by her Catharine, married afterwards 
to William Spencer, esq. of Cople, in Bedfordshire. Sir John Wentworth died in 
1631, and his widow in 1639: on which event his two daughters and co-heiresses 
divided what remained unsold, namely, Monthermers, Park Hall, Aylewards, and 
Codham Hall; and, in 1653, Thomas Grey, esq. son and heir apparent of William 
lord Grey, bought of Francis lord Dacre and his lady, Elizabeth, the whole of that 
portion of these estates which was in their possession, which he, on his decease in 
1654-, left by will to his father, William lord Grey, who, in 1669, purchased Shard- 
lowes of Andrew Harrington, esq. and of William Spencer, esq. and Katharine his 
wife, their respective share of the premises; and thus the capital estates of this parish 
became re-united in the noble family of Grey. 

WilUam lord Grey died in 1674, having had, by his lady Anne, daughter of sir 
John Wentworth, William, Thomas, both of Avhom died young, Ralph, and two 
daughters.* Ralph, the only surviving son and heir, married Katharine, daughter 
and heiress of sir Edward Ford, knt. of Harting, in Sussex, widoAv of Alexander, 
eldest son of John, lord Colepeper, by whom he had Ford, Ralph, Charles, and one 
daughter: on his death, in 1675, his eldest son Ford, lord Grey, was his successor, 
created viscount lord Grey of Glendale, and earl of Tankerville in 1695; previous to 
which his two brothers had united with him in conveying the manors of Bellowes or 
Gosfield Hall, and Liston Hall, to sir Thomas Millington, knt. M. D. president of 
the college of physicians, who, dying in 1704, was buried in Wentworth chapel, in 
Gosfield church, leaving Thomas his son and heir, who, in 1708, was sheriiF of the 
county, and, in 1710, one of the representatives in parliament for the borough of 
Great Bedwin. He died in 1714, without issue, by will leaving his estates to his 
two sisters, Anne and Mary; who, in 1715, sold them to John Knight, esq. This 
gentleman was born at Weymouth, and educated at Wadham College and Gray's Inn; 
elected member of parliament for St. Germains, in Cormvall, in 1710, 1713, and 1714, 
and for Sudbury in 1727, and was justice of peace and lord-lieutenant for the county 
of Essex. He married, first, Elizabeth Slaughter, of Cheney Court, Herefordshire; 

and to his second Avife had Anne, daughter of James Craggs, esq. and widow of 

Nevvsham, esq. His only son, John Knight, esq. dying in 1727, he left all his estates 
by will, to his wife Anne, previous to his decease in 1733; and she was afterwards 
married to Robert Nugent, esq. vice-treasurer of Ireland, and member of parliament 
for Bristol. Besides Bellowes and Liston Hall, he purchased, in 1716, the manors of 
Shardlowes, Harmers, Park Hall, and Aylewards, of William, lord North and Grey. 

* These were, Elizabeth, who died uninarricd, and Katluuine, first married to sir Kdward Moscley, 
i)art. and afterwards to sir Charles North, knt. eldest son of Dudley, lord North ; summoned to parliament 
in 1(573, by the title of baron Grey of Rolleston ; and had, probably with his lady, as they descended to 
his son William, the manors of Shardlowes, Harmers, Aylewards, and Park Hall. 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 



11 



An elegant modern mansion, named Cut Hedge, on the road from Gosfield Hall to chap. v. 
Halstead, is the seat of Robert Wyatt, esq. (jut 

Inclosed within the park, and at a short distance eastward from Gosfield Hall, is [?j^f,^|:j^ 
the village church, dedicated to St. Katharine : it has a small chapel attached to it, 
originally built for a chantry, founded here by Thomas Rolfe, esq. for a priest to per- 
form divine service, and to help to serve the cure; this building was repaired in 1560, 
by J. Rolfe, esq. and used as a cemetery for the family: adjoining to this erection is a 
private chapel, which has been used for a similar purpose by the Knights, and other 
families. 

The vicarage was augmented, in 1720, by John Knight, esq. and Mrs. Anne and 
Mary Millington, in conjunction with queen Anne's bounty. 

There are two ancient tombs in the chancel, one of which is to the memory of ^^^'•""- 
Thomas Rolfe, esq. buried in 1440, but the Latin inscription is not very intelligible in inscrip- 
its composition ; we however learn from it, that he left legacies for the support of 
persons afflicted with leprous diseases, and for marrying virgins. 

The remains of John Green, who died in 1449, lie under a plain stone near the 
centre of the church. 

There are several old tombs, from which the brass tablets were taken away in the 
time of the civil wars ; among these are memorials of sir John Wentworth, who died 
in 145 — , and also of his lady : of sir Roger Wentworth and his lady, who died between 
the years 1534 and 1539; and of lord Grey, who died in 1567. 

In the chapel there is a large and elegant monument, with whole-length figures of 
various individuals of the Knight family; and an urn bears the following: 



" Joanni Knight, de Gosfield, in com. Essex, Armig. qui obiit Oct. ii, mdccxxxiii, 
aetat l. Anna Craggs, Jacobi Craggs, Regi Georgii I. a secretis, soior, memorise et 
amori sacrum conjugi suo clarissimo H. S. P." 

In English: 

" To John Knight, of Gosfield, in the county of Essex, esq. who died Oct. 2, 1733, 
in the 50th year of his age : Anna Craggs, sister to James Craggs, privy counsellor 
to George I. in memory and for love of her dearest husband, has erected this stone." 

The elegant workmanship is by Scheemaker, under the direction of Alexander Pope, 
who also wrote the following elegiac inscription, Avhich is on a white marble tablet. 



" O I fairest pattern to a falling age, 
Whose public virtue knew no party rage ; 
Whose private name all titles recommend. 
The pious son, fond husband, faithful friend. 
In manners plain, in sense alone refined ; 



Good without show, and without weakness kind 

To reasons even dictates ever true ; 

Calm to resolve, and constant to pursue : 

In life with every social grace adorn'd, 

In death by Friendship, Honour, Virtue, mourn'd. 



12 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK ri. There are inscriptions on the pedestal in memory of Robert, earl Nugent; lieu- 
tenant-colonel Edmund Nugent, his son; Margaret Nugent, his sister; and Anne 
Craggs, who was first married to James Newsham, esq.; secondly, to John Knight, 
esq. and lastly, to Robert Nugent, esq. afterwards earl Nugent. She died in 1756, 
aged fifty-nine.* 

Clarity. i,j 1G05, Edward Hunter left ten shillings yearly, for ever, out of the rent of his 

tenement of Hoblins, in Gosfield, to be distributed by the churchwardens to the poor 
of this parish, on Good Friday. 

This parish, in 1821, contained five hundred and ninety-eight, and, in 1831, five 
hundred and twelve inhabitants. 

STISTED. 

Stisteil. The large retired village of Stisted is pleasantly situated near the river Blackwater, 

from which the grounds gradually rise, affording a wide expanse of prospect, as we 
proceed toward the great public road between Braintree and Halstead, from which 
this village is considerably distant. An open and well-cultivated district extends east- 
ward to the extremity of the hundred of Lexden, toward the town of Coggeshall; 
to Braintree on the south; and the parish further extends west and northward to 
Bocking, Gosfield, and Halstead: it is computed to be thirty miles in circum- 
ference. The lands are in some parts hilly, in others quite low, with corresponding 
varieties of soil : there is a good proportion of woodland, and some hops are grown 
here. The name is supposed to be from the Saxon ytrS, rough, or f ti^e, a path, and 
j-ret>e, a place. It is written in records Stigestede, Stiesteda, Stistede, Stited, Styes- 
tede, and Stystead. This village is distant from Braintree two, and from London 
fortv-two miles. 

Stisted The large and ancient manor-house of Stisted Hall is described as an " exceedingly 

good old mansion;" but this has been pulled down, and in its place, near the church, 
a very handsome modern edifice erected, under the superintendence of Mr. Penrice, 
of Colchester. The entrance front is ornamented with an elegant Ionic portico, and 
the entire building finished in the most improved style of modern architecture. This 
seat, from its surrounding shrubberies and plantations, commands, in various direc- 
tions, extensive and interesting prospects. 

The lordship of Stisted, with that of Little Coggeshall, being in the possession of 
Godwin, earl of Kent, and Wisgith, the widow of a noble Saxon named Elfwin, were 
given by them to the monks of Christchurch, in Canterbury, previous to the Norman 
conquest, in the year 1046; but, soon after that event, they were deprived of these 
possessions by the rapacity of Odo, bishop of Bayeux, and earl of Kent ; at the great 

* Near the entrance to this chapel there is a fine wax-work figure, as large as life, inclosed in a case, 
of Mrs Knight, mother of John Knight, esq. 



I 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 13 

trial on Pinenden Heath, they were, however, restored, and remained in possession CHAP. V. 
of the prior and monks till the dissolution of the house in 1539, when king Henry the 
eighth made this manor part of the endowment of the dean and chapter of Canterbury. 
From this appropriation it again passed to the crown, in 1545, being assigned to the 
king, with other estates, in discharge of an annuity of £200, which this house was obliged 
to pay for the maintenance of scholars at Oxford and Cambridge; and in the same year 
it was granted to sir Richard Rich, who disposed of it to Henry Pigott, esq. of 
Abingdon, in Cambridgeshire; of whom it was purchased, in 1549, by Thomas Wise- 
man, of Northend, in Great Waltham, in whose family it continued till it was con- 
veyed by lady Mary, the widow of sir Thomas Wiseman,* knt. of Rivenhall, to her 
second husband, sir Henry Appleton, bart. of Great Baddow; and, on his decease, 
to her third husband, Thomas Turner, who resided at Stisted Hall; and he, on the 
decease of the lady Mary in 1685, sold the estate to William Lingwood, esq. of Lingwood 
Braintree; the progenitors of whose family were of the counties of Hereford and 
Gloucester. The first who settled in Essex was John Lingwood, resident at Brain- 
tree in 1571: he had three sons and two daughters; of whom Geofrey, the eldest son, 
marrying Elizabeth, daughter of John Sibthorp, of Great Bardfield, had several sons 
and daughters, of whom William, his eldest son, Avas a student in Barnard's-inn, and, 
in 1629, made escheator-general for the county of Essex, to king Charles the first. 
He died in 1665, and his son William, by his first wife Mary, daughter of Thomas 
Wilson, of Jenkins, in this parish, was the purchaser of Stisted Hall: he was of Gray's- 
inn, bred to the law, and many years in the commission of the peace for the county. 
He had three wives, but died in 1700, without surviving offspring, leaving this estate 
to Elizabeth,! his third wife, daughter of John Jones, esq. of Chiswick; and this lady 
dying in 1719, bequeathed it to John Saville, esq. counsellor-at-law, who, dying a 
bachelor in 1735, left his brother, Samuel Saville, esq. of Colchester, his heir; who 
was one of the representatives in parliament for that borough in 1741, and, on his 
decease in 1763, left, by his wife Sarah, daughter of Edward Husbands, esq. of Little 
Horkesley, two daughters, his co-heiresses. The inheritance of Sarah was the manor 
of Great Fordhara, with other possessions; and Anne had Stisted Hall, as part of her 
patrimony.- in 1763, she was married to the rev. Charles Onley, from whom the family 
inheritance has descended to the present proprietor, Charles Saville Onley, esq.+ 

The manor of Milles has the mansion near the road from the village to Blackwater, Milles. 

* Arms of Wiseman : Per pale, 'or and azure, on a chevron two dragons encountrant, counterchanged : 
on a chief ermines tliree cronels, argent. 

•f- Arms of Lingwood : Azure, a saltier, or, cliarged with five annulets, gules between four tieur-de-lis 
of the second. Crest: On a torse, a lion's head erminois, couped, langued and eared gules, round the 
neck a mural crown. 

X Arms of Saville : Argent, on a bend, sable, three owls of the field. Crest : on a wreath an owl, 
argent. 

VOL. II. D 



14 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. and not far from the bridge. This estate anciently formed part of the lordship of 
Stansted Hall, in Halstead, which also extended into Pateswick. In the time of king 
Henry the fifth, it belonged to John Mille, from whom it is believed to have been 
named. In 1510, it was granted to John Basset, of Bradwell Hall, by king Henry 
the eighth; and, some time afterwards, belonged to Griseld, daughter and co-heiress 
of Ralph \\'rittle, esq. who was successively married to John Rochester, Thomas 
West, and Edward Waldegrave, esqs. By the first of these she had Robert, John, 
and William. Robert Rochester was controller of the household to queen Mary; he 
held this manor of the queen by knight's service; and also held lands called Harvies, 
of Thomas Wiseman, as of his manor of Stisted Hall. On his decease, in 1557, his 
youngest brother William was his heir, whose only son John succeeded; and he sold 
the estate to Thomas Wiseman, esq. who, in 1579, was succeeded by his grandson, 
John Wiseman; and, after his decease in 1579, it became the property of Richard 
Browne, esq. of Islington; in 1738, succeeded by his son Richard, who, dying a 
bachelor in 1747, this estate became the property of his eldest sister's husband, Walter 
Sandys, esq. high sheriff for the county of Gloucester in 1725. 
Jenkins. The manor-house of Jenkins is about a mile south-west from the church, on the 

northern side of the Black water; some of the demesne lands belonging to it extending 
into the parish of Bocking. An ancient owner of this estate called Jenkins, sometimes 
found written Renkyns de Bocking, is understood to have given occasion for the name. 
This manor was originally derived from those of Stisted and Bocking Hall, and was 
afterwards divided into shares, in which state it continued till 1375, when being again 
united, it became the property of Clement, the son of Robert Spice, of Bocking, who 
sold it to Robert Sewell, of Coggeshall; from whom it was, in 1397, conveyed to 
Stephen Fabian, from whose family it passed, with other estates, to Thomas Wilson,* 
of Bethnal Green; in whose family it continued till 1716, when, on the decease of 
the male heir, without issue, it was conveyed to William Basey. 
Hayne Tlie manor of Rayne Hatch and Boltwoods has the mansion about a mile and a half 

and Bolt- north east from the church, on the road toward Halstead. The first part of the name 
woods. -g fj.Qjjj g^ hatch or gate somewhere on the road toward Braintree, formerly called 
Rayne, in which parish part of this estate was situated. The name of Boltwoods is 
from an ancient family in possession of this estate in the reign of king Henry the 
fourth, some of whose descendants were living in Essex in the time of king Henry the 
eighth. This manor and tenements were in the possession of Thomas Naylinghurst, 
at the time of his decease in 1419; Hugh, his son, succeeded; and Ralph Nayling- 
hurst, in the time of king Edward the sixth, held this estate of the manor of Boones.^ 
Edward Jackson was succeeded by John, his son, in 1569, holding the manor of 

• Arms of Wilson : Gules, a fesse between three cushions, argent, tassels, or, each charged with a fleur- 
de-lis gules. 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 15 

Rayue Hatch, described as lying- in Booking, Braintree, Stisted, Gosfield, and Hal- CHAP. V. 
stead. The Wiseman family had this possession, with Boltwoods, which Anne, the 
only daughter and heiress of William Wiseman, conveyed to the Clopton family, and 
it was given, by Dr. Clopton, to the town of St. Edmundbury, for charitable uses. 

The farm named Boltwoods, as well as Rayne Hatch, belonged to the family of ^^',™ "^ 
Naylinghurst, and passed from them to the Davenants, of Sible Hedingham. It was woods. 
at that time called the manor or messuage of Boltheds, holden of the manor of Boones, 
and was in the possession of William Aylet in 1583;* Richard was his son and suc- 
cessor. 

A farm and messuage called Kentishes, belonged to a family named Polly, in the Kentishes 
time of king Henry the third; and the family of Kentish, from whom it has been 
named, were in possession of it in the reigns of the fourth, fifth, and sixth Henries. 
It passed to the Wiseman family in 1614, on the decease of William Wrothe, esq. 
who had intermediately been in possession of it. From the Wisemans it passed to the 
Boltwoods, and to Sir Gerard Sammes, who, in 1629, gave his daughter Isabel this 
estate; and this lady sold it, in 1631, to Robert Plumme, who, the same year, disposed 
of it to John Alston, of Hawkshall, in Toppesfield; and Ehzabeth Alston, of this 
family, having this estate left to her by her brother, Lestrange Alston, in 1689, con- 
veyed it to her husband, William Jegon, whose son, Charles Jegon, dying in posses- 
sion of it, his heirs sold it, in 1762, to Samuel Saville, esq. of Stisted HaU. 

A farm here called Peckstones, consisting of about forty acres of land, is part of the Peck- 
endowment of the free school at Earl's Colne. 

The church has a nave, north and south aisles, and a chancel, on the north side of Church, 
which is the vestry; and a tower rising from its opposite southern side, with a shingled 
spire, contains five bells. The nave is separated from the aisles by Norman arches, 
supported by columns of uniform diameter, and of large dimensions. The living is a 
rectory, and one of the archbishop of Canterbury's peculiars: it has one hundred and 
thirty-two acres of glebe lands. 

There is a monument in the chancel to the memory of lady Mary Wiseman, of Monu- 
Stisted Hall, who died in 1685; and also of Elizabeth, the wife of John Wiseman, 
who died in 1584; of Elizabeth, the wife of William Lingwood, interred here in 1719; 
of Samuel Saville, esq. and his wife Sarah; and also a very elegant marble monument 
to the memory of the wife of the rev. Samuel Jackson, M. A. rector of Stisted in 1742. 

The parsonage-house is a plain brick building, erected by the rev. Peter Wagoner, 
during his incumbency in 1712. 

This parish, in 1821, contained seven hundred and ninety, and, in 1831, eight hun- 
dred and ninety-five inhabitants. 

* Arms of Aylet : Azure, a fesse embattled between three unicorns' heads erased, argent. 



BOOK II. 



Braintree. 



16 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BRAINTREE. 

The populous and flourishing town of Brainti'ee is pleasantly situated on the verge 
of Hinckford, where it meets the northern extremity of Witham hundred; and on its 
opposite side, this town joins to Booking, one of the most considerable of the villages 
of Essex. 

Wliat remains of tlie old town of Braintree, which forms the central part, consists 
of several streets irregulai'ly formed, and inconveniently narrow; many of the houses 
are ancient, and some of them built of wood : but in the great thoroughfare street, and 
other parts of these combined towns, there are many capital houses belonging to 
opulent tradespeople; and handsome chapels, or meeting houses, for dissenters of 
various denominations; of Avhich that of the Independents is a large and elegant struc- 
ture of white brick and Bath stone, seventy-one feet long by tifty-three wide, esti- 
mated to contain fifteen hundred persons. It is at the entrance to the town from 
London, on the eastern side of the road, to wliich it forms an interesting ornament. 
The old chapel, built in 1788, and enlarged in 1813, was pulled down in 1832, and 
the present building erected. The site of the old chapel, together with a burying 
ground adjoining, is now inclosed with a brick wall six feet high, and forms a most 
safe and commodious cemetery. It is near the centre of the town, with two approaches 
to it, one from the principal street, and the other from the Rayne road. 

In the wall is inserted a neat stone tablet, with the following inscription: 

" Where this wall stands was the front of the Independent ciiapel, which was 
built A. D. 1788. In A. D. 1832, it was taken down, a new chapel erected at the 
south-west entrance to this town, on ground presented by the rev. J. Carter, and 
this wall built to enclose a burying ground for the use of the congregation assem- 
bling there." 

The name of Braintree is variously written in records Branketre, Branchetren, 
Branctoe, Brautree, Bromptre, Raines, Raine Magna, and Hamlettum de Magna 
Raines. In the survey of Domesday it has the two names of Raines and Branchetren, 
of Avhicli one is Saxon, the other British; the meaning is defined to be either a " town 
upon a hill," or "a town near a river;" which last applies with some propriety to this 
place, for on the southern side of it is Podd's brook, and on its northern, the river 
Blackwater. 

The lordship, named Raines in Domesday, included Braintree, and what constitutes 
the present parish of Raynes; the separation into Great and Little Raynes having 
taken place toward the close of the reign of king John, or the commencement of that 
of Henry the third.* Both in ancient and modern times, it has derived important 

* Rayne Hatch, a small estate of forty acres, in Stisted, pays tithe to this parish. 




^ 



£ I 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 17 

advantages from its situation on the great road from London into the counties of Suf- CHAP. V. 
folk and Norfolk; and, in 1199, William Santa Maria, bishop of London, obtained 
the grant of a market and an annual fair; and the vast crowds of pilgrims going to the 
shrines of St. Edmund, and our lady of Walsingham, proved a source of emolument 
to this place, which rapidly increased in population and importance; and at a later 
period, in the reign of queen Elizabeth, the Flemings, who fled from the persecution 
of the duke of Alva, introduced the woollen-cloth manufacture, which flourished here, 
and for several centuries proved the means of greatly enriching the inhabitants. This 
business has now become extinct, and is succeeded by the silk manufacture, Avhich 
employs a large portion of the labouring population : the straw-plat manufacture has 
also been introduced. 

It has a market on Wednesdays, well supplied with all kinds of necessaries, and at 
which considerable quantities of corn, malt, and hops, are sold by sample. There are 
also two fairs annually, on the 8th of May* and the second of October. 

The petty sessions for the southern division of the hundred are holden here.-j- 

From Chelmsford this town is distant eleven miles, and from London forty. 

In the time of the Confessor, most of the lands of this parish belonged to William, 

bishop of London, a Norman, who came into England with Emma, Avife of king 

Etheldred, mother of king Edward, by whom he was promoted to that see in 1051. 

Upon the reconcilement of the king with earl Godwin, who hated the Normans, 

Robert, archbishop of Canterbury, and this William, bishop of London, and Ulf, 

bishop of Lincoln, effected their escape from the fury of the earl, and retired into 

Normandy : two of them died abroad, but the bishop of London returned, and at the 

time of the survey had a portion of these lands; the other two portions being in the 

possession of Hamo Dapifer and Richard, son of Gilbert, earl of Clare. On the 

death of bishop William, in 1079, the inhabitants of London erected a monument over 

his remains, with an inscription, expressing their gratitude for his intercession with 

the Conqueror in their behalf; for, by his influence and authority, they enjoyed great 

and important liberties and immunities.^ 

The largest of the three manors or lordships of Braintree, was that which belonged Hisliops 

. luannr. 

to the bishops, who had a palace, which was also the manor-house, and stood on the 

side of the hill that rises above Braintree-mill, near the site of the present parsonage- 
house. No vestige of the palace remains, but the hill is believed to be tbe same as is 
mentioned in the survey. The bishops of London retained this lordship till Nicholas 

* The fair in May was procured for the town by Herman Olniius, esq. in tiie reign of (jiieen Elizabctli. 

t The mode of parish government by a " select vestry," was introduced here at an unknown remote 
period; and as early as 1584 they were called the twenty-four headboroughs, governors of the town, and 
town magistrates. 

X Bishop Godwin's Catalogue of Bishops, and Stowe's Survey of London, cd. 1720, book v. p. 347. 



liiirst. 



18 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

HOOK II. Ridley disposed of it, by the name of the manor of Branketry, to king Edward the 
sixth, hx 1550; and that prince, in the same year, made a gi-ant of it, with the advow- 
son of the vicarage of Coggeshall, to lord Rich, in whose family it remained till 
Charles, earl of Warwick, in 1673, dying without issue, the large inheritance of 
the family was divided among his sisters and amits, and this lordship became the pro- 
perty of his sister, lady Frances, wife of Nicholas, son and heir of sir Francis Leake, 
lord Deincourt and earl of Scarsdale; who, on his decease, in 1680, left his son Ro- 
bert, the third earl of this family, and a younger son named Rich, and Mary. The 
earl married Mary, daughter and co-heiress of sir John Lewis, knt. and bart. of Led- 
stone, in Yorkshire, and had by her an only daughter, who died in infancy. He sold 
this estate to Herman Olmius, esq. ancestor of the family of lord Waltham,* and it 
continued in the possession of the lady dowager till her decease. 

Nayline- The manor-house of Naylinghurst is about a mile distant, westward from the town, 
on Braintree Green, not far from Felsted Common : it is vulgarly named Nannegale. 
This manor was anciently holden of the honour of Hedingham Castle, by the service 
of one knight's fee. It was in the possession of Stephen de Haia, in the reigns of 
Richard the first and king John, and till 1245, when it passed to Simon de Rennes, suc- 
ceeded, in 1268, by his son Robert, followed by Walter de Rennes: afterwards, it 
was in the possession of Roger de Xaylingherst, succeeded by John Oxeneye, John 
Naylingherst, prior of Duimiow, and ^^^illiam at Parke, who died in 1358. Thomas 
Naylingherst held the estate under Thomas, earl of Oxford, who died in 1370. 

The family of Naylingherst derived their honours and riches from Robert, son of 
John Naylingherst, a clergyman of learning and celebrity in the reign of Edward the 
third, who at the same time held the rectories of Stisted, Sible Hedingham, and Great 

* Herman Olmius, esq. of St. Peter le Poor, London, married Judith, heiress of John Drigue, esq., by 
whom he had six daughters, all of whom died young, except Judith ; and four sons, of whom John, Her- 
man, and Driguey, arrived at the age of maturity. In 1706, Bishops manor was settled upon John, the 
eldest son, who married Elizabeth, heiress of Mr. Thomas Clarke, merchant, of the Clarkes of St. Ives, in 
Huntingdonshire. He was hinh sheriff in 1707, and justice of tlie peace and deputy-lieutenant for the 
county; and, on his decease in 1731, was deputy-governor of the Bank of England. His only son, John, 
was his successor ; who married Anne, daughter of sir William Billers, knt. alderman of London, by 
whom he had John Drigue, and Elizabeth. In 1762, he was created baron Waltham, of Philipstown, in 
the kingdom of Ireland, and died the same year; and John Drigue Olmius, the second lord Waltham, 
died without issue in 1764. Arms of Olmius, lord Waltham: Party per fesse, azure and argent, a fesse 
embattled and counter embattled, or; in chief of six points argent; in base, on a mount, vert, an elm 
tree, proper. The family used to quarter, second : sable and argent; in chief a deer's head couped, azure: 
over the ears a ducal coronet, argent. In base five bezants, or, three and two, Reinstein. Three : azure 
a vine proper, fructcd argent, bronsed on by a goat erect, argent, hoofed and horned, or, cappre. Fourth: 
sable, a dexter hand proper, issuing out of a cloud proper, grasping five .stalks of bearded wheat, or, Ger- 
verdiney. Fifth : sable, an herring, or, in bend, Drigue. Crest. On a wreath, a demi-Moor proper, in 
armour; head escarsioned, or, inhis ears a pendant, argent ; on a belt, or, a fesse embattled as above, 
between two strips of bays proper. Motto, " Meritez." 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 19 

Leighs. The family was ennobled by the marriag-e of Catharine, daughter and heiress CHA^^ 
of sir Hug-h Badewe, (niece of Richard Badewe, chancellor of Cambridge in 1326, 
and first founder of Clare Hall, at that time called University Hall,) to Thomas, son 
of Thomas de Naylingherst, in the time of Edward the third. John Naylingherst 
added the manor of Glanville to this estate, by marrying Alice, daughter of Geoffrey 
Glanville of Felsted; he died in 1362, and his son and successor, Thomas, in 1409; 
succeeded by Hugh, who, on his decease in 1493, left Clement his heir.* In 1636, 
this estate Avas in the possession of Henry Haselfoot, succeeded by a family of the 
name of Bridges; afterwards by Rowland Holt, esq. brother to lord chief justice 
Holt. The next possessor of this estate was sir William Smith, knt. 

The manor-house of Marks is about a mile from the town, on the north side of the Marks, 
road to Coggeshall; it was in the possession of a thane named Coding, in the time of 
Edward the Confessor, and at the svu'vey was holden under Hamo Dapifer, by Ralph 
de Marci, from whom its name is derived : it continued in this family till the reign of 
Edward the third. In 1254, William de Mark was presented at Chelmsford and 
fined, because he held a knight's fee here without receiving the honour of knighthood. 
Richard, his son, was his successor, followed by John; and, in 1347, this estate was 
conveyed by John de Bocking to sir John de Bourchier, knt., of the very ancient and 
noble family of the Bourchiers of Stansted Hall, in Halstead. On the attainture of 
William, earl of Essex and marquis of Northampton, on account of the unfortunate 
lady Jane Grey, this estate was forfeited to the crown, and, in 1555, was granted, by 
queen Mary, to sir Robert Rochester, comptroller of her household; who gave it, by 
will, to the priory of Shene, in Surrey; and, on the suppression of that house, it was 
restored to the marquis of Northampton ; on whose decease, in 1571, and that of lady 
Anne, the marchioness, in 1572, this manor returned to the crown, and was granted 
by queen Elizabeth to Walter Devereux, viscount Hereford, whom she created earl 
of Essex in 1572; he being great grandson to John Devereux and Cicely, sister of 
Henry Bourchier, earl of Essex, cousin and next heir to the said lady Anne. Sir 
Walter was made K.G. and marshal of Ireland, and died at Dublin in 1576, leaving, 
by the lady Lettice, daughter of sir Francis KnoUes, several sons and daughters, of 
whom Robert, his successor to the earldom, was the envied and unfortunate favourite 
of the queen; falling a sacrifice to the malice and treachery of his enemies, lie was be- 
headed in 1600: but his father, previous to his decease, had sold this manor and estate to 
Ralph Wiseman, esq. of Rivenhall, son of John Wiseman, es({. of Wimbish. Richard, 
Thomas, and Robert were the surviving progeny of Ralph Wiseman, on his decease 
in 1594, of whom Richard, the eldest, succeeded to the estate, which remained in the 
family till Elizabeth, widow of sir William Wiseman, knt. and bart. in conjunction 

* Anns of Naylingherst : Gules, a cross ^engrailed, or. 



20 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

JJOOK II. with Samuel Wiseman, her husband's nephew and heir, sold it, in 1696, to Thomas 
Western, esq. of Rivenhall, who gave it to Robert, his youngest son; from whom it 
passed to his daughter Sarah, and to Thomas Mashiter, yeoman; and afterwards to the 
Ruggles family. 

Sandpit The Clare family held possessions here in the reign of William the conqueror, as 

appears from the record of Domesday, where they are entered as encroachments on 
the king's demesnes; yet they were afterwards allowed to retain these lands as an 
appendage of the honour of Clare, and part of the dutchy of Lancaster. The court- 
leet belonging to this lordship used to meet annually on the 22d of September, when 
a constable was chosen, whose jurisdiction was limited by the boundaries of what has 
been named the Sandpit leet; it lies on the north-west side of the town, beginning at 
a pond near the commencement of the road to Rayne, and from thence extending to 
the Boar's Head. 

Hui)i)ai(ls Lands in this parish, named Hubbalds and Mallands, were part of the gift of Ralph 

hlmls''^' Diggen, esq. in 1649, to the master and fellows of Clare Hall, in Cambridge. 

Fiiniiiy of The Hawkins family had formerly large possessions here, which ultimately became 

Hawkins, ^j^^ property of Frances, daughter of Robert Hawkins, the only surviving son of John 
Hawkuis, esq. alderman of London, who died in 1633: she conveyed the estate to her 
husband, sir John Dawes, knt. and hart, of Putney, by whom she had Robert, John, 
William, and Elizabeth, wife of Peter Fisher, D.D. Sir Robert Dawes succeeded 
his father, and dying without issue, as did also his brother John, sir William Dawes, 
the youngest brother, succeeded to the title ; he was dean of Docking, master of Ca- 
tharine Hall, in Cambridge, bishop of Chester, and archbishop of York. He married 
Frances, one of the sisters and co-heiresses of sir Robert Darcy, hart, of Great Brack- 
sted, by whom he had sir Darcy Dawes, and a daughter married to sir William Milner, 
bart. of Yorkshire. 

Church. Xhe church, dedicated to St. Michael, isi^a spacious structure of flint and stone, with 

lofty north and south aisles, a nave, and chancel. The tower is apparently the most 
ancient part of the building, and is surmounted by a spire, comparatively modern. 
This edifice is believed to occupy the site of an ancient camp, and is on tne highest 
part of the town. There was a parish church erected here of much greater antiquity 
than the present building, having been founded a considerable time before the Nor- 
man conquest. It was situated near the palace, about half a mile from the present 
church.* A clause in the will of John de Naylingherst, dated 1349, informs us that 
he bequeathed a black bullock toward the work of the church, and this is considered 
decisive evidence of the erection of this building about that time. The arms in the 
church of most of the neighbouring gentry who were then living, is a further 

* Some remains of this building are yet to be seen, in which there are three very narrow lancet-shaped 
windows, in what appears to have been the east wall of the chancel. 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 21 

confirmation that this structure was erected toward the close of the reign of Edward CHAP. V 



the third. Allowing- these inferences, yet it is evident that numerous additions and 
alterations have been made in this building; of these, the most ancient is the north 
aisle, and the period of its erection is not known; but, by an old ledger belonging to 
the vestry, we are informed that the new porch was added in 1522, and the aisle is 
there called the " new isle." The south aisle is stated to have been erected in 1532; 
and when the old shingled roof was taken doAvn, and the walls raised a story higher, 
and covered with lead, Henry Eve, who died in 1535, is recorded to have laid the 
first stone. In addition to large contributions toward the expenses of these improve- 
ments, further assistance was derived from the acting of three plays in the church: 
the first was St. Swithin, in 1523; the second, St. Andrew, in 1525; and the last of 
these performances was named Placy Dacy, or St. Eustacy, which was acted in 1534. 
It is remarkable, that, besides pleasing the eye and amusing the mind, ample provision 
was made on these occasions for satisfying the appetite, of which a very particular 
account is given in the register books. After the reformation, the churchwardens 
lent out the players' garments, and at last sold them for fifty shillings, and also sold 
the books for twenty shillings. 

The patronage of this church was in the prior and convent of the monastery of the 
Chartei'-house, in 1416, and Avas appropriated to that house by Richard Clifford, 
bishop of London, reserving, in this appropriation, six shillings and eight pence per 
annum to himself and his successors, which has continued to be paid to the present time. 
After successively passing to various proprietors, the advowson was sold to Richard, 
lord Rich, who, when he founded a hospital and free-school at Felsted, gave some- 
thing to each of them out of this rectory; which, on the division of the earl of War- 
wick's estate, formed part of the share of the earl of Nottingham, and was held by 
lease for life, by the vicars of Braintree, who pay out of it yearly to the almshouse 
and free-school at Felsted, the sum of thirty pounds one shilling and eight pence in 
money, sixteen cpxarters of wheat, and the same quantity of malt. 

The advowson of the vicarage was conveyed to the earl of Scarsdale, and after- 
wards became vested in lord Waltham. 

In 1725, the rev. Stephen Newcomen, the incumbent at that time, gave two hundred 
poutuls, to which the same sum was added from queen Anne's bounty, for the augmen- 
tation of this living. 

In records of the date of 13C4, an account is found of a chapel, near the old church, Chapel. 

for a chantry priest to sing mass in daily. It was of the foundation of the bishops ot 

London; was dedicated to St. John the Baptist; had a yard, two messuages in Black 

Notlev, four messuages in Braintree, and a barn, included in its endowment; all which, 

with many others, were pranted to Thomas Goldiny. 

•^ " " . . . Obits, 

In this church there were twelve obits, and also several gilds, or fraternities; par- Gilds, &c. 

VOL. II. E 



22 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK li. ticularly those of Jesus; of St. John the Baptist; of Crispin and Crispina; a plow gild; 
a torch gild; and a gild of women of our lady's-lights, to which belonged an alder- 
woman and two wardens. 

Inscrip- A mural marble monument in the chancel is inscribed to the memory of John 

Hawkins, esq. alderman of London in 1623, who died in 1633. 

On a brass plate against the wall of the chancel, above an altar tomb, inclosed in a 
grate, is the following inscription : — 

" This grate was ordered to be set up by the last will and testament of Samuel 
Collins, late doctor of physick, eldest son of Mr. Samuel Collins, here under buried, 
who served about nine years as principal physician to the great Czar, emperor of 
Russia, and after his return from thence, taking a journey into France, died at 
Paris, Oct. 2«, 1670, being the fifty- first of his age. 

" Mors requies peregrinantibus." 

There is an inscription on the south side of the tomb, which informs us that the rev. 
Samuel Collins, father of the abovenamed gentleman, and many years vicar of this 
church, died on the second of May, 1667, and was buried here. 
Charities. In 1533, John Payne left a tenement in this town called Copped Hall, for the relief 
of the poor. 

In 1565, John Surinam left one hundred pounds for the erection of four almshouses. 
This benefaction was enlarged by an additional donation from Robert, lord Rich, of a 
piece of waste ground; and by a further grant of land from Robert, earl of Warwick; 
on this inclosure a house was erected, in 1630, called "The Hospital," for the enter- 
tainment and support of poor children and poor people. 

Alice Griggs, widow, in 1579, left a piece of arable land of four acres, and one acre 
of meadow, the annual profits to be disposed of to the poor, at the discretion of the 
churchwardens. 

In 1626, John Lawrence gave an orchard, rented at four nobles per annum, to the 
poor of this parish. This was afterwards exchanged for a field of greater value. 

This parish receives a portion of the interest of two thousand eight hundred pounds, 
left to the poor of five ditferent parishes, by Henry Smith, esq. 

In 1630, Thomas Trotter, a native of this place, left a house, barn, and four acres 
of arable land, at that time of the yearly value of five pounds ten shillings, of which 
four pounds was to be annually given, by two payments, at two shillings each, to 
twenty aged poor; the remainder of the money to be expended in the repairs of the 
church, and disposed of as specified in the will. In 1651, the tenement on the pre- 
mises was burnt down, which reduced this charity to four pounds per annum. 

In 1631, Thomas Hobbes, esq. of Gray's-inn, gave a farm in Braintree called 
Brooms, of the income of which six pounds per annum were to be given to the vicar of 
Braintree; five pounds per annum for a catechising lecture in Katharine Hall, in 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 23 

Cambridge; and the remainder to two or three poor students in Cambridge, either in CHAP. v. 
Katharine Hall, or Emanuel College. 

In 1637, Mark Mott, ancestor of the family of that name, of Shalford, gave a house 
and a small field, at that time of the yearly value of forty shillings, the income to be 
disposed of in shirts and smocks, of cloth, at twelve pence a yard, to be given to the 
poor of this parish. His son, Adrian Mott, also gave, in 1638, one hundred pounds 
into the hands of the minister and the rest of the vestry, desiring that land might be 
purchased with it, as soon as conveniently it might; and in the meantime that it should 
be improved to the best advantage, and the profits disposed of yearly, on the fifth of 
November, as his father had directed in his will. But the donor lived to see the 
greater part of this money lost, by those to whom it was lent. 

In 1640, sir Stephen White gave an annuity of six pounds thirteen shillings and 
four pence, out of a farm in Black Notley, to purchase shifts to be given to six poor 
women of Braintree, on All Saints day, of the value of fourteen shillings each; and 
for each of them four two-penny loaves of Avheaten bread, upon the first Sunday in 
every month in the year; and to the upper churchwarden, one shilling and four pence. 

In 1691, Isaac Skinner, of Wivenhoe, but born in this parish, left the reversion of 
his house in Wivenhoe to the churchwardens and overseers of the poor there, upon 
condition that they should pay yearly to the churchwardens of Braintree, the sum of 
four pounds, for the use of the poor of this parish, for ever. 

In 1698, Henry Summers, a native of this town, gave an annuity of seven pounds 
ten shillings out of his manor of Gains, in Huntingdonshire, with which five pounds' 
worth of bread is to be purchased and given to the poor of Braintree, on the 4th of 
February (being the day of his baptism) yearly, for ever: the remaining fifty-two 
shillings to be given to the minister and churchwardens, to be expended in a good 
dinner, or otherwise, as they shall think fit. 

In 1702, James Coker gave out of a farm at Stoke Neyland, in Suflfolk, an annuity 
of ten pounds, for teaching ten poor children of Braintree, English and Latin in the 
parish school. 

In 1707, John Aylett gave the reversional moiety of a house and land in Booking, 
to the poor of this parish for ever. 

In 1802, a charity was established here, supported by subscription, to clothe and 
instruct sixty poor children. The subscription has been greatly enlarged, and the 
number of children increased since its commencement. 

An urn filled with Roman coins was found, some time ago, in grounds belonging to Roman 
High Garret; of these a considerable number, chiefly of the emperor Vespasian, were ties!^" 
carefully preserved by Mr. Jonathan Reeve, at that time proprietor of the estate; but 
many were dispersed and lost through the ignorance and carelessness of the workmen. 

In 1828, as a gardener, employed by Mrs. J. Tabor, was at work near that part of 
the road which separates Bockiug from Braintree, he discovered a very large quantity 



24 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. of Roman coins, in a particular part of the inclosure, where many single coins had 
))een at different times found, which had induced Mrs. Tabor to request to be informed 
if further discoveries should be made; and on this occasion a half-peck measure was 
filled and carried to her, and sold for three guineas, though the workman had jestingly- 
asked fifty pounds for tiiom. On hearing of this occurrence, the person who trans- 
mitted the account to the Gentleman's Magazine,* repaired to the gardener and 
secured twenty-six of the coins, and the bottom of the pot which had contained them; 
and, on going to the spot, found six more. Many other persons in Bocking and Braintree 
have also been supplied with considerable numbers. The whole were at first believed 
to be copper coins, but have since been ascertained to be many of them silver. Mrs. 
Tabor's collection amounted to upwards of two thousand two hundred, and the whole 
are believed to have exceeded three thousand. The following are the only letters 
legible on the inscriptions: 

"...VALERIANVS P F AVG... DIV... MARIANA... GALLIENVS AVG... 
IMP GALLIENVS AVG... CAL SALONINA AVG... IMP C VICTORINVS P F 

AVG... VICTORINVS p F {left Side face) imp c postvmvs p f avg... 

IMP MARIVS P F AVG... IMP CLAVDIVS... IMP MACI QVINTILLVS... 
IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG. ..IMP FVL gVIETVS P F AVG... IMP C TETRICVS 
P F AVG... TETRICVS C AVG..." 

The coin or medal of Mariana is a beautiful silver one, in a high state of preser- 
vation; she was the second wife of the emperor Valerian, and it appears to have been 
struck on the occasion of her marriage. The obverse bears the head of the empress, 
the reverse (as is supposed) a peacock with a cupid — legend, consecratio. 

Braintree is situated on the Roman road leading from Verulam (St. Alban's) to 
Camuloduuum (Colchester), being about fifteen miles from the latter; the turnpike 
road intersects it in one place, and further on from Colchester divides it from the village 
of Bocking. About two or three years ago there were found, near the confines of 
Bocking, and where it adjoins Braintree, three or four urns, which are said to have 
been Roman; the largest of them contained a small black vessel, which the workmen 
declared had no aperture; their curiosity induced them to break it open, but it did 
not appear to contain any thing; the urns were all broken by the workmen, but their 
fragments were collected, and are preserved by Mrs. Tabor: those of the largest are 
capable of being placed and tied together, so as to exhibit the original form. There 
were found in the urns fragments of bones, apparently human, the most perfect 
specimen of which seems to have been part of a skull. 

There have been found at Stisted (which joins to Bocking and Braintree, and is 
still nearer to Colchester,) several urns, stated to have been decidedly Roman. A 
Roman coin of the emperor Carausius, of great rarity, has also recently been found 
• Gentleman's Mag. vol. xcviii. part i. p 163. 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 25 

in high preservation, in this neighbourhood, at Debenham, in Suffolk: it bears on one CHAP. V. 
side the effigies of the emperor, crowned with laurel, circumscribed imp. carausius 
P. F. A. On the reverse, the emperor extending his right hand toward a female 
figure (Britannia) both holding a standard, circumscribed, " expectate veni." 
Carausius reigned in Britain anno 294. The coin is now in the collection of a gentleman 
at Woodbridge. 

Some time ago, a coin or medal of Antoninus was found at Braintree, in excellent 
preservation. 

Samuel Dale, M. D. an antiquary and botanist, born in 1669, was originally an Dr. Dale, 
apothecary at Braintree: in 1730, he became a licentiate of the royal college of 
physicians, in London, and a practitioner at Bocking, where he died in 1739, aged 
eighty. He published a Pharmacopoeia and Materia Medica, of considerable celebrity, 
which passed through numerous editions: Silas Taylor's history and antiquities of 
Dover Covu't, with an appendix, topographical, dynastical, and political; first collected 
by Silas Taylor, alias Dorneville, and now much enlarged, with notes and observations, 
and cuts; 4to. London, 1732: and wrote numerous papers in the Philosophical 
Transactions, on medical and philosophical subjects, and on natural history. 

In 1821, this parish contained two thousand nine hundred and eighty-three, and, in 
1831, three thousand four hundred and twenty-two inhabitants. 

BOCKING. 

The parish of Bocking extends from Braintree on the south to its junction with Rocking. 
Gosfield northward; and from Stisted eastward to Pantfield on the west; it is inter- 
sected by the river Blackwater, which puts several corn-mills and the machinery 
of some silk factories in motion. The village is one of the largest in Essex, principally 
consisting of one long street, extending into the heart of the town of Braintree: it 
contains many well-built houses, and has places of worship for the Society of Friends, 
and dissenters of other denominations. 

The name is supposed to be formed of the two Saxon words, Boc, a beech tree, 
and inj, a pasture, or meadow; or, in the opinion of some etymologists, it has been 
so named because it was bock land, or free land, holden by deed, as the tenure of soc- 
land was by service.* In records the name is written Boccinge, Boccinges, Bochinges, 
Bockyng, and Boquhing. The agricultural character of this district is described as 
in some instances better adapted for meadow ground than arable, some of the lands of 
a shallow staple, the substratum a clay, rendered whitish from a mixture of chalk-stones.f 

Two Saxons, named iEthelric and Leofwine, were in possession of this parish in !^"[,^'"° 
the time of king ^thelred, whose reign commenced in 978; and these noble thanes, 

* Sec Spelinan's Glossary. 

f Average annual produce per acre of Bocking and Braintree — whetit 24, barley 30, oats 30 bushels. 



26 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

HOOK II. in 1006, gave it to the priory of St. Saviour, in Canterbury, for the support of the 
monks.* This monastery was what originally formed the cathedral church, founded 
by St. Augusthi, and served by monks: in 1011, it was burnt down by the Danes, and 
the new erection, by Lanfranc, was dedicated to the Holy Trinity, as appears from 
the record of Domesday. 

After the suppression of religious houses, it was granted, in 1540, to Roger Went- 
worth and his wife Alice,f and their heirs; their son John was their successor, and 
died in 1603. Roger, the son of Edward, was next in succession; from whom the 

Barker estate passed to sir Robert Barker, created K. B. at the coronation of king James the 
first. He married first, Judith, daughter of George Stoddard, esq, of Mottinghara, in 
Kent; his second lady was Susan, daughter of sir John Crofts, knt. of Saxham, in 
Suffolk; by the first he had two sons and a daughter, of whom the eldest son was 
the ancestor of sir John B^ker, bart. By his second, he had his son sir Thomas, who 
succeeded to this estate, and five sons and five daughters, of whom Elizabeth was 
married to Roger Wentworth; and sir Thomas, the eldest son, was of Basford, in 
Suffolk, and possessed of this estate, succeeded by his son William, created a baronet in 
1676, by the style of sir William Barker, of Booking Hall.f Being bred to the law, 
and made a judge, he mortgaged his estate here to Prisca Cobourne, widow, of Strat- ' 
ford-le-bow, and retired into Ireland, where, on his decease, he left, by his lady 
Elizabeth, daughter of Jerome Alexander, of Norfolk, three sons, William, Jerome, 
and Robert: of these, the eldest, sir William Barker, bart. was seated at Ringsall 
Hall, in Suffolk, where his son of the same name and title was his successor. 

The widow, Prisca Cobourne, mortgagee of this estate, on application to chancery, 
after the decease of sir William, obtained possession of the premises, which, with her 
other estates, she made the foundation of a noble charity for the relief of poor Avidows 
and children of clergymen of the church of England. 

The present possessor of this estate is John Thomas Nottidge, clerk, M. A. who 
inherits it from his father, Thomas Nottidge, esq. late high sheriff of Essex. The 
mansion-house is a capital new building, near the church: George Nottidge, esq. has 
lately rebuilt Bocking Fulling-mill House, in an elegant style of modern architecture. 

wards. Of the several subordinate manors, that of Dorewards has the mansion pleasantly 

* Tlie grant began in these words : Ego ^Ethelric et Leofwina, annuente Deo et Rege Atheldredo, 
donamus terrain juris nostri nomine Boccinges, et Mersega, ad Ecclesiam sci Salvatoris in Dorobernia 
ad victum Monachorum ibidem Deo servientium pro salute anime mee, &c. Subscribed by king /Ethelred, 
Arp. Alfric, Alfege bishop of Winchester. — From a manuscript in Corpus Christi College, library, Cambridge. 
Mersega was the manor of Bocking Hall, in West Mersey. 

f He was either the youngest son of sir Thomas Wentworth, who died in 1551, or the son of sir Roger, 
of Codham Hall. 

X Arms of Barker : Party per fesse nebulae, azure and sable, three martlets, or ; with a canton ermine. 
Crest : On a wreath or and azure, a bear sejant, or, collared sable. 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 27 

situated on an acclivity, with a fine open prospect southward: it is a short distance CHAP. v. 
eastward from the church, near the road from High Garret to Braintree, and was 
new-built by Edward Thorsby, in 1579. This manor was holden of the paramount 
manor by fealty and rent. 

Robert de Bocking- held this possession in the reign of king John and Henry the 
third: his son, Osbert, was the father of Richard, from whom, in 1316, the estate was 
conveyed to Ralph, son of Roger Doreward, of Bocking. 

Alwine Doreward was the father of Thomas and Roger, who lived in this parish in Dore- 
the time of Henry the third ; of these, the former was the father of Ralph, the pur- family, 
chaser of this estate; his two wives were named Cicely and Agnes: by the first of 
these he had William and Roger, of whom William was his successor; who, by his 
wife Joan, only daughter and heiress of John Olivers, of Stan way, had John; who 
had, by his wife Katharine, a son and successor of the same name, born in 1390; he 
had also Joan, married to Richard Waldegrave: Eleanor, wife of John Knivet, esq. 

and Elizabeth, married to Chamberlain. Having made great additions to his 

patrimonial estate, he died in 1420. John Doreward, the son, acquired celebrity in 
the legal profession; was speaker of the house of commons in 1414, and sheriff" of 
Essex and Hertfordshire in 1425 and 1432. He married Blanch, eldest daughter of 
sir William de Coggeshall, by whom he had John, William, Richard, Ralph, and 
Elizabeth. On his decease, in 1462, he, by will, divided his extensive possessions 
among his children. John, the eldest son, married Anne, daughter and co-heiress of 
Thomas Urswick, esq. by whom he had John, who succeeded his father on his death 
in 1746, and who, dying in 1480, without issue, was succeeded by his uncle, William 
Doreward, esq. who married Margery, eldest daughter and co-heiress of Roger 
Arsick, of South-acre, in Norfolk, by whom he left his son and heir, John; and 
Elizabeth, married to Thomas Fotheringay, esq. of Woodrising, in Norfolk; the son 
resided at Spain's Hall, in Great Yeldhara, where, having married Margery, daughter 
of John Nanton, esq. he died in 1495, leaving no issue; the three daughters of his 
sister Elizabeth being his co-heiresses : these were Margaret, wife of Nicholas Beaupre, 
of Norfolk; Ellen, of Henry Thorsby, esq.; and Christian, married to John de Vere, 
afterwards the fourteenth earl of Oxford.* On the termination of the line of Dore- 
ward, their extensive possessions, consisting of above twenty lordships and capital 
estates in this county, with others in various parts of the country, were partitioned out 
to the co-heiresses, and conveyed to the families of Beaupre, Thorsby, and Vere ; but, 
soon after the decease of Margaret Beaupre, in 1513, her share came into the family 
of her sister, Ellen Thorsby, and was the property of Thomas Thorsby, esq. the eldest 
son of Henry, who had these possessions at the time of his decease in 1532. 

* Arms of Doreward : Ermine, a chevron charged with three crescents. 



28 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



Thorsby 

family. 



BOOK 11. Ankfritli, a Danish nobleman, and the ancestor of the Thorsby family, flourished 
about the year 1014, in the time of king Sweyn, and had vast possessions in the 
northern parts of the kingdom. They derive their surname from a manor or village 
in the north riding of Yorkshire. Of this family, Edward Thorsby, esq. was the first 
who resided at Dorewards Hall, which he possessed at the time of his decease, in 
1602, with a park and several parcels of land. He left, by his wife Mary, daughter 
of Philip Bedingfield, esq. Christopher, John and Edward, twins, and six daughters. 
The eldest son, Christopher, succeeded his father, and married Audrey, daughter of 
Nicholas Tiperley, esq. of Hintlesham, in Suffolk; he had by her William, Henry, 
John, EdAvard, and three daughters; and, on his decease in 1626, was succeeded by 
William, his eldest son, who married Elizabeth, daughter of William Perte, of Mid- 
dlesex, by whom he had Christopher, William, Edward, Tindal, John; Elizabeth, 
Anne, Penelope, Mary, and Sarah.* Christopher Thorsby, the eldest son, had four 
wives, of whom the first was Jane, daughter of Thomas Smyth Neville, esq. of Holt, 
in Leicestershire, by whom he had his only son Thomas. His second wife was of a 
family of the name of Dove; but his two other wives are not mentioned by name.f 
In 1637, he sold this and the manors of Bradfords and Harries to Richard Eden, LL.D. 
whose son or grandson sold them to John le Motte Honeywood, esq. of Markshall, 
whose descendants have retained possession to the present time. 

The manorial estate named Bradfords is near Braintree, on the south side of the 
river Blackwater. From ancient deeds, it appears to have belonged to the family of 
Bradford as early as the reign of king John ; from which it passed to John FuUere, in 
1420; and, in 1476, to John Doreward, who united it to the manor of that name. 

The mansion-house of Harries is about a quarter of a mile from the bridge, on the 
road from Halstead to Braintree. Its name is believed to be derived from Henry, or 
Harry de Bocking, who owned it in 1315, and on whose decease it was devised to 
W^illiam de Goldington. In 1352, it was conveyed, by John de Goldington, to Alban 
PVere, whose son and heir, John Frere, sold it to John Doreward, esq. and, in 1476, 
John, the son of John Doreward, died in possession of this estate, described as two 
tenements, with a watei'-mill and two hundred acres of meadow and ai'able land, 
including Harries, in Bocking, and Ilenkyns, in Bocking and Stisted. This estate 
was afterwards united to Dorewards Hall. 

The mansion of Fryers is in Bradford-street, on the road to Braintree. Alban 
Frere, or Fryer, is supposed to have been the origin of the name of this manor; John, 
his son, married Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Powers, of Witham, and had by her 
Elizabeth, his only daughter, who, by marriage, conveyed this estate to William 



Bradfords 



Harries. 



Krvers. 



* Mary was married to Rice Gwyn, scrjcant-at-law ; Pliilippa, to John St. John, esq. of Hatfield Peverel; 
Elizabeth, to Edward Dennys, esq. ; Katharine, to John Smith, clerk ; and Sarah died unmarried, 
t Arms of Thorsby : Argent, a chevron between three lioncels rampant, sable. 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 29 

Brokeman, esq.;* and tlieir son, John Brokeman, esq. married Florence St. Leger, <^'HAW. \ 
on whose death, in 1500, he was succeeded hy Thomas, his son, who, by his wife, of 
the maiden name of Rochester, had John, Emerias, Abigail, Anne, Agnes, and Frances. 
John, the eldest son, was living in 1544. 

In 1625, Jonas Windle, clothier, held this estate of the manor of Bocking Hall, 
and, in 1632, his son Richard sold it to Hercules Arthur; whose brother, John 
Arthur, D.D. of Clapham, in Surrey, was his heir. He married Anne, daughter of 
Miles Corbet, esq. (one of those who signed the warrant for the execution of Charles 
the first) and had by her John, Henry killed in a duel, Anne, Elizabeth, and Dorothy. 

In 1696, John, the heir, sold the estate to John Maysent, of Bocking: he was the 
son of John Maysent, of Justices, in Finchingfield, by his Avife Judith, daughter of 
Henry Pye and Margaret his wife, sister to Hercules Arthur. John Maysent married 
Judith, daughter of Joseph Maysent, of Hatfield Peverel: he died in 1723, having 
had three sons, who died young, and six daughters. By his will, he left this estate 
to Jeremiah, his younger brother.f Of the daughters of John Maysent, Susannah 
was married to the rev. John Palmer, of Coventry; and Judith, to William Raymond, 
attorney-at-law, of Braintree, and afterwards of Black Notley. This estate was 
afterwards the property of Henry Ray. 

In the reign of Edward the Third, a family lived at the estate of Fennes, whose Fennes. 
surname was Att Fenn, from whence the name of the place may be inferred to have 
been derived from its situation. The mansion is near Braintree, on the confines of 
Gosfield parish. 

In 1580, this manor and estate were sold, by Robert Rampson, of Chingford, to 
Robert Dawes, of Stisted; who again sold them to Martha, the widow of Thomas 
Heigham, esq. of Denham, in Suffolk; who, in the following year, conveyed them to 
William Benlowes, esq. of Finchingfield, in whose family the estate continued till 
1655, when Edward BenlowesJ and his co-heirs joined in the conveyance of it to 
Nathan Wright, esq. : and, in 1662, his successor in this possession, sir Benjamin 
Wright, bart. of Cranham, conveyed it to Jeremiah Reeve, of High Garret. It 
afterwards became the property of Mrs. Baynes, as the estate of Willoughbys was the 
property of John Thomas Baynes. 

The mansion-house of the manor of Boones is nearly opposite to High Garret, and Boones. 
a mile and a half distant from the church. 

* Arms of Fryer: Sable, a chevron between three dolphins, argent. 

t Robert Maysent, of Lysons, in Bocking, made the first long bay manufactured in England. 

X In 1635, Edward Benlowes, esq. sold a yearly rent of twelve pounds for ever, issuing out of this estate, 
to Ellen GouLston, of London ; which her son, Theodore Goulston, M.D. gave by deed to the college of 
physicians, in London. See Wood's Allien, vol. i. col. 570. He calls this Ellen the doctor's widow, nut 
his mother. 

VOL. II. F 



30 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

]50(JK II. In 1547, Roger Wentworth, esq. sold to William Goodwin, esq. "lands, woods, 
and underwoods, formerly belonging- to Richard Boone, in Bocking; a grove called 
Hedgeland; two others named Halywell Weld, and Boone's Weld." He died in 
1554, and his son Thomas sold the estate to John Fitch, on whose decease, in 1569, 
he was succeeded by his brother Oswald, who came and resided at Lyons, where 
he died in 1612: he had also the farm of Morrels, which he ordered to be sold 
for the payment of his debts. From his brother Stephen, Boones passed to Joseph 
Reeve. 

UockiuQ Bocking Park, and the farm called the Lodge, belong to the earl of Essex. 

Lvoiis The mansion of Lyons is rather more than a mile south-east from the church, and 

about a mile from Boones. A family surnamed Lyon flourished here in the time of 

Edward the first and Edward the second. It was holden of Bocking Hall, and, in 

1548, was sold, by Roger Wentworth, esq. to William Goodwin, esq. whose son 

Thomas sold it, with the estate of Boones, to John Fitch, esq. on whose decease they 

passed to his brothers, Oswald and Stephen, and to Robert Hawkins, esq. whose only 

daughter Frances conveyed them, in marriage, to Sir John Dawes, bart. on whose 

decease they became the property of his lady. This estate was purchased, in 1819, 

by William Rankin, esq. 

jj'p'^ A handsome larsre mansion-house, on the west side of the road from Gosfield and 

Garret. '^ 

Halstead, has received the name of High Garret, from the peculiar form of the old 
house, which stood on the opposite side of the Avay, surrounded by a deep moat, the 
remains of which are yet visible. It belonged to John Barret in 1428, from whom it 
took the name of Barrets, and has, in records, been named a manor. In 1526, it 
passed from William Heggeman and Edmund Rede, to John Gierke; and, from his 
successor of the same name, to Clement and Andrew Gierke, in 1538; the latter of 
whom sold it, in 1584, to John Reeve; and, after passing to several other proprietors, 
became the property of Osgood Gee, esq, 

Ro\in5- Bovington Hall, about a mile north-west from the church, near the road to 

Wetherstield, was given to the prior and convent of Christchurch, in Canterbury, 
by Richard Bovington, in 1353,* and forms part of the estate belonging to the cor- 
poration of the clergv. 

Church. 'pjje church is supposed to have been erected about the time of king Edward the 

third, and is a noble specimen of the architecture of that period; being a stately 
building of flint and stone, situated on high ground, and forming a conspicuous object 
at a considerable distance. It is dedicated to the Virgin Mary; both the church and 
chancel have north and south aisles, and the tower contains six bells. 

In this church there were formerly three altars, dedicated respectively to St. Mary, 
St. Nicholas, and St. Catharine; and five chantries. The living has a glebe of one 
* Appendix to Sumner's Antiquities of Canterbury, ed. 1703, No. 36, p. 40. 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 



31 



hundred and eight acres; it is a rectory and deanery, the head of the archbishop's 
peculiars in Essex and Suffolk, all of which are exempt from the jurisdiction of their 
diocesans, and subject to the archbishop's commissary, who is called the dean of 
Booking. 

The parsonage, or deanery, is a fine old mansion, of considerable antiquity, on 
rising ground, commanding an agreeable prospect. 

Male and female figures, in the south aisle of the church, are believed to represent 
individuals of the Dore ward family, to whom this aisle belonged ; but the inscriptions 
are entirely defaced. 

The north aisle of the chancel belongs to Bocking Hall, and has a marble monument 
on its northern side, upon which, under a pediment supported by marble columns, a 
female figure, in a devotional attitude, represents Mrs. Moore, wife of Adrian Moore, 
esq. who died in childbed in the year 1624, and was buried here; below this monu- 
ment a black marble bears the following: — 



CHAP. V. 



Inscrip- 
tions and 
monu- 
ments. 



" Having lost one dear to me, 
Reader, I would let you see, 
If this stone could help to show 
How my heart is plunged in woe : 
To want the comfort once I had, 



Ere she within this tomb was clad. 

Too greatly should I be opprest. 

Did I not know her happy rest : 

Who, while she lived, made Christ her stay, 

And now doth live with him for aye." 



A handsome marble monument on the east side of the same chancel aisle bears the 
following : 



" Sacred to the memorj' of Prisca Cobourne, relict of Thomas Cobourne, of Stratford-le- 
Bow, gent, who, though young and of great fortune, yet, for the sake of the public, refused 
to alter her condition. She was the daughter of the rev. Mr. Foster, minister of Bow, and 
lived worthy that church she sprung from ; and died not unmindful of her descent from it, 
piously disposing of her estate, which was very large, to religious, charitable, and prudent 
purposes ; thus her manor of Bocking Hall, with all the lands appertaining to it, (one farm 
only reserved for another charity,) she bequeathed to the corporation of the sons of the 
clergy, for the relief of poor widows of the church of England ministers; and to place 
out their children, unprovided for, to honest trades and proper employments. Though her 
body lies entombed at Bow, yet the corporation of the sons of the clergy, in gratitude to 
their good benefactress, ordered this monument to be here erected, to her honour, and for 
the example of others ; and the following lines to be inscribed to her perpetual memory : 



" Stay, passenger, 
Though Cobourne's ashes lay not here enshrined. 
Here view the lively portrait of her mind ; 
Chaste, pious, liberal, good ; graces that claim 
Immortal honours, and a deathless fame ; 
Her monument for ages yet to tome, 



Wouldst thou behold ? leave this imperfect tomb ; 
Go and survey the spacious lands around. 
That fair inheritance her poor have found ; 
Those virtues bore her noble soul above. 
And raised this stone with gratitude and 
love." 



32 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. A tomb in the church-yard, to the memory of John Maysent, gent, of Booking 
Hall, bears the following poetical inscription: 



" Let these mementos of mortality 
Warn us on earthly gifts not to rely, 
Youth, beauty, wisdom, virtue, strength, estate, 
Without respect or favour have their fate; 
Surticient proof each day, each hour affords, 
Eight here this single monument records. 
A wife, in whom each noble virtue join'd, 
A wife, in whom the graces all combined ; 



And seven hopeful children here do lie. 
Bearing their lovely mother company. 
The last was John, whose praises let me tell, 
Who knew his virtues and his goodness well. 
Since then our loss their gain is, cease to mourn. 
For we to them shall go, not they return : 
Tlien bear it calmly, though a heavy loss, 
The only way to heaven is by the Cross." 



Charities. [^ 1 138, John Doreward, esq. built an hospital on two acres of land belonging to 
his own estate, at the corner of Church-lane: he endowed it with the manor of Tend- 
ring,* and a rent of ten pounds yearly. This house was named Maison de Dieu, and 
continues to the present time an habitation for seven poor people.f There is also an 
almshouse for eight dwellers. 

In 1571, William Benlowes, esq. gave an annuity of three pounds out of an estate 
in Little Bardfield; and also a yearly rent of two pounds thirteen shillings and four- 
pence, to be paid out of Rookwoods, in this parish, to be distributed to the almshouse 
people, and for the reparation of the almshouses. 

In 1573, \^^illiam Marten, of Halstead, gave an annuity of four pounds, out of a 
messuage in Castle Hedingham, to be distributed in equal portions, at Michaelmas 
and Lady-day, to the poor of Booking. 

In 1601, Mrs. Joanna Smith bequeathed four hundred pounds to piu'chase lands of 
forty marks yearly value, for the relief of the poor of Coggeshall and Booking; the 
twenty marks belonging to this parish to supply five shillings' worth of bread every 
Sunday, and the distributors to have six shillings and eight pence for their trouble. 

The sum of thirty pounds was bequeathed by sir Stephen White, knt. in 1680, to 
the poor of Booking, which, with Mrs. Smith's annuity, supplied the purchase money 
for four fields, near King's Corner, in Booking, the yearly rents and profits of which 
are distributed to the poor, on some Sunday between Michaelmas-day and the 10th 
of November, at the discretion of the rector and feoffees. 

A bequest of forty pounds to the poor, by John Stocker Jekyl, esq. was included in 
the sum expended in the purchase and fitting up of the workhouse ; but forty shillings (the 
interest of this money) are received and distributed by the minister and churchwardens. 

In 1628, Mr. Skinner gave the rents and profits of two crofts called Wentlands, to 
be distributed in linen and woollen to poor and honest sort of people, on St. Andrew's 
day, for ever. 

In 1630, Thomas Trotter gave an annuity of three pounds six shillings and eight 
* In Debden^ in Uttlesford. f Monast. Anglic, vol. ii. p. 477. 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 33 

pence, out of a house in Braintree, to be disposed of to thirty poor people of honest CHAP. v. 
Hfe, fourteen days before St. Thomas's day. " 

Mr. Gerard left the income of a tenement and a field of two acres, to be given to 
the poor of Bocking at Michaelmas and Lady-day. 

Georg-e Elkin gave fifty pounds to be vested in lands or tenements, the interest or 
profits to be distributed yearly, for ever, to poor deserving people, on All Saints' day, 
which was his birth-day. 

John Aylet, of Bocking, in ITOT, left an annuity of seven pounds, the yearly value 
of the moiety of a house and land, to be given to the poor of this town and of Brain- 
tree. 

In 1721, John Mathum, of Braintree, bricklayer, left an annuity of twenty-one 
pounds, to be given to twenty poor persons in Bocking. 

In 1723, John Maysent, of this parish, left an annuity of forty shillings for repaii'ing 
his tomb and vault ; the overplus to be given to the poor of the parish. 

John Gauden, D. D. rector of Bocking, and afterwards bishop of Worcester, gave 
four hundred pounds for a school-room in Church-lane, and to purchase a farm called 
Langlands, in Much Lees, out of the income of which, sixteen pounds* a year were 
assigned to the schoolmaster for his maintenance, and the remainder to be paid into 
the hands of the dean of Bocking for the time being, as a stock for the improving and 
repairing of the premises. The schoolmaster and every scholar to be nominated and 
elected, and, if occasion requires, suspended from the school, by the dean of Bocking, 
the rector of Stisted, and the vicar of Braintree, for the time being; or by the dean and 
either of the other two, who are overseers of the school, which is for the teaching of 
thirty poor boys, born and living in this parish, to read and write; not to be admitted 
under seven years of age, to continue three years, and none to remain beyond the 
age of twelve years. 

In 1821, this parish contained two thousand seven hundred and eighty-six, and, in 
1831, three thousand one hundred and twenty-eight inhabitants. 

RAYNE. 

The parish of Rayne, or Raine, is surrounded by Braintree, Bocking, Great Uaync. 
Saling, and Stebbing. At the time of the survey it was joined to Braintree, with 
which it constituted the lordship of Raines, and was in possession of Roger de 
Ramis, whose name was also written Rennes, and Reymes. The village contains 
many good houses, and is pleasantly situated on the road to Dunmow, at the distance 
of one mile from Braintree. The stream that rises in Bardfield, and waters several 
neighbouring parishes, passes here; and, opposite the residence of Mrs. Blenco, a fine 

* This annuity has been advanced to twenty-one pounds, and the number of scholars taught limited to 
thirty. 



34 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. larg-e pond of water, in which a small islet is covered with elegant shrubs, forms an 
attractive ornament to this beautiful villag-e. The parish has been noticed as re- 
markably healthy, and by a strict course of observation it is found, that, except when 
a malignant fever prevailed here, all the burials have been either infants or persons 
above sixty, many above seventy, some eighty and upwards, and one John Hawes 
died here at the age of ninety-four : to this statement there has not been an exception 
in the course of ten years. The soil consists of strong loams on a whitish clay bottom, 
but very much intermixed and broken, the higher parts sometimes consisting of clay, 
and the hollows and sides of the hills of gravel; in some instances, soils of various 
descriptions have been mixed together with good effect,* and some of the clay beds of 
considerable depth are valuable for the manuflicture of Avhite bricks. 

In the time of Edward the confessor, the lands of this parish were chiefly in the 
possession of Gudmund and Aluni; and, at the survey, were become the property of 
Hugh de Montford and his under-tenant Alcher, and of Roger de Ramis. 

Rayne Rayue Hall was that portion of this parish which was given by the Conqueror to 

Hugh, the younger son of Turstin de Bastenbure, a Norman lord, commonly called 
" Hugh with the beard," the Normans being at that time usually shaved : one hundred 
and fourteen lordships were given to him, of which sixteen were in this county. He 
was slain in a duel with Henry de Ferrers, leaving a son named Hugh, who, by his 
first wife, had Robert, and Hugh, a monk of Bee, in Normandy. Robert, the eldest, 
was general of the army of William Rufus; but afterwards, being accused of favouring 
the party who attempted to restore the crown to duke Robert, he obtained leave to 
go to Jerusalem, leaving all his possessions to the king. He died on his pilgrimage, 
as did also his brother Hugh, leaving their father childless by his first wife; but, by his 
second wife, he left an only daughter, married to Gilbert de Gaunt, who had by her 
a son named Hugh, who, on account of his mother's large possessions, assumed the 
title of Montfort-t 

In the reigns of Henry the second, Richard the first, and king John, Robert de 
Welles is named in records as lord of Raynes; and, in the time of Henry the third, 
Thomas Welles held the manor of Little Raynes of the king, as of the honour of 
Rayley, by the service of one knight's fee. In 1268, Nicholas Lewkenor died holding 
this manor by the same tenure, with the service of ten shillings yearly to Dover 
Castle, and suit at the monthly court of Haghele or Hawle; the king confirmed this 
possession to Roger, the son of Nicholas, in 1267. The estate again reverted to 
the family of Welles, in 1293, in which year Thomas de Welles succeeded his father 
Henry, on his decease; whose successor was his son Walter, in 1315, followed by 

* Average annual produce per acre— wheat 24, barley 36, oats 36 bushels. 

t Will. Gemineticensis, p. 286, 289, Gesta Gulielmi Ducis, p. 202. Ordericus, p. 506, 773, S23. 
Chronic. Norman, p. 992. 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 35 

his son of the same name, in 1325: he left Joan, his only daughter and heiress, by his CHAP. V 
first wife Isabel, sister to Edmund de Kemsek, who held Kemseks, in Felsted, and 
the manor of Great Samford; but Alice, his second wife, was with child at the time 
of his decease. The Welleses of Essex are a branch of the noble family of that name 
in Lincolnshire, and from their long continuance here gave their name to the manor. 

William de Rushbrook, of Roysbrooke, marrying Joan Welles, came to this pos- 
session, and was living here in 1362, but the time of his decease is not known. 
Eleanor, his only daughter and heiress, was married to John Pyke, who had by her 
Nicholas Pyke: he presented to this church in 1439; and, on his decease without 
issue, Maud, his only sister, became heiress of the estate. She Avas married to John 
L'Estrange, esq. descended from sir Hamon L'Estrange, of Hunstanton, in Norfolk, 
second son of John, lord Strange, of Knocking, in Shropshire. Eleanor Pyke, having 
survived her husband and son, died in 1471, and left the manor and advowson of the 
church to Henry L'Estrange, esq. her great grandson and heir, being the son of 
Roger, son of Alice, daughter of Maud, daughter of the said Eleanor. The lordship 
was afterwards alienated to Richard Tournant, or, as his name appears in the fine, 
Turvant; who, in 1486, conveyed it to sir William Capel, in whose family it has 
continued to the present time. 

The ancestor of the noble family of the present owner of this lordship was Hugh Capci 
Capel, of Capel, in Stoke Neyland, in Suffolk; he held Jakeham of king Henry the 
first, by the service of two knights' fees; sir Richard de Capel, in 1261, was lord 
justice of Ireland;* and sir John Capel was chaplain to Lionel, duke of Clarence, 
who, by his will, left him a girdle of gold.f 

John Capel, esq. of Stoke Neyland, dying in 1449, left three sons and a daughter, 
minors: John, the eldest, had the Suffolk estate: William, the second son, from whom 
the earls of Essex descended, was an eminent merchant in London, where he acquired 
an immense fortune,:}: which tempted Empson and Dudley, Henry the seventh's 
detested agents of oppression, to extort from him the sum of sixteen hundred pounds, 
and also to attempt to get from him a further sum of two thousand pounds, under the 
pretence of his having neglected to punish a false coiner; but, not tamely submitting 
to this gross injustice, he was committed to the Tower. He was knighted at the 
coronation of Henry the seventh; was sheriff of London in 1489; in 1503, lord mayor, 
and one of the representatives of that city in the parliaments that met in 1491, 1512, 
and 1514. At an entertainment which he gave to Henry the eighth, he is said to 
have thrown several bonds for money owed to him by that monarch into the fire; and 

* History of Ireland, by sir Rich. Cox, part i. p. 69. 
t Dugdale's Baronage, vol. i. p. 167. 

X Hh riches became proverbial; Alexander Barclay, the poet, says, in reference to him, "I Jisk not 
the store of Cosmies, or Capel." — Eclogue iv. 



36 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

liuoK II. at another time, on a similar occasion, as a frolic, drank to the king's health a dis- 
solved pearl of great value. He was in possession of large estates in Essex, particularly 
of Rayne Hall, and married Margaret, daughter of sir Thomas Arundel, of Lanhern, 
in Cornwall, by whom he had Giles, knighted in 1513, for his valour at Terouenne 
and Tournay; Elizabeth, married to sir William Paulet, afterwards marquis of Win- 
chester; and Dorothy, married to John, lord Zouch, of Harring worth. Sir Giles 
Capel succeeded his father, on his decease in 1515.* He attended king Henry the 
eighth into France, in 1520, where, with some others, he challenged all comers in 
feats of arms for thirty days: he was afterwards appointed sheriff of Hertfordshire 
and Essex, in 1528, and was also justice of the peace for Essex, and died at Rayne 
Hall in 1556: by his first lady, Mary, daughter of sir Richard Roos, younger son of 
sir William Roos, of Belvoir, he had Henry. His second lady was Isabel, daughter 
and co-heiress of Sir John Newton, of W^ake, in Somersetshire, by whom he had 
Margaret, wife of William Ward, esq. of Brooks, and Edward. Sir Henry Capel 
succeeded his father, and married Anne, daughter of George Manners, lord Roos, 
but died without issue, and was succeeded by his half-brother, Edward, who received 
the honour of knighthood, and was sheriflFof Essex and Hertfordshire in 1560: he 
married Anne, daughter of sir William Pelham, ancestor to his grace the duke of 
Newcastle, by whom he had Henry, Giles, W^illlam; Elizabeth, Mary, Anne, and 
Gi'ace, of whom the last died in 1587: Henry succeeded his father on his decease in 
1577, was sheriff of Essex in 1579, knighted in 1587, and died in 1588: he married, 
first, Mary, daughter of Anthony Brown, viscount Montacute; secondly, Catharine, 
fourth daughter of Thomas Manners, earl of Rutland, by the latter of whom he had 
Arthur, William, Edward, John, Gamaliel, Robert; Agnes, Frances, Anne, and 
Mary. Sir Arthur Capel, the next succeeding representative of this noble family, 
resided at Rayne and at Little Hadham, in Hertfordshire, highly distinguished by a 
generous and liberal spirit, and unbounded hospitality. By his lady, Mary, daughter 
of John, lord Grey, of Pirgo, brother to the marquis of Dorset, he had Henry, Ed- 
ward, Arthur, Robert, Humphrey, W^illiam, Giles, John, Roger, Gamaliel, James, 
and eight daughters. Henry, the eldest son, died in 1622, before his father, having 
married, first, Theodosia, sister to Edward, lord Montague, of Boughton, by whom 
he had Arthur, Henry who died in 1633, Elizabeth, and Theodosia. On the decease 

of his first lady, in 1615, sir Arthur married Dorothy Aldersey, widow of Hos- 

kins, knt. by whom he had three daughters, and Thomas, who died an infant. Arthur, 
the eldest son of Henry, succeeded his grandfather, and was elected representative in 
parliament for the county of Hertfordshire in 1639; and again in the Long Parliament, 
Avhich commenced in 1640. He was exceedingly charitable to the poor, and very 

• He was buried in a cliapel of his own erection, in tlie church of St. Bartholomew, near the Exchange, 
London. 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 37 

hospitable to his neighbours: in 1641, he was created baron Capel of Hadham. On chap. v. 

the commencement of the civil war, in 1642, he raised nine hundred horse soldiers, at 

his own charge, for the king, and lent him twelve thousand pounds in money and plate. 
After bravely fighting in the royal cause in several engagements, and having made an 
ineffectual attempt to rescue the king from his imprisonment in the Isle of Wight, 
he was taken prisoner at Colchester, and beheaded in 1649, exhibiting, in his last 
moments, great composure and resignation. He was the author of a book of medi- 
tations: the family seat of Cashiobury, in the parish of Watford, in Hertfordshire, 
was part of the large inheritance which he had with his lady Elizabeth, daughter and 
heiress of sir Charles Morison, knt. and bart. of Hertfordshire; by her he had nine 
children,* of whom Arthur, the first-born, was his heir and successor, created viscount 
Maldon and earl of Essex, in 1661, by king Charles the second. In 1670, he was sent 
ambassador to the king of Denmark, and, on his return in 1672, was highly applauded 
for his good management of this mission, and made one of the privy council, and, in 
1680, lord lieutenant of Ireland; he was also made first commissioner of the treasury. 
He was opposed to popery, and the adoption of violent measures ; and, with other 
peers, petitioning against the parhament's sitting at Oxford, was accused of the Fanatic 
Plot, and committed to the Tower; and, in 1683, found lying on the ground with his 
throat cut, strongly suspected to have been the ruffian act of an emissary of James, 
duke of York; but the truth or falsity of this assumption has not been discovered. 
By his lady Elizabeth, daughter of Algernon, earl of Northmnberland, this unfortunate 
nobleman had six sons and two daughters, but was only survived by Anne, married 
to Charles Howard, earl of Carlisle; and his fifth son, Algernon, the second earl, 
who succeeded his father in 1683. He was highly esteemed by king William, whom 
he attended in his expeditions into Holland and Flanders: queen Anne made him 
constable of the Tower, and lieutenant-general of her forces. He married Mary, 
daughter of William Bentinck, earl of Portland,f by whom he had Elizabeth, Mary,;]: 
and William, the third earl, who succeeded his father on his decease in 1709: he 
married, first, Jane, eldest surviving daughter of Henry Hyde, earl of Clarendon and 
Rochester, by whom he had four daughters.§ The earl's second lady was Elizabeth, 
daughter of Wriothesley, second duke of Bedford, by whom he had his only son, 

* Henry was created baron Capel of Tewksbury, in 1692; the other children were Edward, Charles ; 
Mary, married to Henry lord Beauchamp, son of the marquis of Hertford, and afterwards to Henry, duke 
of Beaufort ; Elizabeth, married to Charles, earl of Caernarvon ; Theodosia, to Henry, earl of Clarendon ; 
and Anne, the wife of John Strangeways, esq. of Dorsetshire. 

t Re-married, after his decease, to sir Conyers D'Arcy, brother to the earl of Holderness. 

I The first married to Samuel Molyneux, esq., and, after his decease, in 1728, to Nathaniel St. Andre, 
esq. ; and Mary, married to Alan Broderick, viscount Middleton. 

§ Caroline and Jane died young; Charlotte was married to Thomas Villiers, carl of Clarendon; and 
Mary, to admiral John Forbes, son of George, third earl of Granard. 
VOL. II. G 



38 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

1300K II. William-Anne-Holles, who, succeeding his father on his decease in 1743, became 
the fourth earl: he married, first, Frances, daughter of sir Charles Hanbury Williams, 
K.B. (by Frances, daughter of Thomas, earl of Coningsby) by whom he had George, 
and two daughters.* His lordship marrying, secondly, Harriet, daughter of colonel 
Thomas Bladen, had by this lady (who died in 1821) four children ;f and, dying in 
1799, was succeeded by his son George, present and fifth earl; heir presmnptive, 
Arthur Algernon Capel, esq. the earl's nephew.:]: 

The mansion-house of Rayne Hall has apparently been erected at two different 
times; the more ancient part by the Welles family, and the new by sir Giles 
Capel.§ 
Old Hall, In the time of Edward the confessor, the two great landholders, named Aluin and 
nards. Edric, had the manor of Old Hall, or Baynards, the whole of which, at the time of 
the survey, belonged to Roger de Ramis, whose family resided here several ages. 
The house was in the northern part of the parish, in an inclosure called Chapel-field, 
on rising ground, near the river, where traces of the ground plan, and the moat that 
surrojinded it, are yet visible. || This manor was the head of the barony of Little 
Raines, which consisted of ten knights' fees, 

Roger de Rennes is mentioned in records in 1140; and, in 1167, William de Reymes 
paid a mark for each knight's fee to king Henry the second, when Matilda, his eldest 
daughter, was married to Henry, duke of Saxony, from whom king George the first 
of England was lineally descended. William and Richard de Raines paid twenty 
shillings for each knight's fee, for the war in Ireland, in 1172; and the same persons, 
in 1194, paid these sums for the redemption of king Richard out of captivity. Robert, 
Richard, and William de Ramis were brothers, descendants of Roger; and, on the 
decease of Robert, without issue, the barony became the inheritance of Richard, who, 
on his decease, about the close of the reign of king John, left his three daughters his 
co-heiresses. Alice was the widow of Roger de Marmos; Amicia, the second, was 

* Diana, and Anne. 

t These were John Thomas, who married Caroline Paget, daughter of Henry, earl of Uxbridge ; 
Edward, major-general in the army; William Robert, AM. chaplain to his majesty, rector of Rayne, and 
vicar of Watford, in Hertfordshire; Rladen Thomas, rear-admiral of the blue, and C. B. 

I Arms of Capel : Gules, a lion rampant, between three cross crosslets litch6, or. Crest : a demi-lion 
rampant, supporting a cross crosslet fitchec, or. Supporters : two lions or, ducally crowned gules. 
Motto : •' Fide et fortitudine." " By faith and fortitude." 

§ There were several escutcheons in the windows of the chamber over the parlour, the first of which 
contained fifteen coats within a garter, under an earl's coronet ; and in the window on the great staircase, 
Capel quarterly, one and four, two and three argent, a chevron below three torteaux gules, on a chief 
azure, a fret between two cinquefoils, or ; under which, the year 1553 ; consequently, the arms of sir Giles 
Capel, who at that time lived here, and built this part of the house. 

II The name of Ramis is supposed to be a corruption of Rennes, or Raines ; probably, in its first appli- 
cation, derived from the city of Rennes, in Bretagne. 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 39 

given by the king, her guardian, to William de Marini; and Joan, the youngest, was CHAP. v. 
married to William de Harlow. The family of Baynard, of Messing, had become 
possessed of this manor in the time of king Henry the third, and it was afterwards on 
that account called Ba}Tiards. Imania Baynard died holding this estate in 1272, suc- 
ceeded by her son Roger, Avho died in 1295, and whose heir was Thomas, the son of 
his brother Richard, who died in 1344, holding this and other possessions, which 
descended to his son John; Thomas, who is supposed to have been his brother, held, 
with Katharine his wife, this manor, and also lands in Saling: he died in 1362. 
The last of the family that resided here was Walter, the son of Geoffrey de Raynes, 
who sold this manor to John Oxensey, who had also a messuage in this parish called 
Oxenseys:* Catharine, his daughter, conveyed this estate to her husband, Richard 
Downman, esq. who had by her Ralph and Humphrey. He died in 1454, and Avas 
succeeded by Ralph, whose brother Humphrey became his heir, on his decease without 
issue; in the inquisitions, on the conveyance of this inheritance, this manor is for the 
first time named Old Hall. On the decease of Humphrey Downham, in 1478, his 
son Henry became his heir, who died young, leaving his only sister Mary to inherit 
the family possessions, which were conveyed, by marriage, to her husband, Richard 
Fillol, esq. second son of William, one of the sons of John Fillol, esq. of Kelvedon; 
he came to this estate in 1504: John was his son and heir, who, dying in 1551, was 
succeeded by his son of the same name, whose son Anthony came to the estate in 1618, 
and died in 1629, his eldest son not being of age. Afterwards the family possessions 
were divided among- his sons and grandsons, continuing in the family till James Fillol, 
esq. in 1720, sold this estate to Thomas Smith, esq. of Bardfield Magna. 

An estate called the Lodge, belongs to the right hon. the earl of Essex. 

The church, dedicated to All Saints, is a building of great antiquity, having been Church, 
erected about the time of Henry the second, or Richard the first, soon after the 
division of the lordship into two parishes, by Robert de Welles, lord of the manor of 
Rayne Hall, to which the patronage of the rectory has continued attached to the 
present time. The floor is paved with tiles about four inches square, disposed in the 
form of lozenges. The tower is lofty and of ample dimensions, with a small shingled 
spire; it was built by sir William Capel, whose arms appear in the brick- work near 
the foundation, on either side of the belfry door:f the tower contains four bells. 

In 1199, Robert de Welles and Harvey de Reynes endowed this church with a 
house and twenty acres of glebe land, as appears from the original deed, which is yet 
extant. 

An altar in a chapel at the east end of the south aisle of this church, dedicated to 
the Virgin Mary, was in high reputation in Catholic times, and much visited by child- 

* Arms of Oxensey : Per fesse, sable and argent, a bull's head counter horned, or. 

t These ancient arms are, on one side of the door, a lion rampant ; and on the other, an anchor. 



40 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



Inter- 
ments. 



BOOK II. bearing women, from a superstitious belief that prayers to the Virgin from this shrine 
were of peculiar efficacy.* There were also two obits here. 

Many of the Capel family are interred in this church, particularly sir Giles Capel, 
who died in 1556, and also his first lady, who died before him. Sir Edward Capel, 
who died in 1577, and lady Grace, his daughter, buried here in 1587. Sir Henry 
Capel, who died in 1588, and was buried with Katharine, his lady. Henry Capel, esq. 
interred in 1615, and Thomas, the infant son of sir Arthur, who died in 1621. 

Edward Symonds, M.A. rector of Rayne, in the time of king Charles the first, was 
a person of considerable celebrity, and author of various publications ; among which 
are Hermes Theologus; a New Descant upon Old Records; a Vindication of king 
Charles the first, &c. ; and various political and theological works. 

Dr. Richard Kidder, bishop of Bath and Wells, a very learned divine, was rector 
here from 1664 to 1674; his death was caused by the fall of a chimney, in the great 
storm of 1703. Among his valuable and learned writings are, A Demonstration of the 
Messiah, in which the truth of the Christian religion is proved, especially against the 
Jews, 3 vols. 8vo. frequently reprinted; a Commentary on the Pentateuch, 2 vols. 
8vo.; Life of Dr. Horneck, 12mo.; Critical Remarks on some difficult passages of 
Scripture, 8vo. 

In 1821, this parish contained three hundred and forty-three, and, in 1831, three 
hundred and twenty inhabitants. 



Edward 
Symonds 



Bishop 
Kidder 



Pantfield. 



PANFIELD, or PANTFIELD. 

This parish extends southward to Rayne, westward to Great Saling, and is bounded 
on its north, north-east, and eastern extremities, by the river Blackwater, formerly 
named Pant,f and by the town of Braintree. Its name in records is written Pang- 
field, Pamfield, Pantisfield, Pauntield, Puntfend; and, in Domesday, Penfeld. The 
parish from east to west measures two miles, and three from north to south, and 
contains fourteen hundred acres of land, including the Avoods, by which it is very 
agreeably diversified: the soil is a strong loam on clay, variously modified.:}: The 
village, agreeably situated, is not far distant from the river, and has always been con- 



* The occurrence from which this superstition arose happened in tlie time of Edward the third, when, 
during a difficult and almost hopeless labour of the wife of John de Naylinghurst, her attendants were sent 
to offer prayers and vows here, in her behalf; and, on their return, finding their mistress safely delivered, 
declared it was what they had with confidence anticipated, for, said they, " Our lady of mercy smiled 
upon us." 

t The antiquity of this name appears from a passage in the chronicle of Ralph de Coggeshall, who, 
speaking of the old city of Ithanchester, or, as he names it, Stancaster, has this passage : " Civitas Stan- 
caster stetit super ripam rivoir de Fante, currentis per Maldunum." See also Bede's Eccles. Hist. b. 3, 
ch. 22. ' 

X Average annual produce per acre— wheat 24, barley 36, oats 36 bushels. 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 41 

sidered in a high degree salubrious, which opinion is confirmed by an inspection of the CHAP. v. 
register.* The distance from Braintree is two, and from London forty miles. 

The lands of this parish were in the divided possession of a thane named Wisgar, 
and a free woman, in the time of Edward the confessor; but, at the Domesday survey, 
had become the property of Richard Fitz-Gilbert, and the abbey of St. Stephen, at 
Caen, in Normany. 

Pantfield Hall is a large building, commanding a very beautiful and interesting Pantfield 
prospect: it is south of the church, from which it is not far distant. This fine old 
mansion has necessarily been much altered by frequent repairs, but its quadrangular 
tower and handsomely clustered chimneys are interesting features of its original 
antiquity, f 

Robert de Watevil, or Watervil, held this estate under Richard Fitz-Gilbert, at Waurvil 
the time of the survey of Domesday; he also held under him the lordship of Hemsted, 
and is believed to have been either the brother or son of William de Watervil, who 
held High Rooding and Hanningfield in the reign of the Conqueror. The successor 
of Robert de Watervil was his son sir Robert, who lived at Hemsted in the time of 
king Richard and king John; and, by Maud his wife, had sir William, to whom, in 
1253, king Henry the third granted a charter of free- warren in his lordships of 
Hemsted and Pantfield. His son and successor was the second sir William, who, 
marrying Thorema, daughter and heiress of sir Robert Roos, of Radwinter, had by 
her his only son, sir John de Watervil, who left a son of the same name, and Joan, 
who, on her brother's decease, without issue, became sole heiress of the family,:}: and 
conveyed this estate to her husband, Richard de Mutford, in 1330, who, dying before 
her, without issue, she was again married, in 1341, to her second husband, sir William Langham 
de Langham, of the family of sir Ralph de Langham, a person of celebrity in the time 

* The number of deaths in three years, from Easter-day 1814 to Easter-day 1817, was five; of the 
respective ages of eighty-eight, ninety, eighty-one, and two of eiglity-four, making a total of four hundred 
and twenty-seven years. In five years, the burials were only eight : the average of deaths, one in fifty. 

t The hall was built in 154-6, and the other modern part of this erection in 1583, by George Cotton 
and Frances his wife, the initial letters of whose names appear on the mantel- piece in the dining room. 

t Of this family was the gallant sir William de Watervil, who accompanied king Richard the first to 
the Holy Land, and acquired fame by his magnanimous conduct at the taking of Ptolemais, and in other 
actions. Robert of Gloucester speaks of him in his rhyming chronicle : 



" King Richard, with gud cntent, 
To yat cite of Tafes went ; 
On morn he sent after sir Robert Salkevile, 



Sir William Watervile, 

Sir Hubart and sir Robart of Turnham, 

Sir Bertram Brandes, and John de St. John." 



There were three knights bannerets of this family, all living at the same time in this county, in the 
reign of Edward the first, bearing the following arms : sir John de Watervil, aigent, three chevrons ; sir 
Robert, ^he same, within a bordure, indented sable: sir Roger, argent, three chevrons gules, a martlet 
sable. — Barnes' Hist, of Ed. the Third, p. 293. Fuller's Church Hist. p. 43. Knight's Bannerets, temp. 
Ed. the First, io\ 45. 



Friorv. 



42 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. of Henry the second:* the estate continued in this family for several generations, till 
Alice, the only daughter of Richard Langham, esq. by marriage, conveyed it to her 

Cotton husband, John Cotton, esq. a descendant of the celebrated sir Robert Cotton, founder 
of the Cottonian library.f Thomas, the son of George Cotton, of this family, in 
1611, sold Panttield Hall to sir Henry Gawdy, knt. of Claxton Castle, in Norfolk, 
who, on his decease, left it to his son Anthony, and he, in 1613, sold it to William 
Hart and William Stoke, who, in 1616, conveyed it to Lawrence Washington; who 
sold it, in 1617, to James Heron, esq. and he, in 1641, disposed of it to Richard Fitz- 
Simonds, esq, of Yeldliam Magna; who, dying in 1680, left this estate to his nephew, 
John Symonds, esq. of the Pool, in Great Yeldham; and he, in 1691, gave it to his 
nephew, Martin Carter, esq. of Great Saling Hall, of whom it was purchased, in 
1702, by Richard Beale, esq. of Maidstone, in Kent, on whose decease, in 1712, it 
descended to his nephew, Alexander Beale, esq. of Hale Place, in Kent: it now 
belongs to Guy's Hospital. J 

Panttield The ancient priory of Pantfield was at a short distance northward from the church: 
the precise time of its original foundation is not known; but it is known from records, 

* Sir William, soon after his marriage, came and resided sometimes at Hemsted Hall, and sometimes 
at Pantfield : the offspring of this marriage were William, Robert, John, and Thomas ; of whom, sir Wil- 
liam, the eldest, succeeded his father, and married Margaret, daughter and co-heiress of William, son of 
Geoffrey de Darsham ; by this lady he had John, Robert, and Katharine, married to Ralph de Hemenall. 
John de Langham, the eldest son and heir, had two wives, but had issue only by the first, who was Alice, 
daughter and co-heiress of sir William Coggeshall, of Little Samford Hall, widow of sir John Tyrell, of 
Herons. He died in 1417, in the life-time of his father; his son and successor, George Langham, esq. 
was sheriff of Essex and Hertfordshire in 1449, and married Isabel, daughter of William Hasilden, lord of 
the manor of Little Chesterford, by whom he had an only son, his successor, Richard Langham, esq. who 
married Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of William Southcote, esq. by whom he had his only daughter, Alice, 
married to John Cotton, esq. Arms of Langham : Argent, a fesse gules ; a label of three points, azure. 

+ Alice was married, first, to Thomas St. John, esq. and, secondly, to John Cotton, esq. By her first 
husband she had five daughters, and to her second she bore three sons and three daughters ; surviving 
both her husbands, she died in 1525, at the time of her decease holding the manors of Hemsted and Pant- 
field, of Catharine, queen of England, as of her honour of Clare. Her successor in this estate was her son, 
SigLsmund Cotton, esq. who married Bridget, daughter of Thomas Sale, of London, and whose second 
wife was Jane Garnish : on his decease, in 1590, he was succeeded by William Cotton, esq. (his only son 
by his first wife) who marrying Anne, daughter of John Vescay, esq. of Cambridgeshire, had George, and 
several other sons, who died without issue, and Giles, William, and Anne: dying in 1561, he was suc- 
ceeded by his son, George Cotton, esq. who married Frances, daughter of Thomas Felton, esq. of Playford, 
in Suffolk, by whom he had Thomas, George, Anthony, William; Beatrice, married to Robert Berners, 

esq. of Gray's-inn; Frances, the wife of Pepper, of Hemsted; Abigail, married to Robert Cooke, 

esq. of Langham, in Suffolk ; .Anne, and Mary. On his dccca.se, in 1592, he was succeeded in the estates of 
Hemsted, Lanijham, and Pantfield, by his son and heir, Thomas Cotton, esq. who sold the manor of Pant- 
field Hall. Arms of Cotton : Azure, an eagle displayed, argent ; beaked and legged, gules. 

I This lordship, from the time of the Con(|iieror, was holden of the honour of Clare, by the service of 
half a knight's fee, and the advowson of the church was annexed to it, and now belongs to Benjamin 
William Page, esq. vice-admiral of the blue. 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 43 

that in 1070, Waleran Fitz-Ralph gave his little manor of Pantfield* to the abbey of CHAP. v. 

St. Stephen, in Normandy ;f and this donation was confirmed by king William the 

first, Henry the second, Richard the first, and Henry the fourth. It is also recorded 

that the prior and monks had a licence for free-warren here in 1250; the foundation, 

therefore, of this house, was previous to that period. The priors of this house, after 

its becoming a cell to the great foreign abbey, were invested with a greater power 

than they previously possessed, and several of them were made procurators-general 

to that abbey throughout all England, to take account of their lands and rents;:}: and 

their power and influence increased till the commencement of a war between France 

and England, in 1285, when this, as one of the priories alien, was seized by king 

Edward the second, in order to prevent the carrying money out of the kingdom into 

the hands of the enemy. The same policy was also pursued by Edward the third, 

who, in 1337, or 1338, during his wars with France, confiscated the goods and estates 

of all the alien priories in England which were cells to monasteries in France. 

These he let out to farm during the space of twenty-three years, and among others 

this of Pantfield, with that of Wells, were farmed by Hugh Falstolf. When the war 

ended, all the lands, tenements, and possessions of these religious houses were restored, 

and the full enjoyment of them allowed, till the year 1414, when all the alien priories 

in England, not conventual, were totally suppressed, and their possessions vested in 

the crown. In 1415, king Henry the fifth granted this priory of Pantfield, with that 

of Wells, to John Woodhouse, esq. of Norfolk, to hold by the service of a red rose; 

and his son John enjoyed this possession till his decease, when it returned to the 

crown, and, in 1460, was granted, in free alms, by king Henry the sixth, to King's 

College, in Cambridge. In 1461, king Edward the fourth granted this manor of the 

priory of Pantfield to Gresild,§ widow of John Hind, esq. to hold by the service of 

a red rose yearly, on St. John Baptist's day, for all services; and the said Gresild 

Hind, in 1471, left this estate in trust for Thomas Bourchier, cardinal of St. Cyriac, 

and archbishop of Canterbury ;|| and, in 1472, he gave it to the prior and convent of 

* Manerioliuii, as it is writ'ten in the original grant, and in subsequent confirmations. This appears 
from the great roll of king Edward the Third, where it is stated that Edward, the father of Edward the 
third, having wars with France, did seize this priory and that of Wells, and granted the custody of them 
to Robert de Stokes, then prior of Pantfield ; he being required to pay the customary farm of seventy-six 
pounds a year. — From the original roll in possession of the IVright family. 

t Founded by William the conqueror, in 1064, and dedicated to God, and St. Stephen, the proto-martyr. 

X Besides tiie priory manor, there belonged to this cell a contiguous wood and lands, and tlie tithe of 
all the land that Waleran had in England, with very extensive possessions in various parts of the country. — 
Monast. Anglic, vol. i. p. 571, vol. ii. p. ysfi. 

§ Her name is yet to be seen on a painted window of the manor-house, where it must have remained 
from 145.5 to the present time, a period of nearly four hundred years. 

II The cardinal was the second son of sir William Bourchier, by the lady Anne, eldest daughter of 
Thomas of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester, the sixth son of king Edward the third : he wore the mitre 
fifty-one years, and was archbishop of Canterbury thirty-two years. He died in 1486. 



44 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK 11. Canterbury,* who retained possession of it till the general suppression of religious 

houses, after which, in 1538, it was granted, with Docking Park, and four hundred 

acres of wood there, to sir Giles Capel, of Rayne Hall, who, in 1549, conveyed it to 
John Goodday, clothier, of Braintree, who sold it to his son John, in 1575, from 
Seaman whom, in 1579, it was conveyed to John Seaman, of Chelmsford, some parcels of it 
^'^'"''' " excepted, which, in 1587, were, by the said John Goodday, granted to John his son, 
on a lease of two thousand years; and both father and son, in 1399, released all their 
ri"-ht and title to Pantfield priory to the said John Seaman,f who lived at the priory 
house where he died in 1604: his son was John Seaman, LL.D. who held this 
manor and messuage, with divers lands and appertenances; and also Bocking Park: 
his son John was his successor, on his decease in 1623, who, dying without issue, his 
brother, Samuel Seaman, esq. became his heir, who died in 1632, leaving his son 
Richard his heir, who lived at Painswick, in Gloucestershire ; and marrying Katharine, 
dauo-hter of Martin Wright, alderman of Oxford, had by her his only daughter and 
heiress, Katharine, who conveyed this estate to her husband, John West, esq. of 
Hampton Poyle, in Oxfordshire. Katharine, the wife, dying without issue in 1668, 
the estate was left in trust for William Wright, esq. the elder, from whom it de- 
scended to his son, William Wright, esq. of Trinity College, Oxford, afterwards of 
the Inner Temple; recorder of Oxford in 1688, and, in 1714, one of the judges or 
iustices for the principality of Wales. He died in 1721, and his heir and successor was 
his eldest son, sir Martin W^right, of the Inner Temple, baron of the exchequer, and 
one of the justices of the king's bench. The present possessor is lady Frances Eliza- 
beth, third daughter of the earl of Aylesbury, and widow of sir Henry Wright Wilson. 
The lands of this estate have been divided into two farms, called the Great and Little 
Priories; but of the ancient monastic fabric no traces can now be discovered, 
cimrch. The church of Pantfield, dedicated to St. Christopher, is a small but handsome 

structure, pleasantly situated on elevated ground; the chancel is large in proportion 
to the nave; the altar-piece, of wainscot, is very elegant, and was erected at the 
expense of the rev. Thomas Kynaston, when rector. In the whidows there appear 
some remains of stained glass, of superior workmanship. At the west end there is a 
tower, with a spire shingled, and a belfry, containing three bells. The parsonage is 
near the church, and is a cheerful modern erection, well sheltered by woods belonging 
to the hall and priory manor. The glebe lands do not exceed seven acres. 

• The prior and convent, in acknowledgment of this generous donation, obliged themselves, by inden- 
ture, dated second of September, 1473, to pray for the good estate of the archbishop whilst he lived, and 
to perform at his funeral the solemn office for his soul, and the souls of his parents and friends; also 
henceforth, for ever, to keep his obit, in the same manner as they kept that of other archbishops, and to 
give a penny a-piece to a hundred poor people. — Newcourt, vol. ii. p. 460. 

t In 1.587, Edward Wymark, a hungry chantry-monger, and a hunter after concealed lands, obtained a 
grant of Pantfield priory of queen Elizabeth, but he could not oust the lawful possessors. 



Ouseley. 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 45 

There are some inscriptions in this church, and a handsome monument to the CHAP. V. 
memory of the wife of the rev. Robert Kynaston, the above-mentioned rector and Monu- 
patron of this parish. ments. 

Among- the remarkable persons interred here are John Cotton, esq. ancestor of the 
family of that name, of the Hall manor. In the middle aisle there are inscriptions to 
the memory of several of the same family, particularly of Alice, the wife of John 
Cotton, who was buried with her husband in 1525; her first husband, Thomas St. 
John, esq. is also interred in the same grave. 

Richard Beale, esq. who died in 1712, lies at the upper end of the north side of the 
chancel. 

The learned Mr. John Ouseley, son of the rev. John Ouseley, of Claypool, in Lin- Rev. J. 
colnshire, was rector of Pantfield from 1668 to 1694; in that year he became rector of 
Spring-field Boswell, and, in 1703, rector of Little Waltham: to his superior accom- 
plishments as a scholar and a divine, he added a profound knowledge of the antiquities 
of his country; the excellent and learned bishop Gibson justly estimated his superior 
qualifications. Mr. Richard Newcourt mentions his name with deserved commen- 
dation, and Mr. Holman acknowledges himself not a little indebted to his collections 
and discoveries, which were communicated to him by Mr. Ouseley's son-in-law, Mr. 
Anthony Holbrook. 

This parish, in 1821, contained two hundred and sixty-three, and, in 1831, three 
hundred and sixteen inhabitants.* 

GREAT SALING. 

This parish, named Great Saling, Sailing Magna, and Old Saling, extends north- Great 
westward to Little or Bardfield Saling, in Freshwell half hundred, and in other 
directions is bounded by Shalford, Pantfield, Rayne, and Stebbing. Formerly, 
these two parishes were united, and, in Domesday-book, are entered as the undi- 
vided possession of John, son of Waleran, which was held under him by Turstin 
Wiscart: it had also been held undivided in the time of Edward the confessor. The 
village surrounds a pleasant green, of a triangular form, containing five acres and a 
half; and the northern corner extends across the Great Bardfield road, on which 
rows of tall elms form an avenue to the church and the hall, where a highly pleasing 
and extensive prospect is presented, including the town and church of Danbury, with 
the high grounds southward, from Tiptree Heath to Pleshey. 

A small stream called Pods, or Ponds-brook, waters part of this parish : it rises in 
Great Bardfield, and in its course visits this and the parishes of Rayne, Braintree, the 

* The advowson of Pantfield is with the Pages. Benjamin William Page, esq., vice-admiral of the blue, 
received it from the Kynastons. 

VOL. II. H 



Saling. 



46 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



Saiing 
Hall. 



Bibbes 
worth 
tainilv. 



BOOK II. Notleys, Faulkboume and Rivenhall, and afterwards falls into the Blackwater. This 
parish measures two miles across either way, and the soil is of various descriptions, 
but generally very fertile. It is distant from Braintree three, and from London forty- 
two miles. 

Sir Baldwin Wiscart, the son of Turstin, was lord of the manor of Great Saiing 
Hall toward the close of the reign of king Henry the first: his son and successor was 
sir Hugh, living in 1199, whose son, John Wiscart, was the last of the family who 
had this estate. 

In the commencement of the reign of king Edward the first, sir Walter Bibbes- 
worth was the possessor, and succeeded by his son sir Hugh, who flourished in the 
reigns of Edward the first and second ; and sir John, his son and heir, held the manor 
of Saiing of the lord de Saye, by the service of half a knight's fee. Hugh de Bibbes- 
worth was his son and successor, who, by Amicia his wife, had Edmund, living in 
the reigns of the fourth and fifth Henries, and to the thirteenth of Henry the sixth ; 

he married Goditha , and had by her John; Joan, the wife of Glouseter, 

and Agnes, wife of Thomas Cotys, of Warwickshire. John Bibbesworth died in 
1449, leaving his son and heir, Thomas, who died without issue in 1485:* his heirs 
were Joan, daughter of the above-mentioned Joan Glouseter, wife of Thomas 
Barley, junior, and John, son of Thomas Cotys, and Agnes. John Cotys had Saiing 
Hall for his pur party, which he conveyed, in 1486, to Richard Pole and others; from 
whom it was conveyed to John Knight, esq. and Emmeline his wife, widow of John 
Maxey, esq. and to their heirs and assigns; and it was given by them, in 1487, to 
John Maxey,f son of the said Emmeline, in whose family the estate continued till it 



Maxey 
fainilv. 



• Anns of Bibbesworth : Azure, three eagles displayed, or. Arms of Barley : Barry wavy of six, 
ermine and sable. 

t The Maxey family was originally of Cheshire. Organ Maxey's two sons were Jordan and Albert. 

Jordan was the father of John, who, by his wife , daughter of Thomas Grosvenor, had Thomas, John ; 

Alice, wife of Brian Paver, and Isabel, of Thomas Bengham. Thomas had James, Anthony, Francis, 
and a daughter. Sir James Maxey, the eldest son by his first lady, whose maiden name was Buckley, had 

Robert, Christopher, and two daughters; and married, secondly, Goodman. His successors, down 

to John Maxey, esq. the possessors of Saiing Hall, in 1486, were Robert, who, by his wife , daughter 

of William Bramme, had Anthony, Matthew, and two daughters : Sir Anthony Maxey, by his lady, 
daughter of sir Thomas Ledson, had sir John, who married, first, Margaret Doane, and had by her James, 
Robert, and a daughter. The maiden name of his second lady was Ashen. James, the eldest son, mar- 
ried the daughter and co-heiress of Milbrome, and had Thomas, Robert, Henry, and two daughters. 

Sir Thomas, his successor, married, first, a daughter of Thomas Venables, and had George, Robert, 

Oliver, and two daughters. Thomas Maxey, esq. by Marcy, of Puddington, in Devonshire, had his 

only son John, who married a daughter of Humphrey Barrington, esq. and had by her Edward, Richard, 
and John. Edward Maxey succeeding his father, married a daughter of Thomas Huddleston, by whom he 
had Thomas and John, of whom Thomas succeeding his father, had, by a daughter of Nicholas de la Pole, 
Brian, John, and Thomas. Brian Maxey, esq. by a daughter of Leonard WoUand, was the father of John 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 47 

was sold, in 1665, to Martin Carter, esq. son of Martin Carter, of Redfans, in Shal- CHAP. v. 
ford, of a family originally from Lincolnshire: he was of Queen's College, Cambridge, 
and of Gray's-inn; and marrying Elizabeth, only daughter of Anthony Wolmer, esq. 
of Lincolnshire, by Elizabeth, daughter of John Symonds, esq. of Great Yeldham, had 
by her Martin; John, attorney-at-law, of Braintree; Thomas, captain or master of a 
merchant ship; William, a bookseller in London; Elizabeth, wife of Anthony Maxey, 

esq.; Mary, married to Knows worth, of London; Anne, and Jemima. Martin 

Carter, esq. who succeeded his father of the same name, was of Christ's College, in 
Cambridge, and of Lincoln's-inn, a gentleman of distinguished learning and pro- 
fessional eminence. He married Mary Westwood, but had no offspring;* and after 
making great alterations and improvements in the house and gardens, sold this estate, 
in 1717, to Hugh Raymond, esq. who was succeeded by his son, Jones Raymond, esq. 
The late B. Goodrich, esq. proprietor of the Hall estate, and nearly the whole of this Saling 
parish, had his residence at the handsome mansion of Saling Grove, on the opposite 
extremity of the village : but, since this gentleman's decease, that seat, with a portion 
of the surrounding property, has been purchased of his executors by W. Fowke, esq. 
the present occupier; and the ancient manorial mansion belongs to Mr. Goodrich's 
heirs, and is occupied by the widow of the late captain Dobbie, R. N. on the western 
side ; and the eastern side belongs to captain Dick, R. N. 

Picotts is a manor which has derived its name from sir Ralph Picott, who lived in the Picotts. 

time of Richard the first, and king John, being a descendant of Picott, sewer to 

Alberic de Vere in the time of king Henry the first. Sir Ralph was succeeded by his 
son sir William, who, in the reign of Henry the third, held lands here of the king by 
the service of keeping one sparrow-hawk; and sir William, his son and heir, held this 
manor by the same tenure ; they had also the manor of Picotts, in Ardley ; he died in 
1283, and was succeeded by sir Ralph, who held this manor by the same tenure as his 
predecessors, with the additional conditions that the king was to find him maintenance 
for three horses, three boys or grooms, and three greyhounds: his sons, by his wife 
Maud, were William and Robert; on his decease, in 1334, he was buried in Dunmow 

Maxey, esq. who married Enimeline, daughter and heiress of Anger, and had by her his only son John. 

Emmeline's second husband was John Knight, esq. the purchaser of Saling Hall, in 1516. By his wife, 
whose maiden name was Strangwich, he had his only son, John INIaxey, esq. : his first wife's maiden 
name was Appleton, and his second, Cornwall : by the first he had Anthony, his successor on his decease 
in 1S46, and also a second son, named William. Anthony Maxey, esq. married Dorothy Basset, widow 
of Robert Bonham, by which he acquired the estate of Bradwell Hall, and other considerable possessions. 
His successors here and at Bradwell Hall were sir Henry, sir William, Greville, and Anthony Maxey, the 
last of whom, in 1665, sold Saling Hall to Martin Carter, esq. The rev. Martin Brunwin is the pre- 
sent owner of Bradwell Hall, in Witham, and possessor of the rectory and a handsome mansion newly 
erected. 

* Arms of Carter : Gules, a cross patonce, or ; on a chief azure, three firmeaux (i. e. buckles) of the 
first. Crest : A lion's head erased, or. 



48 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. priory, to which he was a benefactor. His heir was John, son of his son William,* 
who sold the estate, in 1349, to Thomas de Mandevil, of Black Notley, by whom it 
was conveyed to John Hande, who died in 1418, and Gresild, his widow, in 1473; 
and their only daughter, Joan, conveyed it in marriage to Walter Writtle, esq. who 
was succeeded by his son and grandson, both named John; the latter of whom dying 
without issue, the estates descended to his kinsman and heir-at-law, John Basset; then 
to Gregory Basset, whose only daughter and heiress, Dorothy, conveyed it, in marriage, 
to Robert Bonham, esq. and to her second husband, Anthony Maxey, who died in 
1592, and Dorothy in 1602; and from that period to 1665, the successive possessors 
were sir Henry Maxey, sir William Maxey, Greville and Anthony Maxey, esqs. 
the last of whom sold it to Martin Carter, esq. who sold it to a son of the rev. Samuel 
Collins, vicar of Braintree, whose widow sold it to sir Martin Lumley, hart.; and the 
heirs or assigns of his descendant, sir James Lumley, conveyed it to Guy's Hospital. 

Parks. An estate named Parks has the mansion about half a mile from the church; it has 

been reputed a manor, and, in the time of Richard the first, was holden of the manor 
of Felsted, belonging to the Holy Trinity at Caen, by a family surnamed De Salynges; 
of this family, Roger de Salynge was living in the reign of Henry the second, who, 
by his wife Alice, daughter of Walter de Reynes, had Walter, father of Alan, who 
married Hawise, daughter of Geofrey Botiler, and had by her Robert de Salynge, an 
eminent clergyman, who disposed of the estate to Roger at Parke, son of William de 
Parco, of St. Osyth, in 1293; and it remained in possession of that family till, in the 
time of king Henry the eighth, it was mortgaged to Anthony Maxey, esq. who con- 
veyed it to John Ellis, of Rayne; upon whose decease, in 1651, it became the property 
of James Porter, succeeded by his son Nathaniel; and, from the arms of Vere in the 
hall window, it is supposed to have belonged to that noble family. In 1769, it became 
the property of John Yeldham, esq. The mansion, built in 1754, is on the side of 
the green fronting the hall. 

An estate called Bleak End Farm, belongs to the right lion, the earl of Essex. 

Church. The church is a small ancient building, in very good repair, dedicated to St. James. 

In the tower there are three bells. There was a priest here at the time of the survey 
of Domesday, which is a sufficient evidence that there was also some place of worship, 
and probably a parish ; but the present church is believed to have been erected in the 
time of king Henry the second, when sir Baldwin Wischard was lord of this place. 

This church was originally a rectory, till Baldwin Wischard gave it to the priory 
of Little Dunmow, when a vicarage was instituted, which remained in the patronage 
of the prior and convent till the dissolution, when, in 1536, the rectory and advowson 
of the vicarage were granted, by king Henry the eighth, to Robert, earl of Sussex; 

* Arms of Picott : a griffin rampant, wings displayed ; on a chief three escallops. Crest : a greyhound 
courant. 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 49 

but, three years afterwards, it was removed from the patronage of the earl, and CHAP. v. 

granted to John Maxey, esq. of Saling Hall. 

In the reigfn of Edward the first, Amicia Baynard gave two acres of land in Little Al^^^'' of 

. . .... theVirgin. 

Raynes, to light the altar of the Virgin Mary, in the chapel in Sailing churchyard. 

An annuity of twelve shillings and four pence was given by Emmeline, widow of Charity. 
John Knight, esq. out of a tenement called Mares, for one obit for ever. 

This parish, in 1821, contained three hundred and twenty-six, and, in 1831, three 
hundred and sixty-seven inhabitants. 

STEBBING. 

From Great Saling this parish lies south-west, and is bounded southward by Fel- Stebbing. 
sted; extends westward to the junction of the hundreds of Hinckford and Dunmow; 
eastward, to Pantfield and Rayne; and northward, to Little Saling. It is computed to 
be twenty-six miles in circumference; the situation is on high ground, and much of 
the soil light and fertile.* 

In records, the name is written Stabinge, Stebinge, Stebings, Stebbings, Steb- 
binge, Stibinghara, Stobinge, Stubing; the latter syllable is believed to be inj, meadow 
or pasture, but the other part of the word is not so clearly understood. 

There are several mills on the stream that flows through this parish toward Chelms- 
ford, and the village contains some good houses, and a place of worship for dissenters 
of the denomination of Independents. It is distant from Braintree five, and from 
London forty miles. There is an annual fair here for fat calves and other cattle, on 
the 10th of July. 

There are two apparently artificial mounts, on the highest of which is traditionally 
said to have been a castle, but of this there is no historical evidence. 

The lands of this parish were in the possession of a Saxon thane, named Siward, 
in the time of Edward the confessor, and at the general survey belonged to Henry 
de Ferrers, and Ralph Peverel, two Norman lords. What originally belonged to Stebbing 
Ralph Peverel formed the larger half; yet the lordship of the whole seems to have 
always been in the family of Ferrers, to whom also the estate of Stebbing Hall was 
ultimately conveyed. 

Ralph Peverel married Maud, whose mother was the beautiful daughter of Ingelric, 
a Saxon nobleman, founder of the collegiate church of St. Martin-le-Grand, in Lon- 
don. The offspring of this marriage were, Haman, one of the barons of Roger de 
Montgomery, earl of Shrewsbury; William, castellan of Dover, and founder of Hat- 
field Priory, called Hatfield Peverel; and Pain, standard-bearer to Robert Courthose 
in the Holy Land, and to whom king Henry the first gave the barony of Brune, in 
Cambridgeshire. He was succeeded by his son William, whose successor, of the 
* Average annual produce per acre— wheat 25, barley 36, oats 32 busliels. 



50 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



Ferrers 
family. 



BOOK n. same name, driven from the country on account of the murder of Ralph, earl of 
Chester, left this and his other estates to the disposal of king Henry the second, 
who g-ranted Stebbing- Hall to John, earl of Mortain, brother to the fugitive earl. It 
was afterwards, by marriage, conveyed to the family of Ferrers, with whom it re- 
mained during several generations, till sir Edward Grey, son of Reginald, lord Grey, 
of Ruthin, married Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Henry Ferrers, of Groby. He 
was one of the commissioners appointed by the Conqueror to survey the county of 
Worcestershire, and held two hundred and ten lordships, five of which were in Essex; 
his chief seat was Tutbury Castle, in Staifordshire. Robert, his son, was his suc- 
cessor ; who, for his magnanimous conduct in the battle of Northallerton, was created 
earl of Derby by king Stephen. On his decease, in 1139, he was succeeded by his 
son Robert, earl of Derby, founder of the abbey of Merevale, in Warwickshire, 
where he was buried, wrapped up in the hide of an ox. His son, William Ferrers, suc- 
ceeded, and marrying Margaret, daughter of William Peverel, earl of Nottingham, 
had by her Robert and Walcheline de Ferrers, lord of Eggington, in Derbyshire. 
Robert, earl of Derby and Nottingham, by Sibilla, daughter of William de Braose, 
of Brecknock, had William; Melicent, married to Roger Mortimer, of Wigmore; 
and Agatha, concubine to king John. This earl, and Maurice Fitz-Geofrey, were 
the founders of Tiltey Abbey. His son, William Ferrers, accompanied king Richard 
the first to the Holy Land, and died at the siege of Acre in 1191, leaving his son 
William, who, by a special charter, was created earl of Derby, and girt with a sword 
by the king's own hand, being the first on record so honoured. Lands were given to 
him formerly belonging to Ralph Peverel, but which had gone to the crown. He 
married Agnes, sister and co-heiress of Ralph, earl of Chester, with whom having 
lived seventy-five years, they both died in the same month, in 1246. W^illiam, 
son and heir of Ralph Peverel, by Sibil, a co-heiress of William Mareschal, earl of 
Pembroke, had seven daughters; and marrying, secondly, Margaret,* one of the co- 
heiresses of Roger de Quincy, earl of Winchester, had by her Robert, his successor; 
and William, seated at Groby, in Lincolnshire; he also had by her Joan, married to 
Thomas, lord Berkley. Robert, succeeding his father, was the last earl of Derby of 
the Ferrers family, who, joining the barons against Henry the third, was taken pri- 
soner at Chesterfield, and by authority of the parliament, stripped of his vast posses- 
sions, which were given to Edmund, the king's second son. After suffering three 
years' imprisonment, his estates were restored, on condition of his paying to prince 
Edmund, on a certain day, fifty thousand pounds, which not being able to do, his 
sureties made over these lands to the prince and his heirs for ever.f 

* She held this manor, with those of Woodham Ferrers and Fairsted, in dower. 

t The original charter has been preserved, and was formerly in the possession of Peter le Neve; the 
only seals remaining attached to the labels, is that of Henry Alemania, which is a lion rampant within a 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 51 

In 1251, William, the son of William, and brother of the said Robert, re- chap. v. 
ceived from his father the manors of Woodham, Stebbing, and Fairsted, with one 
messuage in chiche, whereby these estates were retained in the family, when the 
rest were confiscated. This William Ferrers, the son, had also the manor of 
Groby, in Leicestershire, the gift of his mother, Margaret, daughter and co-heiress 
of Roger de Quincy, earl of Winchester. By Joan, daughter of Hugh le Despencer, 
William de Ferrers had William, and Anne, married to John, lord Grey of Wilton. 
William, his son, succeeded him on his decease, in 1324; whose son and heir was 
Henry de Ferrers, of Groby: he, in 1338, obtained a charter for a market, to be 
holden every Monday, at his manor of Stebbing; and a fair on the eve and day of St. 
Peter and St. Paul, and two following days. He died in 1343, leaving William de 
Ferrers, of Groby, his heir; who, by Margaret, daughter and co-heiress of Robert de 
UflPord, earl of Suffolk, had Henry : his second wife, Margaret, daughter of Henry 
de Percy, survived him, and held the third part of the manor of Stebbing in dower 
till her decease. 

Henry de Ferrers succeeded his father, (who died in 1371,) and marrying Joan, 
daughter of sir Thomas Poynings, had William, and Thomas:* he died in 1388. 
William, his son and successor, had a son named Henry, who died before him, leaving 
a daughter named Elizabeth, to whom her grandfather William left the estate of the 
Ferrers, in this county ;f which she, by marriage, conveyed to sir Edward Grey, 
second son of Reginald lord Grey, of Ruthin, who, in consequence of this connexion, 
bore the title of lord Ferrers of Groby, to distinguish him from lord Ferrers of 
Chartley; on his decease, in 1457, he left sir John Grey, his heir, created lord Lisle; 
Reginald, slain in the battle of Wakefield ; and Ann, married to sir Edward Hunger- 
ford. Sir John Grey married Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Richard Widvil, earl 
Rivers, and was killed at the battle of St. Albans, in 1460, fighting for Henry the 
sixth; he left two sons, sir Thomas and sir Richard. Their mother Elizabeth, pros- 
trating herself before king Edward the fourth, to petition his clemency in behalf of 
herself and children, by her appearance and demeanor so powerfully excited his sym- 
pathy and affection, that he made her his queen. Her son, Thomas, was advanced 
to the dignity of earl of Huntingdon and marquis of Dorset; but, in the reign of 

bordure, charged with bezants and circumscribed, + Sig. Henrici fil. R. Regis Romanorum ; and that of 
William de Valence, viz. Barry an orle of martlets, circumscribed, + Sig. Willi, de Valence. The other 
sureties were John, earl of Warren and Surrey, Roger de Somers, Thomas de Clare, Thomas Walraund, 
Roger de Clifton, Hamon le Strange, Bartholomew de Sudley, Robert de Briwer. — See Dugdale's Baron- 
age, vol. i. p. 263. 

* Previous to his decease, he, by will, left the manors of Stebbing, Woodham Ferrers, F'airsted, Merks, 
and Blounts, to Robert, bishop of London, and others. 

+ Thomas, the other brother, enjoying all these lands, which were entailed on the male heirs. From 
him are descended the lords Ferrers, of Chartley and Tamworth. 



52 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. Richard the third, being attainted of high treason, he fled into Flanders, and attaching 
himself to Henry, earl of Richmond, was by him, when he became king of England, 
restored to his estates and honours. He married Cicely, daughter and heiress of 
William lord Bonvil, by whom he had seven sons and eight daughters. The eldest 
son, Thomas Grey, marquis of Dorset, succeeded his father. By Margaret, daughter 
of sir Robert Wotton, of Bocton, in Kent, he had Henry, his successor; John, of 
Pirgo, in Essex; Thomas; Leonard; Elizabeth, married to Thomas lord Audley, of 
Walden; Catharine, married to Henry Fitz-Alan, earl of Arundel; and Anne, the 
wife of Henry Willoughby, esq. of Wollaton, in Norfolk; the marquis died in 1530, 
possessed of the manors of Stebbing and Woodham Ferrers. His eldest son Henry, 
marquis of Dorset, was created constable of England during the coronation of Edward 
the sixth, and, in right of his lady Frances, eldest daughter of Charles Brandon, duke 
of Suftolk, by the princess Mary, third daughter of king Henry the seventh, queen 
dowager of Lewis the twelfth, king of France, was created duke of Suifolk in 155L 
He had by her lady Jane, married to Guilford Dudley, fourth son of John, duke of 
Northumberland, and proclaimed queen of England on the death of Edward the sixth, 
by which she and the duke lost their lives: her father was also beheaded in 1544, for 
joining sir Thomas Wyatt; previous to which he had conveyed the manor of Stebbing 
to sir Robert Southwell, who, in 1545, sold it to king Henry the eighth, Avho ex- 
changed it with sir Giles Capel, of Rayne Hall, for lands in Hertfordshire, Middlesex, 
Cambridgeshire, and the moiety of Reves Hall, in the parish of East Mersey, in Essex. 
This estate has continued in the noble family of Capel to the present time. 

Porters The manor house of Porters Hall is an ancient buildingf, with a moat. 

Hall, . 

This estate formei'ly belonged to the Peverel family, at least the chief part of it: 

John de Stebbing, a younger branch of the Ferrers family, held it of the honour of 

Peverel, in the time of king John; afterwards it was in possession of families surnamed 

Dunstavil, Umfravil, Porter, and Badlesmere; and was ultimately incorporated into 

the estate belonging to the Essex family.* 

Church 'pi^e church, dedicated to St. Mary, is a large and lofty building, with a nave, side 

manor of aisles, and chancel; it is very pleasantly situated on an eminence, at the highest part 

Hall. of tl^G village. The chancel has two aisles, and is exceedingly well lighted. This 

church has lately received an addition of one hundred and forty free sittings; the 

incorporated society for the enlargement of churches and chapels having granted thirty 

pounds towards defraying the expense. 

The living was originally a rectory, annexed to the chief lordship here, holden by 

the Ferrers family; and, in the time of king Henry the second, William de Ferrers, 

earl of Derby, gave this church to the knights hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem, 

the grant being confirmed by his son Robert, on which the rectorial great tithes 

* Dugdale's Baronage, vol. i. p. 268. 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 53 

were appropriated to their house, and a vicarage ordained, of which the hospital con- CHAP. v. 
tinned patrons till the dissolution of their order, when this rectory was given to the 
crown, and, in 1543, was granted, with the advowson of the vicarage, to Thomas 
Cornewall, whose descendant, Humphrey Cornewall, in 1567, sold them to William 
Tiffin, who, in 1575, sold them to William Fitch, esq. from whom they passed, in 
1585, to William and Bartholomew Brook, who, in 1601, conveyed them to John and 
Thomas Sorrel, in whose family they remained till John Sorrel,* jointly with his mother 
Dorothy, sued a fine, and gave this family possession to John Lane, of Norfolk, who 
gave it to his son, Roger Lane, who dying unmarried, it came to his father and 
mother, for the term of their lives; and, after their decease, became the property of 
Roger, the son of Francis, second son of Henry Mansir, who sold this posses- 
sion to Arthur Batt, merchant, of London, who, on his decease in 1731, left it to 
his brother, Christopher Batt, esq. of Salisbury; and it now belongs to Thomas Batt, 
esq. who, in right of the rectory, is also lord of the manor of Priors, or Friars Hall, 
so called as formerly belonging to the prior of the hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. 

There was a chantry in the church of Stebbing, founded by sir John Bultell, clerk. Chantry 

... . liiid obit. 

and endowed with lands and tenements in this parish. Also an obit, endowed by the 

founder, John Gunnock, with a tenement and sixteen acres of land. These were both 

of them granted to Thomas Golding, esq.f 

In 1821, this parish contained one thousand three hundred and eleven, and, in 1831, 

one thousand four hundred and thirty-four inhabitants. 

FELSTED. 

This parish occupies the south-west corner of Hinckford hundred, on hilly ground. Foisted, 
exceedingly healthy and pleasant: its Saxon name, Fell-j-tede, a hilly place, is 
accurately descriptive; it is in records written Feldelsted, Felestelda, and Phensted. 
It is a large parish; the soil, a strong wet heavy loam, on a whitish clay marl,:}: requires 
draining, and the singular mode of cultivation termed crop and fallow.§ The river 
Chelmer separates this parish and the hundred from Dunmow westward, and the 
village of Felsted, on the banks of this river, is distant from Dunmow town three, and 
from London thirty-six miles. 

Algar, the celebrated earl of Mercia, was the possessor of this lordship in the time 

* Arms of Sorrel : Gules, two lions passant, ermine. Arms of Lane : Argent, three chevronels, sable. 

t The following arms were painted on the windows of this church : Edmund Crouchback, earl of Lan- 
caster; Bohun; Vere ; Warren, earl of Surrey; Fitzwalter ; Louvain ; Quincy; John Holland, duke of 
Exeter; and Umfraville ; which last was, or, a frette gules, charged with six cinquefoils, azure. 

I Felsted-water was a chalybeate spring in this parish, formerly found useful in nervous and other 
diseases ; but it has been undeservedly neglected. 

§ The prevalent course — 1 fallow, 2 wheat, 3 fallow, 4 barley. Average annual produce per acre- 
wheat 22, and barley 36 bushels. 

VOL. II. I 



54 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



Felsted 
Bury. 



Graunt 
Courts. 



I^jOOK II, of Edward the confessor, and, on his decease in 1059, was succeeded by his son 
Edwin, who, on the accession of the Conqueror, was deprived of this possession, 
which was given to the monastery of the Holy Trinity of Caen, in Normandy. 

The manor of Felsted Bury is that which belonged to the abbey; Richard the first, 
and Henry the third, granted them free-warren here, but they had no cell in Felsted, 
this house being subservient to that in Fantfield, and passing with it on the partial and 
general suppression of alien priories: on which last event this estate was given, by 
Henry the fifth, to the monastery of Sion, in Middlesex, founded by him in 1413, and 
dedicated to St. Saviour, St. Mary, and St. Bridget, for nuns and priests; and this 
lordship and advowson of the church continued in that house till the general sup- 
pression of religious houses.* Agnes, the last abbess of this house, in 1537, alienated 
by special licence, among other things, to sir Richard Rich, chancellor of the court of 
augmentation, the manors of Felsted and Graunt Courts, and one messuage in Felsted, 
to hold of the king by fealty only, by him and his heirs, for ever. 

The manor of Graunt Courts, mentioned in the grant, was part of the manor of 
Felsted, to which it has since been united. It had a very large mansion-house, on 
rising ground, near the road from Rayne to Dunmow. The name was derived from 
an ancient family, who flourished here in the time of Henry the third and of Edward 
the first.f 

Havering. The manor of Havering, in this parish, was dependant on Felsted Bury; but the 
mansion-house is in Rayne» There was also another estate holden of Felsted Bury, 
which was sold by Roger Wentworth, of Codham Hall, to sir Richard Rich, who soon 
after had possession of all the considerable estates in this parish. Those already 
mentioned were included in the manor of Felsted Bury, with its appertenances: the 
following nominal manors and estates had no dependance on the abbey of Caen. 

Glanvils, Laver, and Entields, constitute a nominal manor, which lies in the parishes 
of Felsted, Little Leighs, and Great and Little Waltham. Walter de Glanvil held 
messuages and lands here in 1329. Geofrey was his son and heir, and he had also 
Margaret, married to Stephen Alistre, and Alice : Geofrey succeeding his father, had 
an only daughter, Alice, married to John Naylinghurst, who died in 1542. 

Enfields, or Glandfields, is a farm between Felsted and Hertford End; it was 
holden of the crown by John de Enfield, by the service of two pence per annum: he 
died in 1342, leaving his son Robert, his heir; he had also a daughter named Agnes. 



Glanvils, 
Laver, and 
Enfield.s. 



Enfields. 



* On the suppression of tlie alien priories, their possessions were not suffered to be alienated to the 
laity till the total dissolution of religious iiouses, by king Henry the eighth. 

t Sir Walter Graunt Court was witness to a deed of sir William Pikot, of Salinges, in the commence- 
ment of the reign of Henry the third ; and Thomas de Graunt Court and Simon de Felsted held of the 
abbess of Caen some lands here called Bortheya and Ralpeya, with a park. William de Graunt Court was 
one of the barons of the e.xchcqucr in 1268. — From Old Deeds, and Madox's Hist, of the Exchequer. 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 55 

William de Enfield was hig-li sheriflF of Essex in 1356. From this family it passed CHAP. v. 
to the Tyrells, from whom it was conveyed to sir Richard Rich. 

The manor of Frenches has the mansion on the great common, near the windmill, Frenches 
where the court was held in the gravel pit. It passed, with the other estates, to lord Rich. Fah-y^ 

The mansion-house of Whelpston was on an eminence, near the road to Lee's Whelp- 
Priory; it was in the possession of Thomas de Helpston in 1358, and another of the Helpston. 
same name was high sheriff of Essex and Hertfordshire in 1366. In 1373, it was 
holden by Edmund de Helpston, and, in 1540, was sold by Edward Bury, of Hadleigh, 
in Suffolk, to sir Richard Rich. 

The mansion-house of Camseys is at the extremity of the parish, near Hertford Camseys, 
End, on the border of Great Waltham. In Domesday this manor is called Keventuna, 
and, in other records, Camsey Hall, or Kamseke, Kemesec, Camsec, and Keusec. 

In the reign of king Henry the second, it belonged to Geofrey de Mandevil, earl of 
Essex, and was held under him by Henry de Camse, as a knight's fee: he also held the 
manor of Samford. Edmund Kemsek is mentioned in the records as under-tenant 
here to John de Balencomber, lord of the manor of Samford; he had also lands in 
Tilbury in 1288: his son Edmund was his successor, who, by Joanna his wife, had 
Petronilla and Isabel, to whom he left his estate. Petronilla, the elder sister, on her 
decease in 1313, gave her portion to Isabel, who, being married to Robert de 
Wells, Joanna, her mother, the widow of Edmund de Kemsek, left her grandson, 
Philip de Wells, heir to the family possessions, on her decease in 1331. 

In 1536, this lordship, with the site of the priory of Leighs, or Lees, was granted, t^f"' ^'^h 
by king Henry the eighth, to sir Richard Rich, who died in 1556, in possession of 
an immense estate, collected fi-om the spoils of the monasteries. He had here Felsted 
Bury, and Graunt Courts; Entields, and Glanfields; Whelpston; Frenches, and 
Camsey-barnes ; the rectory and advowson of the vicarage; tenements named Butlers 
or Gales, Rumbolds, Otefield, and with various other possessions, including such of the 
demesnes of Lees Priory as extended into the hundred of Hinckford, and the most 
valuable part, indeed nearly the whole of this parish. On the decease of Robert Rich, 
earl of Warwick, in 1659, without surviving oflFspring, his brother Charles became 
his heir, who also died childless, in 1673, leaving Mary his widow, sister of the cele- 
brated Robert Boyle, esq. ; on whose decease, in 1678, the great estates of the family were 
divided between the co-heiresses of the two last earls of Warwick, of the name of 
Robert. Of these, the earl of Nottingham had in this parish only the nominations to 
the free-school and almshouse; the earl of Scarsdale had Whelpstons; the earl of 
Manchester had that part of the priory estate which lies in this parish, and which was 
sold to the duke of Buckinghamshire, whose heir, sir Charles ShefSeld, alienated it to 
Guy's Hospital, being part of Lees Priory, the Lodge, and Pond Park. But the 
most considerable portion of the estate in this parish belonged to the share of John 
lord Roberts, of Truro, in right of Lucy, his lady, namely, Felsted Bury, Grand 



56 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. Courts, Camseys, Enfields, Lavers, and Frenches, with the rectory and advowson of 
the vicarage, and various farms.* This estate was sold by John, earl of Radnor, to 
Vandenbendy, and John Rotherham, esq. in trust; and these gentlemen con- 
veyed it to sir Josiah Child, knt. and hart, from whom it descended to sir Richard 
Child, earl Tilney, of Castlemain, and now belongs to the hon. W. L. P. Wellesley. 

Numerous estates in this parish have been detached from the great Warwick estate, 
and some of them are no longer distinguished by their ancient names. 

In the remains of Lees Priory, there are two sides of one of the quadrangles, and a 
gateway, with an octagonal tower at each corner, and embattled turrets. The other 
parts of those remains have been converted into a farm house. Distinct traces of a 
very extensive fish-pond yet remain at some distance from the priory, and the fisher- 
man's house is entire, and inhabited. 

A large house on the side of Thistley Green bears the name of the Priory Lodge, 
or Lodge Farm; and the habitations by which Bunster Green is surrounded, form a 
considerable and pleasant village. 

Church. The church, dedicated to the Holy Cross, Is on ground considerably elevated, and 

has a nave and two side aisles, and a chancel, on the south side of which there is a 
chapel, built by Robert, the second lord Rich, with a vault, the burial place of the 
Rich family. A lantern rises from the top of the tower, which is embattled, and 
contains five bells.f 

The incorporated society for the enlargement of churches and chapels having 
granted fifty pounds towards the expense, an addition of seventy free sittings has been 
made to this church. 

Obits. There were two obits in this church, of which one was endowed with a piece of land 

called Dunstal: the other, founded by Robert Collins, was endowed with two acres 
and a half of land. They were both granted by queen Elizabeth to William Tipper 
and Robert DaAve. 

Chapel of Formerly there was a free chapel, called the chapel of Camseys, or Hertford chapel, 
of which the prior and convent of Leighs were patrons: it was dedicated to St. Mar- 
garet. It is not known who was the founder of this chapel, but was supposed to be 
very ancient, and erected by some of the Kemsec family, near Hertford End. In 
the London Registry it is called " Capella de Hertford in parochia de Felsted." The 
lands belonging to it were granted, by queen Elizabeth, to Edward Wymark, in 1591. 

* He was the .son of Richard Roberts, esq. of Truro, in Cornwall, and appears to have been reluctantly 
compelled to receive the honour of the baronial title in 1624; as it is stated in the ninth article of the 
impeachment of the duke of Buckingham by the house of commons, that, *' knowing the said Robert 
to be rich, he forced him to take that title of honour ; and that in consideration thereof, he paid ten 
thousand pounds to that duke'.s use." 

t Three escutcheons in the east window of the chancel bear the arms of John of Gaunt, Rich, Devereux, 
Bouchier, Bohun ; the earls of Gloucester, Hereford, and Chester ; Mandeville of Essex, Louvain, Widville, 
Marshall, Ferrers, Quincy, Baldry, Cropul, Verdun, and Paganel. 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 57 

Against the south wall of the chapel there is a superb monument to the memory of CHAF. V. 
Richard lord Rich, the generous founder of the school and almshouse, who died in insciiu- 
1567. It is composed of various kinds of beautiful and costly marble, and rises to the ^'""^' 
height of thirteen feet. A whole-length effigy of lord Rich, in his chancellor's robes, 
is placed in a reclining posture under a grand cornice, elegantly decorated and sup- 
ported by Corinthian pillars. The arms of this noble family in relief, of inimitable 
workmanship, under the cornice, surrounded by various emblematical devices, extend 
along the east and south walls, and an angelic figure is seen above the cornice; there 
are large plates of brass inlaid in fine marble tablets, with engraved devices not easily 
explicable ; and upon the western side, the figure of a person in a posture of devotion 
is supposed to represent the son of the nobleman here interred. This monument 
appears never to have borne any inscription. 

On the south floor of the chancel a brass plate on a black marble bears the effigy of 
an infant, and the following inscription : 

*' Thomas Ryche, filius Roberti Ryche, militis, obiit 1564 ; et sepultus est apud Felsted, 4°. Febr." 

There were also interred here, in 1580, Richard, son of the right hon. sir Robert 
Rich: in 1619, Richard, earl of Warwick, and, in the same year, the honourable lady 
Lettice, daughter of Robert, earl of Warwick. Lady Rachel Montague, daughter of 
the earl of Manchester, was buried here on the thirtieth of July, 1704; and there is 
the following inscription, bearing the date of 1639: — 

" Robertus Cromwell, filius honorandi viri militis Ollvari Cromwell et Elizabethae uxoris ejus, sepultus 
fuit tricesimo die Mail, et Robertus fuit eximie plus juvenis, deum timens supra multos. 

*' Robert Cromwell, son of that honorable and gallant hero Oliver Cromwell and Elizabeth his wife, was 
buried on the thirtieth day of May. The said Robert was a youth of exemplary piety, fearing God more 
than most." 

On stones on the ground are the following: 

" Here lies the body of the reverend and truly pious Thomas Woodrooffe, sometime the worthy pastor of 
this parish, over which he faithfully presided thirty-three years. As he was a bright ornament to the place 
he filled whilst alive, so at his death he proved a kind benefactor, in bequeathing to this vicarage twelve 
pounds per annum, for ever. He died much lamented, Oct. 13, 1712, aged fifty-seven." 

" Here lyeth the body of Dionysius Palmer, gent, who departed this life the first of August, an. Dni. 16.30, 
aged 63 years." 

A small plate of brass probably bore the arms of Palmer. 
On the north wall of the chancel: 

" In a vault in this church arc deposited the remains of Mr. George Andrews, of Felsted, who died May 
6, 1742, aged 77 years : by his wife Essex, daughter of the rev. Thomas Woodrooffe, formerly of Lee Park, 
in this county, he had two children, Margaret and George. She died Jan. 2, 1748, aged 85 years, and 



58 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. with her children is also buried here. Margaret was born in Oct. 1703, and died March 14, 1765 ; George 
was born May 7, 1706, and died Jan. 17, 1791."* 

" Here lies the body of Thomas Boteler, who married Sydney Humphreys, daughter of Henry Humphreys, 
of Caernarvon, esq. He died y« 10th of Aug. 1688, aetat. suae 73."t 

Charities. Arthur Wilson,;]: esq. gave an annuity of five pounds four shillings for two dozen of 
bread weekly, to be distributed to the poor every Sunday, for ever. 

Dionysius Palmer, esq. gave two pounds twelve shillings yearly to purchase bread, 
to be given weekly to the poor. 

Mr. Tanner gave the same sum, for the same purpose. 

In 1690, Mrs. Sidney Boteler, of Felsted, gave seven pounds twelve shillings yearly, 
payable out of a certain meadow in Felsted, of which two pounds twelve shillings are 
for a dozen of bread, to be given weekly to the poor: two pounds eight shillings yearly 
to clothe three boys and three girls: and two pounds twelve shillings for teaching the 
said poor children to read English, and instructing them in the Protestant religion. 

The rev. Thomas Woodrooffe, vicar of Felsted, on his decease in 1712, augmented 
this living by a bequest of twelve pounds a year. He also left to the vicar a meadow 
of nearly twenty acres, chargeable only with Mrs. Boteler's charity of seven pounds 
twelve shillings. 
Free- In 1564, Richard lord Rich founded a free-school in Felsted, with provision for a 

schoolmaster and usher. He ordered that the master of this school should be a 
clergyman, chosen by the heirs of the founder, to teach eighty male children, born in 
Essex; the usher to assist in teaching, and neither the master nor usher to be absent 
above eight days in a quarter, without good excuse; and if either master or usher 
be removed, another to be appointed in six weeks, otherwise the bishops of 
London may collate. If the chaplain (or master) of this foundation has any other 
spiritual promotion besides what is the gift of the heirs of the founder, he is to be 
removed. The churchwardens are to pay thirteen shillings and four pence for a 
sermon to be preached every Whit Sunday in the afternoon; and on Low Sunday the 
churchwardens are to make out their accounts before the heirs, or any one whom they 

* Arms of Andrews : Gules, a saltier vert, fimbriated or, in chief a crescent or, impaling argent between 
a chevron three crosses pattee litch^e, gules. Crest : On a wreath of the colours a blackamoor's head. 

t Arms of Boteler: A fesse chequy between six cross crosslets, in chief a bird; impaling a chevron 
charged with a mullet between three cross crosslets fitch^e. 

X He was a native of Suffolk, and a gentleman commoner in Trinity College, Oxford, where he took 
the degree of A. M. in 1 633. After leaving the University, he travelled through Spain, Italy, Germany, and 
France, with Robert Devereux, the last earl of Essex of that name, who manifested a friendly attachment 
towards him, and engaged him to write the life of king James the first, which was printed at London in 
1653. After the death of the earl, he was received into the family of Robert, earl of Warwick, and became 
his steward. He died at Felsted in 1652, and is buried in the chancel of the church. IFood's Athen. 
ed. 1721, vol. ii. col. 163. 



HUNDRED OF HINCKFORD. 



59 



shall appoint, with the vicar of Felsted and the master and usher, or two of them, and CHAP. V. 
two other honest persons of the parish. The churchwardens to pay six shillings and 
eight pence to the vicar for his trouble. 

The present patron is the earl of Winchelsea, and there are no exhibitions or church 
preferments belonging to this school: it has a field of about two acres and a half, with 
a good garden, and a convenient school-house on the south side of the church fronting 
the street, and the institution is in a very flourishing state. The statuteable salary 
of the master is fifty pounds, and fourteen pounds by a subsequent grant of the earl of 
Nottingham, of which three pounds are to be annually put in the foundation chest.* 

The same benevolent nobleman also founded an almshouse in this parish for six poor Alms- 

house 
people, with an orchard, brewhouse, barn, and other out-houses, and a sufficient quan- 
tity of pasture land in Felsted, for keeping six milch cows towards their maintenance ; 
and a grove of wood, with liberty to cut firewood, with other advantages and con- 
veniencies for the comfortable subsistence of five poor, weak, old, impotent, and lame 
persons; and a grave woman to attend them, and provide, dress, and prepare their 
meat and drink, and wash and cherish the said five poor people, to the utmost of her 
power. If the heir puts no person in a place vacated within one month's time, the 
chaplain or churchwardens may place one. The woman of the house removed on 
account of weakness or incapacity, to have the next place of the five that falls vacant. 

The following corn rents are payable quarterly for the support of the almshouse : 



Bush, of wheat. Bush, of barley. 

From Bloomfield Parsonage. . 18 29 

Braintree 16. ... 16 



Bush, of wheat. Bush, of barley. 

From Matching 18 33 

Morton Farm ... 4 4 



Four bushels of each to be delivered monthly, reckoning twenty-eight days to the 
month, to the six poor people; and five shillings and four pence each month to the 
housekeeper, and three shillings and four pence to each of the other five: the church- 
wardens of Felsted have ten shillings allowed betwixt them out of the Braintree par- 
sonage rents. There also was originally provided yearly, out of the above rents, 
eleven barrels of white herrings, and eleven cades of red herrings, to be distributed 
to such poor, not in the poor's rate, on every Sunday in Lent, as follows: three 
barrels of white, and some part of the red, to the churchwardens of Much Waltham, 
for the poor there; two barrels and a cade to Little Leighs, and the remainder to the 
poor of Felsted. 

In 1821, this parish contained one thousand seven hundred and twenty-four, and, 
in 1831, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-eight inhabitants. 

* The following persons of celebrity were educated at this school: Isaac Barrow, D. D. mathematician 
and divine; John Wallis, D. D. under the learned Mr. Martin Holbeach : Thomas Cooke, a jioetical and 
miscellaneous writer; also, Oliver, Richard, and Henry, three sons of Oliver Cromwell. 



60 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. 



ECCLESIASTICAL BENEFICES IN HINCKFORD HUNDRED. 



R. Rectory. V. Vicarage. 

+ Discharged from payment of First Fruits. 



P. C. Perpetual Curacy. 

* From Returns to Parliament in 1818. 



Parish. 


Archdeaconry. 


Incumbent. 


Insti- 
tuted. 


Value in Liber 
Regis. 


Patron. 


Alphainstone, R. . . 

Ashen, R 

Belchamp Otten, R. 

Belch. Walter, V, . . 

Belch. St. Paul's, V. 

Birdbrook, R 

Hocking, R 

Borley, R 

Biaintrce, V 

Bulmer, V 

Bumsted Steeple, V. 

Felsted V 


Middlesex. 


William Ward, D.D. 
Richard Yates, D.D. 
John Cox 

Oliver Raymond . . . 

Jon. Walton, D.D... 
Ch. Barton, D.D.... 
J. P. Herringham. .. 

Bernard Scale 

V. Bel. Walter 

Hen. Stuart 

J. Awdry 

James Westerman. . 
Jere. Pemberton . . . 

Charles Hughes 

Barrington Syer 

Under sequestration 
William Adams, D.D. 

H. D.Morgan 

Henry Warburton . . 

C.J. Carter 

Thomas Mills 

James Sperling .... 
Thomas Wallace . . 

James Sperling 

J. Ware 

Oliver Raymond . . . 

Charles Fisher 

R. L. Page 

Under sequestration 

John Bull 

Hon. W. R. Capel.. 
R. S.Joyncs, D.D... 
Bart. Goodrich 

Richard White .... 

James Hopkins .... 
G. Belgrave, D.D. . . 

J.B. Scale, D.D 

William Hicks .... 
Charles Fisher .... 
Charles John Gooch 

Robert Gray 

John Walker 

William Gibson .... 

E. W. Clarke 

Robert Gray 


1812 
1804 
1820 

1827 

1801 
1816 
1822 
1796 
1827 
1801 

1798 

1810 
1810 
1804 

t.... 

1804 

isio 

1821 

1803 
1800 
1797 

1823 

1809 
1809 

1816 
1805 
1816 
1816 

1810 

1809 
1802 
1792 
1829 
1809 
1828 
179.3 
1814 

1779 

1832 
1802 


11 

8 
12 

t 6 

14 

19 

35 

9 

tl2 

t 8 

15 

13 

18 

10 

13 

7 

t 8 

17 

Not in 

22 

13 

12 
12 

8 
C.V. 10 

8 

7 
10 
10 
12 
14 
10 

t 7 

t 7 

15 

tl2 

22 

8 

8 

26 

6 

14 

9 

20 

8 











10 

3 4 


2 1 

6 8 



4. 4i 
6 8 



charae 

6 8 

2' 


3 4 





JO 


13 4 








10 





2 







Lord Chancellor. 

Ch. of D. of Lane. 

Incumbent. 

5 Trustees of S. R. 

I Raymond. 

] D. and Chap, of St. 

i Paul's. 

Sir W. Rush, knt. 

Archb. of Canterb. 

Earl of Waldegrave. 

W. Bel. Walter, V. 
Lord Chancellor. 
5 Hon. W. T. L. P. 
I Wellesley. 
R. Marriot, Esq. 
Rev. J. Pemberton. 

^ J. T. H. Elwes. 

D. of Buckingham. 
Bishop of London. 
L. Majendie, Esq. 
Corn. Stovin, Esq. 
N. Barnardiston,Esq. 

H. Sperling, Esq. 
W. H.Campbel,Esq. 
J. Judd, Esq. 
Mr. Davis. 
< J.T. Mayne, Esq. 
( and three others 
John Fisher, Esq. 
In the Page family. 
Earl of Verulam. 
Rev. J. Bull. 
Earl of Essex. 
Cath. Hall, Camb. 
Goodrich family. 
5 Pre. of Shalford in 
i Wells Cathedral. 
Ch. of D. of Lane. 
Thomas Batt, Esq. 
Archb. of Canterb. 
Duke of Rutland. 
John Fisher, Esq. 
The King. 
Lord Chancellor. 
Trin. Hall. Camb. 
(, D. and Chap, of St. 
I Paul's. 
Sir W. B. Rush, knt. 
Lord Chancellor. 




Peculiar. . . 

Middlesex. 
Peculiar. . . 
Middlesex. 


Finchingfield, V. . . 

Foxearth, R 

Gestingthorpe, R. . . 

sin. V 

Gosfield, V 

*Halstead, V 

HedinghamCast.P.C. 
Hedingham Sib. R.. 
Henny, Great } „ 
Henny, Little $ "" 

Lammarsh, R 

Liston, R 

Maplestead, Great,V. 
Maplestead, Little, D. 

Middleton, R 

Ovington, R 

Pantfield, R 

Pebniarsh,R 

Pentlow.R 

Raine, R 





























Ri(lge\vell,V 

Saling, Great, V 

Shalford,V 

Stambournc, R 

Stcbbing, V 

Stisted, R 






Peculiar . . 
Middlesex. 


Sturmer, R 

Tilbury nearClare,R. 

Toppesficld,R 

Twinstcd, R 

Weathersfield, V. . . 

Wickham,St.Paul,R. 

Yeldham, Great, R.. 
Yeldham, Little, R.. 








Peculiar. . . 
Middlesex. 





HALF HUNDRED OF FRESHWELL. 61 



CHAP. 
VI. 



CHAPTER VI. 

HALF HUNDRED OF FRESHWELL, OR FROSHWELL. 

The half hundred of Freshwell extends to the northern extremity of the county, ^^^^ l^""- 
to Haverhill and Linton, on the borders of Suffolk, and of Cambridgeshire : southward Freshwell 
it is bounded by parts of Dunmow and Hinckford, eastward extends to Hinckford, 
and westward to Uttlesford. In its form, this half hundred is long and narrow ; from 
north to south ten, and from east to west, where broadest, six miles. 

The name is supposed to be from a spring or rivulet, which has its source in a valley 
near Radwinter, and is remarkable for containing abundance of frogs; in Saxon, 
f jiocx; and in German, frosh. This stream pursues its course through the Samfbrds, 
and afterwards falls into the river Pant. It contains the following nine parishes: 
Bardfield, Great; Bardfield, Saling; Bardfield, Little; Samford, Little; Samford, 
Great, with the chapelry of Hemsted; Bumsted Helion; Radwinter; Ashdon; 
Had stock. 

GREAT BARDFIELD. 

The Bardfields are three contiguous parishes, of which this, as the name imports. Great 
is the largest; in length it is about two miles, and in breadth one; separated from Bardfield. 
Hinckford hundred northward by the Pant, or Blackwater; westward extending to 
Saling Parva, and southward to Bardfield Saling. The town is small, yet it is the Town. 
most considerable in this half hundred, and consists of two streets, in which there are 
several good houses. The situation is pleasant and healthy, on elevated ground, rising 
from a small stream that flows toward the river Pant, and is well stored with roach, 
dace, and other fish. An eminence between Park Gates and the church, on the road 
to Braintree, presents a pleasing view of the surrounding country, in which are seen 
the spire of Thaxted church, the two Samfords, Hemsted, Finchingfield, and part of 
Wethersfield ; and from the town in various directions, there are many other agreeable 
walks and fine prospects. Two rooms in an old house, named the Place,f are 
memorable as having been the secret retreat of the princess Elizabeth, when she was 
attempting to escape from the unnatural persecution of her bigot sister, queen Mary. 

* Camden'.s Britan. in Essex. And in W. Harrison, in Holinshed's Chron. vol. i. p. 107. 
t Edward Bendlowes resided in this house, and is buried in the chancel of the church. 
VOL. II. K 



62 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. 



Bardfield 
Hall. 



Gilbert 
family. 



Wrothe 
family. 



The soil of this parish is a fruitful heavy loam, on clay; on the north and west 
it is lighter, and sandy.* 

There are two manors in this parish. 

The town had formerly a market on Tuesdays, and has at present a fair yearly, on 
the twenty-second of June. The distance from Braintree is nine, from Dunmow 
seven, and from London forty-two miles. 

Bardfield Hall is on the south-east side of the church- yard : this manor belonged to 
Richard Fitz-Gislebert, or Gilbert, at the time of the survey; the same person is also 
named Richard de Tonebruge, in that part of the record which relates to Kent, where 
he was lord of that castle and manor. On his decease he was buried at Gloucester, 
and succeeded by Gilbert, his eldest son, who became earl of Clare, and died in 1132. 
The fourth in succession was Richard, who had the earldom of Gloucester, in right of 
his lady Amicia, daughter and heiress of William, the former earl of that city; he was 
also earl of Hertford, in right of his father. The last male heir of this family was 
Gilbert de Clare, surnamed the Red, earl of Clare, Hertford, and Gloucester: he 
was slain at the battle of Bannockburn, on the eighth of July, 1314, on which event 
his three sisters became co-heiresses of his very extensive possessions.f Elizabeth, 
the youngest, had this estate. She died in 1359, having had three husbands, the first 
of whom was John de Burgh, son of Richard de Burgh, earl of Ulster, the father of 
her only daughter Elizabeth, who conveyed this and other extensive possessions, by 
marriage, to Lionel, third son of king Edward the third, in her right earl of Ulster, 
and created duke of Clarence in 1362. He died in 1368, leaving his daughter Philippa, 
his heiress, who, by marriage, conveyed this manor to Edmund Mortimer, earl of 
March; and her grandchild Anne, married to Richard de Coningsburgh, earl of 
Cambridge, conveyed it to that nobleman: he was the second son of Edmund de 
Langley, fifth son of king Edward the third, and in his mother's right it descended to 
her son by this marriage, Richard, duke of York, father of Edward the fourth, king 
of England. 

In 1539, king Henry the eighth granted the burgh of Bardfield to his queen, the 
lady Anne of Cleves, for her life; and, after her decease, this lordship remained in 
possession of the crown, till king Edward the sixth, in 1550, granted the manor and 
lordship, and borough of Bardfield, to sir Thomas Wrothe,:}; on whose decease, in 
1573, he was succeeded by his son sir Robert, whose successor was his son, the second 



* Average annual produce per acre — wheat 26, barley 32 bushels. Some hops are grown here. 

t The family had very large estates in this county. 

X The court for the borough was distinct from that of the manor of Bardfield, and used to meet in the 
Town-house or chamber over the Market-cross; and the grant to sir Thomas Wrothe included an annual 
rent for the tenth of the lordship and manor of Bardfield, with the burgh and parks, and the manors of 
Chigwell and West Hatch; Luxborough and Loughton were also part of the family possessions. 



HALF HUNDRED OF FRESHWELL. 63 

sir Robert, in 1605; whose only son, on his father's decease in 1614, being only five t; H a p. 
weeks old, and dying in 1616, his estates descended to his father's brother, John ' 



Wrothe, esq. who, in 1621, sold this estate (at that time comprising the Great and 
Little Park) to sir Martin Lumley, knt. sheriff of London in 1614, and in 1621, lord L"mley 
mayor of that city. He built an elegant mansion on the site of the keeper's lodge, and 
at the time of his decease in 1634, had, besides this manor, extensive possessions in 
this parish, in Wethersfield, and the Salings. 

The family of Lumley, or Lomeley, also written Lomelin, was of Italian original, of 
great antiquity, and nobly descended, deriving their surname from Laumelin, in the 
dutchy of Milan. Dominico Lomelini, the first who settled in England, was gentleman 
of the privy-chamber to king Henry the eighth, and commanded a troop of horse at 
the siege of Boulogne. In 1560, he had the grant of an annuity of two hundred 
pounds. James, his son, was an eminent merchant, and died in London in 1592, 
leaving his son, sir Martin Lumley, the purchaser of this estate, Avho, on his decease 
in 1634, left his son Martin his heir, created a baronet in 1640, and elected member 
of parliament in the same year. He married Jane, daughter of John Meredith, esq. 
of Denbighshire, by whom he had his only daughter. Prudence, married to sir Roger 
Mostyn, hart. His second lady was Mary, daughter of Edward Alleyn, by whom 
he had Martin, Thomas, and James, of whom the two last died unmarried. Sir 
Martin, the eldest son and heir, marrying Anne, daughter of sir John Langham, knt. 
had by her his son Martin, and a daughter, who died young. Sir Martin, the son, 
succeeded his father on his decease in 1702. He married, first, Elizabeth, daughter 
of sir Richard Dawes, of London : secondly, Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Cham- 
berlain, esq. of Gray's-inn: thirdly, Elizabeth, daughter of Clement Rawlinson, esq. 
of Sanscale, in Lancashire. By his first lady, sir Martin had Martin, who died young, 
and Anne, married to sir Stephen Anderson, hart. : by his second lady he had James, 
and Elizabeth, married to the right rev. Dr. Cecil, bishop of Bangor. Sir James 
succeeded his father, who died in 1710; and, in 1725, an act of parliament was pro- 
cured for vesting his several estates in trustees, to be sold for the payment of his own 
and his father's debts and legacies ; and a second act was also passed for the same 
purpose in 1729, when Bardfield Lodge, with the parks and several manors, were 
purchased by Edward Stephenson, esq. who had been a governor in the East Indies. 
This lordship afterwards became the property of Jones Raymond, esq. The Great 
Lodge was pulled down, the stables converted into a farm-house, all the inclosed lands 
disparked, and the remainder of the Lumley estates, consisting of Great Bardfield 
Hall, Coxhills, Claypit Hall, Little Lodge, and the Bushets, all capital farms, were 
purchased for the use of Guy's Hospital.* 

* Arms of Lumley : Or, a chief gules. Crest : On a wreath, an eagle displayed, sable, beaked, legged, 
and crowned, or. 



64 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK 11. The manor of Pitley was also named Pitsea, Pitsey, and Packley, and formed part 

Pitiey. of the estate here which originally belonged to Fitz-Gilbert, and was given by his 
son, Gilbert, earl of Clare, to the abbey of Bee, in Normandy; or, according to re- 
cords, to the priory of Stoke, near Clare, which was a cell to that abbey. After the 
suppression of religious houses, king Edward the sixth, in 1551, granted this estate, 
with woods called the Marsh and Pinkwell Grove, to his preceptor, sir John Cheeke, 
who was deprived of it by queen Mary, in 1556; and it was granted, in 1557, to 
Henry Vavasor and others. It belonged afterwards to Thomas French, esq., and to 
John Owen in 1636 ; and a proprietor of the name of Plumb forfeited this estate to 
the crown for having kiUed a bailiff. It was granted away by king- Charles the first, 
and a proprietor of the name of Haslefoot gave it to the company of haberdashers in 
London, charged with the following payments: eight pounds for the better support of 
a weekly lecture at Cold Abbey; to twenty poor housekeepers of the haberdasher's 
company, twenty pounds; to four hospitals, twenty pounds; to Ludgate, Newgate, 
and the two Compters, ten pounds ; and ten pounds to the company and officers, as a 
stock for laying up corn. The manoi'-house is in Little Bardfield.* 

Park Gates is an estate in this parish, which for a considerable time was in posses- 
sion of the Searle family, of whom the last was William Searle, buried here in 1692. 

Church. The church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, is at a short distance from the town; it 

is built of stone, with a nave and north and south aisles leaded, the chancel tiled. A 
tower of stone, with five beUs, supports a tall wooden spire, leaded. 

This church was given to the abbey of Bee, in Normandy, with the manor of Pit- 
ley ; which grant was confirmed by Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, and 
by the bull of pope Alexander the third, dated June, 1174. The great tithes were 
appropriated, and a vicarage ordained in 1214; by a composition between the monks 
of Stokef and the v'icar here, the vicarage was endowed with the small tithes, and the 
tithe of hay, and tithe of corn to the value of five marks, or the money, at the option 
of the vicar; with all the tithes of corn and pulse out of the prior's demesnes, except 
the garden. On the dissolution of the convent and college of Stoke, this church and 
advowson of the living were granted, by king Edward the sixth, to Anthony Bourchier 
and John Wiseman, esqs., who conveyed them to William Bendlowes, serjeant-at- 
law, Avho, in 1556, obtained a licence to convert the vicarage into a rectory; and 
having leased out the great tithes for five hundred years, at twenty marks yearly, set- 
tled on the rector and his successors the yearly sum of six pounds thirteen shillings 
and four pence, being one moiety of the twenty marks. The other moiety he employed 

Chantry, in founding a chantry, with the licence and authority of the bishop of London, and the 
dean and chapter of St. Paul's ; it was dedicated to the Holy Trinity, and the priest 

* Strype's Survey of London, b. 5. p. 65. 

t This priory being a cell to the foreign abbey. 



HALF HUNDRED OF FRESHWELL. 



65 



was to pray for the souls of king Philip and queen Mary, living and dead ; also for the « H A p. 
souls of Christopher Bendlowes and Elizabeth his wife, father and mother of the ' 

founder; for whose soul, and that of his wife Alienor, prayers were also to he offered 
up for ever. In 1588, the lands belonging to this chantry were granted, by queen 
Elizabeth, to Edward Wymark. 

There were also three obits in this church. Obits. 

Serjeant Bendlowes died in 1584, and with Alienor, his second wife, lies buried Inscrip- 
under the south window of the chancel. Their portraits are engraved on a plate of 
brass, but much defaced, as is also the following inscription: 



"Mole jaces tectns gelidi, Bendlose, sepulchri, 

Tuta jacent pietas, jusque, legesque simul. 
Aula dedit patrii juris quae semina primum 

Laeta bibi Celebris Lincolniensis erat. 
Ilia juventutem generosa stirpe creatam, 

Quse juri studium sedulo navat, alit. 
Auxit in immensum vigili concepta labore 

Sedulitas, studii laurea fama comes. 
Turba prius sidum vocitat plebeia patronum, 
****** 

Hinc fit ut ad decus eximium conscendit et amplura, 

Factus qui legi serviat unus erat. 
Consultor fidus causas agit ille clientum, 

Patronum ut cupiat quilibet esse sibi. 

Lintea confestim capiti concessa, superstes 

****** 

Servieris qui gereres ad legem unus eras. 
Nee solum evasit solus, sed fama secuta est, 

Sic mansit per tres septuaginta dies. 
Solus et a mensis quindena luce Novembris, 

Ad Januas sextum vicesimumque Diem. 
Ast annus regni Mariae regnante Philippo 



Regina2 sextus quintus et hujus erat. 
Auxerat huic, Bendlose, satis tua lauta suppelles ; 

Quae tibi, quae multis, parta labore fuit. 
Parta fuit multis, multis quia profuit ille. 

Quid dederis, narrat narrat egenus opem. 
Non erat 6 multis, unus sed is omnibus unus. 

Profuit et patriae, lux erat ille suae, 
Sic patriffi vixit magno dum vixit honore, 

Sic patriae magno concidit ille malo. 
Ergo teget tumulus, leteget quid terra cadaver. 

Bendlosi volitat fama per ora virum. 
Terra teget terram, mens summis mentibus haeret 

Vita perennis ave, vita caduca vale. 
Qui legis hos versus nostras adverte ruinas, 

Disce carere malo, disce timere deum. 
Corpora debentur morti, mens querat Olympum, 

Semper et Authorem cogitet ilia suum. 
Nunc teneas portum, valeant ludibria mundi. 

Optima Mors salve, pessima vita vale. 

FINIS. 

Obiit mortem 19 die Novembris, Anno Domini 
1584, annoque regni Elizabethae reginae 27." 



In English: 



" Cover'd by the cold sepulchral mound, O Bend- 
lowes, dost thou lie, 

Safely with thee lie piety, equity, and laws together. 

Pleasant was to thee the celebrated Lincoln's Inn, 

Which first furnished the seeds of thy country's ju- 
risprudence. 

Youth sprung of a generous race, docs it cherish. 

Such as sedulously apply themselves to legal pursuits. 

Immeasurably what by vigilant labour was under- 
taken 

Industry encreased, v<;ith laurelled Fame as the com- 
panion of Study. 



First asks the plebeian crowd a faithful pleader, 

****** 

Hence happened it that he reached pre-eminence 

and fulness of honour. 
Being made the sole serjeant-at-law. 
A faithful counsellor, he so manages the causes of 

his clients, 
That every one is desirous of securing him as his 

advocate. 
The honour being forthwith conferred, thou wcrt 

left 
The only one of thy rank who administered the law; 



66 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. Nor was he in this solitude alone ; his fame also fol- 

lowed him : 
So did he remain for three and seventy days, 
And was alone from the fiftcentli day of the month 

of Novemher, 
To the twenty-sixth of January. 
Now the year was the sixth of queen Mary, 
And the fiftli of Philip's reign. 
Hitherto, Bendlowes, sufBciently had thy splendid 

furniture accumulated. 

Which to thee, which to many, (because to many he 

was aidful) 
Relates what assistance thou hast furnished to the 

needy. 
Not one of many was he, but the only one of all. 
He was beneficial to his country, and its light. 
So to his country, while he lived, he lived with great 

honour. 



So to his country's great detriment did he fall. 
Therefore let the tomb cover the body which earth 

shall again deliver up, 
Bendlowe's fame soars through the mouths of men. 
Let earth cover earth, the soul to loftiest souls clings 

fast. 
Immortal life, all hail ! Corruptible life, farewell I 
Thou who rcadest these lines, mark our decay. 
Learn to be free from guilt, learn to fear God. 
Bodies are due to death, let the soul seek heaven. 
And always let it think upon its Author. 
Now you steer for the haven, bid earthly vanities 

farewell. 
Hail thou best of all things, death ! Farewell thou 

worst of all things, life ! 

THE END. 

He died the death on the I9th day of November, 
in the year of our Lord 1584, and in the 27th year of 
the reign of queen Elizabeth." 



Charities. 



A free-school was founded here hy serjeant Bendlowes, and endowed with an 
annuity often pounds: this has been advanced to about thirty pounds per annum, and 
additional benefactions have been added. 

A pightle, or inclosure, of three roods, was given to the poor by J. Smith. And 
there is also a house for the use of the poor. 

The sum of thirty shillings is given annually to the poor, instead of a dole of her- 
rings. The poor of this parish have also an annuity of twenty shillings, out of the ma- 
nor of Nichols, in Shalford. 

In 1821, this parish contained eight hundred and eighty-seven, and, in 1831, one 
thousand and twenty-nine inhabitants. 



Bardfield 
Saling. 



Wagtails. 



BARDFIELD SALING. 

This small parish, which extends southward from Great Bardfield, unites with the 
parish of Great Saling, and has been named Bardfield juxta Saling; and also Little 
and New Saling, and Bardfield Saling. 

In the time of the Saxons it was in the possession of two servants of a thane named 
Wisgar; but afterwards became the property of Richard Fitz-Gislebert, whose under- 
tenant was named Wielard. The village is five miles from Great Dunmow. 

There are two manors. 

William de Wastail, who married Maud, one of the daughters of Stephen de Beau- 
champ, lord of the manors of Lammarsh and Twinsted, was the possessor of this 
manor, which derives its name from him: in the time of Edward the third, the re- 
corded lord of Wastails was Ralph, the son of William Fitz- Ralph, knt. by whom it 
was granted to William, vicar of Great Saling; and this grant was afterwards trans- 



HALF HUNDRED OF FRESHWELL. 67 

ferred to John, son of Walter de Oxenhey, of Little Rayne ; it was, during a con- CHAP, 
siderable period, in possession of the Maxey family, of Bradvvell and Old Saling. 



John Maxey, esq. died in 1546, and was succeeded by Anthony, his son, successively 
followed in this possession by sir Henry Maxey, sir William, Greville, and Anthony 
Maxey. The next following possessor was Martin Carter, esq.; and, in 1717, Hugh 
Raymond, esq. succeeded by Jones Raymond, esq. 

In 1329, Robert, the son of John Wymer, held the manor which is distinguished Wymeis. 
by his family name : the style in which he is mentioned in records is that of Wymer 
of Offington. In 1581, Christopher Purple became possessed of this estate, succeeded 
by his son of the same name ; from whose family it was conveyed to sir James Lumley, 
and with part of his estate, was sold to Guy's Hospital. 

The church or chapel was dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul in 1380, and the Church, 
inclosure or cemetery where it stood was consecrated the following year, by the bishop 
of Pisa, commissioned by Courtney, bishop of London, and in 1384, confirmed, by 
Robert de Braybroke, his successor, who also sanctioned an agreement between the 
vicars of Great Bardfield and the inhabitants of this hamlet, by which it was stipulated 
that the latter should " yearly, on the feast of the ascension, and the dedication of the 
mother church, make their accustomed offerings; and that they should also bear a third 
part of the third part of the charge belonging to the lordship's quarter, towards the 
repairing or rebuilding of the said church; in return for which, the inhabitants of this 
hamlet or parish should have liberty of burying in their said chapel or chapel-yard; 
and, on non-performance of the conditions of this agreement, the chapel and chapel- 
yard to be interdicted till satisfaction be made :" among the patents of the twenty-second 
of Richard the second, there is an exemplification of the composition made between 
the vicar of Great Bardfield and the parishioners of Bardfield Saling. 

In the reign of king Henry the eighth, this parochial church or chapel having been, 
by mistake, entered as a chantry, was, in 1546, with all that belonged to it, granted 
to Henry Needham, who soon afterwards, by the name of the chantry of Great Bard- 
field, conveyed it to George Maxey, esq.; on which, William Jenkinson, chaplain of 
the chapel of ease of Great Bardfield, with the churchwarden* of the chapel and other 
inhabitants, brought a suit in chancery against George Maxey, esq. for the recovery 
of the chapel and lands belonging to it; and, in 1554, it was determined by sir William 
Paulet, lord keeper, " that the chapel and yard should be for the use of the inhabitants 
of this hamlet; the chaplain to be nominated by George Maxey and his heirs, with 
the consent of the chief inhabitants. The chaplain shall enjoy the tenement called the 
priest's house, a garden, a little croft, and the church-yard; that he shall enjoy all the 
small tithes, offerings, and oblations, in as ample a manner as any incumbent enjoyed 
them before, in the memory of man; all which were then esteemed worth seven 
* The name of churchwarden in the record proves this church to have been parochial. 



68 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. pounds yearly, besides the priest's house, croft, &c. or to be made up so much, by 
George Maxey, who was to hold those tenements, called Lucknors, Hulls, Allponds, 
and Purley, and all other lands and tenements formerly belonging to the said chapel, 
except such as have been before excepted." George Maxey, esq. died in 1558, but 
this decree was not ratified, till his son, in 1574, alienated this ecclesiastical estate to 
William Bendlowes, serjeant-at-law, who gave it to the inhabitants, for the mainte- 
nance of the word preached, divine service, the administration of the sacraments, and 
other rites of holy church; and he endowed it with the priest's house, a garden, 
orchard, and croft, with all tithes of hay, wool, lamb, pig, goose, calf, sheep, fruit, 
oblation, and other spiritual rights and customs; and also an annual rent of three 
pounds to the chaplain. The inhabitants to repair the chapel and chapel-yard, and 
the patron to have the nomination of the chaplain. 

Altar. In 1424, Catharine, lady of the manor of Old Hall, in Little Rayne, married to 

Richard Downman, esq. gave, by will, an annuity of three shillings and four pence, in 
honour of St. Margaret the Virgin; from whence it may be inferred that a private 
altar here was dedicated to that saint. 

In 1821, this parish contained two hundred and eighty-tAVO inhabitants, which, in 
1831, had diminished to two hundred and fifty-nine. 



Little 
Bardfield. 



Little 

Bardfield 

Hall. 



LITTLE BARDFIELD. 

From Great Bardfield south-eastward. Little Bardfield extends north-westward to 
Little Samford, and east and westward to the extremities of the half hundred: the 
road to the Samfords passes here over a fine open and well-cultivated country; the 
soil generally light and sandy. The labouring population, almost entirely dependant 
on agricultural employment, has considerably diminished in number during the last 
ten years. Among the few good houses here is the parsonage, a handsome brick 
building, about three quarters of a mile from the church, on the road toward the 
Samfords; it was erected by the rev. T. Bernard, M. A. during his incumbency. 
Distance from Thaxted three, and from London forty-three miles. 

There are two manors. 

The paramount manor-house of this parish is a handsome building near the church. 
The parish or lordship, in the time of Edward the confessor, belonged successively to 
a thane named Norman, and to Ingelric; and, at the time of the survey, was holden 
under Eustace, earl of Boulogne, by Adelolf de Merk, or Merks. In 1210, his 
descendant, Henry de Merk, held three knights' fees, here, at Latton, and at Short- 
grove, near Newport.* His successors were Henry, in 1268, whose son of the same 
name was followed, in 1274, by Alda, daughter of Geofi*ey Dynant. Andrew de 
Merk held it in 1283, and Henry de Merk held it at the time of his decease in 1291: 
* Peter le Botiller also held half a knight's fee in this manor, of the honour of Boulogne. 



HALF HUNDRED OF FRESHWELL. 69 

and, in 1351, king Edward the third granted a licence to Clement de Rumburgh to chap. 
give this manor and advowson of the church to the abbot and convent of St. John's, ' 

in Colchester, with liberty to appropriate the church to their use. 

In 1539, this estate having become vested in the crown, was granted to Robert 
Foster, esq. who disposed of it to William Chishul, esq. of an ancient family: he died 
in 1570, holding this possession, and also Moad Hall, and the manor of Fitz-Ralph, 
in Halstead. His successor was his son Giles, whose son and heir, William,* sold 
the estate to John Buttal, whose son Christopher sold it to Thomas Wale, esq. son of 
Thomas Wale, of Radwinter, by his wife Jane, daughter of Richard Westley, of 
Hemsted. 

Wale, or De Wale, is the surname of a family seated in Northamptonshire, in the Wale 
reigns of Edward the second and Edward the third ; and sir Thomas Wale, highly 
distinguished in the wars of this last monarch, was one of the first knights of the 
garter, on the institution of that noble order, and rendered this family illustrious. He 
died in Gascony, in 1352.f 

Thomas Wale, the purchaser of this estate, married Elizabeth, daughter of Geofrey 
Nightingale, esq. of Newport Pond, by whom he had eight sons and two daughters: 
on his decease in 1659, he was buried here, and succeeded by Henry, his fifth and 
oldest surviving son, whose son John was the next in succession: Henry Wale, his 
son and heir, married Elizabeth, daughter of James Clarkson, esq. of Tendriug, by 
whom he was the father of Henry Wale, esq. of Little Bardfield. 

A large ancient manor-house, named Moad Hall, formerly stood between Bardfield Moad 
Hall and a farm called the Hide; it was also named Mole Hall, and More Hall: this 
building has been entirely destroyed. The estate is supposed to be what in the records 
of 1317 is stated to be holden of John Gacy, or Geney, and Roger Damory and 
Elizabeth his wife. In 1426, it was in the possession of John Gevey; of John Knes- 
worth and Nicholas Hewysch, who purchased it of Henry Skinner and William 
Thymming, of Walden. In 1434, it became the property of Robert Boyton, by 
purchase : it also belonged to the family of Boteler, and was distinguished by the name 
of Botelers. John Chycel, or Chishul, was possessed of it in 1445, succeeded by 
William Chishull, whose son Giles was his successor, in 1570. In 1632, Israel Owen J 
died, holding this estate and the advowson of the church: his son, John Owen, was 
his successor, and, on his decease, left four daughters, his co-heiresses. The estate 
afterwards became the property of the Bernard family. 

The church, dedicated to St. Katharine, is a small ancient building, tiled, having a Cluncli. 
tower with two bells. 

* Pedigree at the end of tlie old register of the parish. 

t Barnes' history of king Edward the third, p. 299, 464. He bore for his arms, argent, a cross, sable. 
X An estate in this parish, named Wanfords, was holden of Israel Owen, by John Botolphe. 
VOL. II. L • 



70 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. The advowson of the living being attached to the manor, passed with it to Thomas 
Wale, esq. in 1643; and he settled it on his son, John Wale, who, by will, devised 
it to be sold: it was consequently purchased, in 1663, by Robert Dawge, esq. of 
Loughton, who, in 1665, sold it to Thomas Lund, clerk, of Bayleham, in Suffolk: 
and he, in 1673, sold it to Thomas Bernard, esq. of this parish, who settled it on his 
son, Thomas Bernard, clerk, and his heirs: on his decease in 1718, it descended to his 
son, the rev. Thomas Bernard, who being patron, could not present himself; and not 
having made over his right, previous to the death of his father, on that account suffered 
a lapse, and was collated by the bishop. The diocesan frequently grants this favour, 
yet, in this case, a legal investigation was instituted, it being questioned whether the 
bishop could collate the patron before a lapse: the civilians divided upon it; Dr. 
Henchman was of opinion it could not be done, but Dr. Andrews thought it might. 
In previously suffering a lapse, there is evidently this hazard, that if the diocesan 
should die before he had collated, the turn would be lost to the patron, and be trans- 
ferred either to the archbishop or the king, who might present another. In an 
occurrence of this kind, it is therefore found best for the patron to pray or petition 
the diocesan to admit him. 

In 1821, this parish contained three hundred and eight, and, in 1831, two hundred 
and ninety-five inhabitants. 



Little 
Samford. 



LITTLE SAMFORD, Or NEW SAMFORD. 

The two parishes named Samford, or Sandford, are believed to have formerly con- 
stituted only one possession, yet the time of their being divided is not known; they 
were found to belong to different persons, at the survey of Domesday. The name is 
written in records Sanford, and Santford,* derived, as is believed, from a sandy ford 
across the stream, which in its course, as it enlarges and becomes a river, assumes the 
name of Pant. This parish lies between Little Bardfield on its southern extremity, 
and Great Samford northward; and extends from Rad winter on the west to Hinckford 
hundred eastward; it is estimated to be four miles from east to west, and from north 
to south three miles. The clay soil of this district is considerably diversified, and 
contains a good proportion of sound arable land; the roads, formerly described as 
among the worst in the county, have been much improved. Little Samford is distant 
from Saffron Walden four, and from London forty-five miles. 

In the time of the Saxons, this lordship was in the possession of Wisgar; and at the 
survey, belonged to Richard Fitz-Gislebert, from whom the earls of Clare and 
Gloucester descended: it was afterwards holden of the honour of Clare and Gloucester 
by the service of two knights' fees. There are three manors. 

* Samford, and particularly Saiupford, are considered to be unauthori.sed vulgarisms, as is also Saford : 
this place is also called New Samford. 



HALF HUNDRED OF FRESHWELL. 71 

Little Samford Hall is a fine old mansion, near the church, on considerably elevated chap. 
ground, rising- from the stream named Freshwell. This elegant seat has lately been ' 

put in complete repair by the present proprietor, general sir William Eustace. Little 
There is a park and a considerable extent of woodland belonging to the estate; and Hall. 
on elevated ground, opposite to Little Samford Hall, a handsome newly-erected man- 
sion is the seat of John Hinxman, esq. 

The earliest recorded possessors of this manor after Fitz-Gislebert were sir Peter Taie- 
de Taleworth, and sir Peter his son: it was part of the fourteen knights' fees held by family. 
them under the earls of Gloucester and Hertford. In 1262, Roger de Taleworth and 
Roger de Bechesworth held lands, according to the record, in " Little Samford, in 
Esse," of Richard de Clare, earl of Gloucester and Hertford, which, in 1314, were in 
the possession of Richard de Taleworth and Roger de Bechesworth. Successive 
proprietors were William de Clopton and sir Simon de Swanland, knt. who sold 
it to William de Pampesworth, in 1347; what belonged to William de Clopton was 
one knight's fee and a half, and Simon de Swanland's share was three quarters of a fee. 
The estate afterwards belonged to sir Thomas and sir Richard Tendring; and, in 
1391 and 1392, William Bateman held it of the earl of March.* Margaret, the 
daughter and heiress of William Bateman, by marriage, conveyed this possession to 
her husband, William Green, second son of John Green, esq. by his wife Agnes, Green 
daughter and heiress of John Duke, of Widdington Hall. William Greenf died in ' 
1488, and his wife in 1495, and are buried in the chancel of this church: sir John 
Green was their son and successor; they had also a second son, named David, who 
was rector of this parish, and two daughters. Sir John Green died in 1530; by his 
first lady, Anne Ratclitf, he had Edward, and Richard, who died in 1566, without 
issue. Sir Edward succeeding to the estate, died in 1554; by Margery, daughter of 
William Allington, his first wife, he had Rooke, Roger; Frances, Joyce, and Mary. 
Rooke Green, esq. marrying Eleanor, daughter of William Fitch, esq. of Little Can- 
field Hall, had by her four sons and eight daughters, and, on his decease in 1601, was 
succeeded by William, his eldest son, who marrying Katharine, daughter of Nicholas 
Timpernel, of Hintleshara Hall, in Suffolk, had by her four sons and four daughters; 
of these John, the eldest son, died before his father, having married Frances, daughter 
of sir John Russel, by whom he had Edward, Francis, John, William, Rooke, and 

* He was a great benefactor to the priory of Dunuiow, and was sheriff of Essex and Hertfordshire in 
the time of king Richard the second. He married Margaret, (daughter and co-heiress of sir William 
Coggeshall), who after his decease, was married to John Roppeloy, and, at the time of her decease, in 
1459, held this manor of Richard, duke of York. Her daughter IMargaret, by her first husband Bateman, 
was married to William Green. Arms of Bateman : Sable, three lions couchant, two and one, argent. 

f They died possessed of the moiety of this manor, (the other moiety belonged to sir Thomas Tyrell, 
son of sir John Tyrell, of Herons, in right of his mother Alianor, daughter and co-heiress of sir William 
Coggeshall.) • 



72 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. Katherine. In 1621, William, the father of John, dying, was succeeded by his grand- 
son Edward, who, in 1660, was created a baronet : by his first lady Jeronyma, daughter 
and co-heiress of William Everard, esq. of Linsted, he had six daughters ; by his 
second lady, Mary Tasborough, he had a son ; and by his third and last, whose maiden 
name was Symonds, he had a daughter. He was the last of the family who enjoyed 
this estate, which he imprudently lost by gaming.* In consequence of which it was 
conveyed, in 1640, to William Halton, esq. created a baronet in 1642. He was the 
third son of Robert Halton, esq. of Sawbridgeworth, whose father was Robert 
Halton, esq. serjeant-at-law, in 1580. He was also heir and executor to his uncle sir 
William Halton, of Abington, in Cambridgeshire, the Serjeant's second son. By 
his first wife, Mary, daughter of sir Edward Altham, knight, of Latton, he had Mary, 
who died unmarried; and sir AAllliam Halton, bart., his eldest son and successor in 
1662, who sold this estate, with that of Tewes, to Edward Peck, esq. in 1670,f in 
whose family it continued till the decease of William Peck, esq. in 1745, without 
issue; when Thomas Stanton, esq., burgess of, and member of parliament for, 
Ipswich, married the widow, and purchased the reversion of this estate.^ 

Tewes. Thomas de Tewes, whose arms § and name appear in the east window of the north 

aisle of the church, was of an ancient family, from whom this manor has been named. 
The mansion-house is about half a mile from the church northward ; yet this estate 
has generally gone with the chief manor, and has been in possession successively of 
the families of Tendring, Bateman, and Green ; and of the Peck family ; holden of 
the honour of Clare. 

Friers. Friers, in the court-rolls written Frerys de Sanford ; the manor of Jones, alias 

Fryers ; Freres- Sanford, alias Sanford-parva, is about three miles distant from the 
church; it is named Friers, and Jones, on account of its having belonged to the 
brethren of the knights hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem : in some deeds it is 

. * Arms of Green. Gules, a lion rampant, counterchanged, argent and sable. The Green family had 
great possessions in this county; at this place, at Widdington, Navestoke, Stanford Rivers, and especially 
at Shelly, in Ongar hundred. 

t He was a younger son of William Peck, of Methwold, in Norfolk, and educated for the bar ; was 
Serjeant in 1674, and king's serjeant in 1675 : marrying Grace, daughter and co-heiress of William Green, 
of Hertfordshire, he had by her William his heir, who married Gertrude, daughter of sir William Green, 
bart., of Mitcham, in Surrey, by whom he had eight sons, and three daughters ; of whom, at the time of 
his decease in 1694, there survived him his eldest son William ; Philip, who died in 1717 ; and Grace, 
wife of John Trenchard. William Peck, esq. was sheriff of the county in 1705; and married Bridget, 
daughter of Morgan Randall, esq. of Chilworth, in Surrey, by whom he had Randall, and eight daughters. 
On the decease of the father, in 1727, he was succeeded by his son William, sheriff in 1730 ; he died in 
1745, having married Katherine, daughter of Thomas Thunston, esq., by whom he left no issue. 

J Arms of Peck : Or, a chevron, gules, between three crosses patted, or crosslets, of the field. 

§ Arms of Tewes: Azure, a fesse charged with three plates, between two chevronels, argent : under 
them tliis inscription, " Ore p'le Alme Thomas de Tewes et Elizabeth son Femme." 



HALF HUNDRED OF FRESHWELL. 



73 



called the hospital of Samford. Near the mansion-house the foundations of the CHAP, 
ancient chapel may yet be traced, and the keeper of the hospital of Samford is ' 

mentioned in the record. The oldest remaining court-rolls of this house are of the 
year 1390, in which it appears that the manor had free-warren, assize of bread and 
beer, and view of frank-pledge. In the time of king Henry the third, Olivia, daughter 
of Geofrey Fitz-Baldwin, wife of Remfre, son of Roger, was in possession of this 
manor, and after the death of her husband gave it to the knights hospitallers ; which 
grant was confirmed by Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester and Hertford ; * it was 
granted, by Henry the eighth, to Richard Higham, esq., and he disposed of it to 
William Humphrey, who died possessed of it in 1573 :f and it remained in possession 
of his descendants till the decease of Nicholas Humphreys, the last of the family. 
Afterwards this possession became the property of the Henniker family. 

The church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, is a plain stone building, with a nave. Church. 
north aisle, and chancel, the whole leaded; with a lofty stone tower, having three bells, 
and above the tower a spire. The rectory belonged to Little Samford Hall, till it was 
sold by William Peck, esq. After whose decease, in 1727, a person was presented, 
in order to contest the title, assisted by the income of the living. The purchaser, 
however, got the affair compromised. 

Geofrey, son of Haman, gave two parts of his great tithes here, and the whole of 
his small tithes, to the priory of Stoke, near Clare ; the gift was confirmed by arch- 
bishop Becket and pope Alexander the third : when that church became collegiate, 
this was assigned to a prebendary. 

Ancient monuments on the north and south walls of the chancel, bear the following Inscrip- 
tions, 
mscriptions : — 



" Lo ! in this tombe combyned are thes toe bereft 

of lyfe, 
Sur Edward Greene, a famus linyghte, and Margerye 

his wyfe." 



"' Obiit Edvardus Greene, miles, vicesimo secundo 

die mensis Junii, A.D. 1550. 
Obiit Margery Greene, vicesimo quinto die Martis, 

A.D. 1530." 



On a monument on the north side of the chancel, above which, in a niche, are 

* From Mr. Holman's MSS. 

t He was succeeded by a son of the same name, on whose decease, in 1592, he left his son William his 
successor : he also had Robert, John, Samuel, Anthony ; Joan, Mary, and Ellen. The heir on his decease, 
leaving only two daughters, settled the estate on his brother Samuel, who becan)e his heir in 1607. 
Samuel Humphrey, esq. was of Bocking, and was succeeded by Samuel his son, who marrying Anne, 
daughter of William Mascall, also left a son, Samuel, who by Elizabeth his wife left William, Robert, 
Nicholas, and IMartin. The father in 171 1 , by will, left the estate to his eldest son ; or in defect of issue, 
to his brothers : consequently, on his decease, his brothers William, Robert, and Nicholas followed in 
succession, but left no offspring. It was a family of some note and ancient, in this parish, and at 
Thaxted. The last-mentioned William was mayor of Thaxted in 1634 ; and John, his 1)rother, was chief 
burgess in that town, and resided at Goldings." 



74 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. eiSgies of the persons commemorated, in devotional attitudes, with emblematical 
devices, is the following- : — 

" Hie jacet depositiim Guliclini Tweedy, armigeri, qui quondam sub augustissimae memoriEe regina Eli- 
zabetha, in tumultibus illis qui a parte boreali, sedandis Angliae : Dein sub invietissimi herois dni. baronis 
de Willougliby, Galliac : postremo sub illustrissimi comitis Leicestriai, auspitiis, Belgiae prsefectus mili- 
tuni, meruit. Uxorem duxit primo Mabellam, Henrici Curwen, equitis aurati, ex comitatu Cumbriae, 
filiam ex qua unum filium filiamq. unam habuit. Mox Margaretam Rooke Green, de Samford Parva, in 
comitatu Essexiensi, filiam de qua tres Alios totideniq. bis filias genuit. Obiit vii die Julii, anno mdcv. 
Cujus anima requiescat in^)ace." 

In English: 

" Here lies the body of William Tweedy, esquire, who distinguished himself as a military officer, first 
under queen Elizabeth of glorious memory, in suppressing the tumults in the north of England; next 
under that invincible hero the lord baron de Willoughby, in France ; and lastly, under the auspices of the 
illustrious earl of Leicester, in the Netherlands. He married first Mabell, the daughter of sir Henry 
Curwen, knight, of the county of Cumberland, by whom he had one son and one daughter : and afterward.s 
Margaret, the daughter of Rooke Green, of Samford Parva, in the county of Essex, by whom he had three 
sons, and twice as many daughters. He died on the seventh day of July, in the year 1605 ; whose soul rest 
in peace ! " 

In the north aisle there are several monuments belonging to the Peck family ; the 
most magnificent of these is about twelve feet high, with an effigy of excellent work- 
manship, lying on a mattress, over which a scroll bears the following : — 

" Sub hoc marmore conditur, quod mori potuit, decor scilicet, venustas, et forma perquam elegans, 
liberalis, et honesta, Brigittae, lectissimae et singularis exempli foeminae : quae virum habuit Gulielmum 
Peck, patrem Morganum Randyll, armigeros, hunc de Chillworth, in agro Surriensi ; ilium de Samford- 
hall in com. Essexia : his quae, superstes, fuerat, egregium decus deliciaequae : nunc longum, eheu, jacet, 
atq ; ingens desiderium ! deflenda universis ! si tamen illi facienda fletu sunt funera, cujus amabiles 
milleamplius virtutes; aeternum victiirae, per ora vocitabunt omnium, quorum ad aures vel jam pervene- 
runt, vel olim sunt perventurae ; fuit quippe haec, tamquam divinitus dotata, ad omne officium vitae 
imjjlendum, qua; Deum, quae proximum, quae semet ipsam spectaret, felicissime composita; filia eadem, 
uxor, parens, mater familias, optima ; mira erat illi indolis suavitas, mirus ingenii candor : et, quod aegre 
tenero illo in sexu vix reperias, mira, quotiescunq ; res postularet, animi fortitudo in formandis libero- 
rum moribus. Prudens simul mater et fertilis, (binos quippe pueros, puellas octo moriens reliquit) operam 
posuit baud infelicem ; feliciorem indies positura. His studiis occupata nee cupida nee metuens sepui- 
chri, tandem coelo matura, coiliq. monitis obsecuta decersit, Junii xiv, anno Dom. mdccxii, natu 
annos xxxi." 

Two lines of this inscription are illegible. 

" Under this marble is deposited so much as could die (the comeliness, namely, the beauty, and the 
perfectly elegant, accomplished, and symmetrical figure) of Bridget, that choicest and indeed unrivalled 
model of a woman: who had for her husband William Peck, for her father Morgan Randyll, esquires; 
the latter of Chillworth, in the county of Surrey, the former of Samford Hall, in Essex : of both of whom, 
while living, she was the pride and the delight. Now she lies, alas ! the object of their long and anxious 
desire, by all lamented ! If, however, the obsequies of her, whose were these more than thousand 



HALF HUNDRED OF FRESHWELL. 75 

endearing virtues, must be observed with tears ; they, destined ever to survive, shall frequently by the lips CHAP, 
of all be repeated, whose ears they have either already reached, or are doomed hereafter to greet. For 
this lady was qualified, as it were, from above, for the discharge of every duty of life, in admirable con- 
junction, whether they related to God, to her neighbour, or to herself; at once the best of daughters, 
wives, parents, and mistresses. Wonderful was her suavity of temper ; wonderful was her ingenuousness 
of mind ; and, what is seldom to be found in the tenderer sex, wonderful, whenever circumstances required, 
was her fortitude of soul in the education of her children. A prudent at once and a fruitful mother, (for 
she left at her death two boys and eight girls) she applied herself to toils not ungratifying, with others 
still more so in prospect. Engaged in such pursuits, neither desirous of nor dreading the grave, being at 
length ripe for heaven, she, in obedience to a summons from thence, departed on the 14th of June, A. D. 
1712, aged 31." 

An elegant monument has the following inscription on a table of white marble: — 

" In a vault near this monument lieth interred the body of William Peck, of Sampford Hall, of this 
parish, esq. a gentleman of most distinguished accomplishments, having lived with the devoutest piety 
towards God, suitable to the doctrines of the church of England, in the profession of which he lived and 
died ; with an uncorrupted loyalty to his prince ; with an unsullied faithfulness to his wife ; and with 
the discreetest tenderness to his children. Virtues truly rare, in the age in which he lived. He married 
Gertrude, daughter of sir William Green, of Mitcham, bart. by whom he had eleven children, eight sons 
and three daughters, of which four only survived him. William married the daughter of Morgan Randall, 
of Surrey, esq. ; Grace was married to John Trenchard, of Cutteridge, in Wilts, esq. ; Gertrude, to the 
unspeakable affliction of her entirely loving mother, and the most sensible sorrow of her whole family, 
and all who knew her, was taken away, in the flower of her age, by the small-pox ; being of a most pious, 
sweet, and engaging disposition. Philip still a single person. 

"This monument was erected in the year of our lord 1713, to the grateful remembrance of her dear 
husband, and her daughter Gertrude, who lieth buried in the same vault, by Mrs. Gertrude Peck, his most 
affectionate relict, who lived the whole time of her life, wherein she survived him, a solitary and dis- 
consolate widow. An uncommon testimony of the unextinguishable impressions of her affection for 
him, and indulgent concern for her children." 

Another monument on the east wall bears the following: — 

" Sacred to the memory of Mrs. Grace Trenchard, late wife of John Trenchard, of Cutteridge, in the 
county of Wilts, esq. and daughter of William Peck, late of this parish, esq. who died on the thirteenth 
day of October, 1770, about an hour after she had been delivered of a dead son. She was buried at Leigh, 
in Somersetshire, where her husband now enjoys a noble seat, and a very large estate. She was happy 
in a judgment infinitely superior to what is usually met with among the brightest of her sex ; and of her 
many other extraordinary qualifications, none shined so bright as her exemplary piety, her inexpressible 
affection for her husband, her constant dutiful behaviour to her parents, her tender concern for the 
welfare of those for whom she professed a friendship, and her unwearied application to serve them. Her 
dear mother, who put up this inscription, would not have supported herself under this great affliction, but 
by the hopes she entertains of meeting her again at the joyful resurrection of the just." 

A small mural monument bears the following: — 

•' In memory of Philip Peck, esq. whose affability to all mankind endeared him to all who were in- 
timately acquainted with him, and procured him the esteem of all others who knew him. His natural 
wit, improved by a liberal education, rendered him capable of being an ornament cither to the court or 



Samfoid. 



76 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

FOOK II camp ; but being ambitious to serve his prince and the country at the greatest hazard, he chose the army, 
where he served with great reputation : and being on his command in Ireland, he died of the small-pox, 

on the 22d of June, 1717, in the 27th year of his. age, and was buried at Dublin. This inscription was 

set up by his afflicted mother." 

Charity. Gertrude, one of the daughters of William Peck, esq. of this parish, who died 

August 28, 1705, in the twenty-fourth year of her age, and is interred here, gave, by 
will, sixty-six pounds, six shillings, and eight pence to the poor, the interest of which 
is distributed in bread every Sunday fortnight. 

This parish, in 1821, contained three hundred and sixty-five, and, in 1831, four 
hundred and tAventy-three inhabitants. 

GREAT SAMFORD. 

Great From Little Samford, Great Samford extends northward to Hemsted, in which 

direction it measures about three miles; and the same from east to west, where it is 
bounded by Finchingfield, Thaxted, and Radwinter. The village has a pleasant and 
healthy appearance, containing some good houses, generally at a short distance from 
each other:* the inhabitants are principally engaged in the labours of agriculture, except 
such of the females as are employed in the straw-plat manufacture, which has been 
introduced here. 

The road from Finchingfield to Saffron Walden passes through the centre of the 
village, and this being the nearest route to Cambridge from the Braintree quarter, 
it is much frequented, and kept in good repair. Distance from Cambridge twenty-one, 
from Bishop's Stortford sixteen, and from London forty-eight miles. 

Formerly there was a fair here on Whit-monday, but all that remains of it are a few 
benches with toys. Gently rising grounds, with groves of oak, elm, and ash, and rich 
pasture and meadoAV land, bordering the rivulet of Freshwell, give a pleasing appear- 
ance to this part of the country. On the higher grounds, abundance of wheat, barley, 
and oats are grown, and sparingly turnips, where the land is found sufficiently light 
and sandy.f Water is abundant here, and of a good quality; the rivulet of Freshwell 

* The air of this parish is very healthy, if we may judge from the advanced age of many of the inhabi- 
tants ; and indeed there is generally not much sickness, considering its population and extent. The 
following statement gives the number and comparative ages of persons deceased in sixteen years : — 
22 under 1 year; 22 above 1, and under 10; 22 above 10, and under 20; 26 above 20, and under 30; 
8 above 30, and under 40; 9 above 40, and under 50; 13 above 50, and under 60; 15 above 60, and under 70 ; 
22 above 70, and under 80 ; 11 above 80, and under 90; 3 above 90, and under 100 ; 1 age not entered. 

t Mangel-wurzel has been grovvn, and suits some of the soil well, but the agriculturalists here have 
not become familiarised to the culture of this plant. A large portion of the land is arable, and the number 
of dairies have diminished, yet there are several, consisting of from fifteen to twenty cows. Bullocks, 
sheep, and calves, the usual stock of the Essex farmer, are bred here, and in the farm-yards turkeys seem 
to be preferred to geese. 



HALF HUNDRED OF FRESHWELL. 77 

has a wooden bridge southward from the church, and, in heavy rains and snow-thaws, chap. 
frequently overflows and causes floods.* 

The lands of this parish forming part of the royal demesnes, belonged, in Saxon 
times, to Edeva ; and were given to Ralph de Guader, created duke of Norfolk and 
Suffblk by William the conqueror. This nobleman was the son of a Saxon, by a 
British lady born in Wales. His surname, De Guader, was derived from a castle in 
Brittany, where he had also another castle named Montfort : he is said to have been a 
native of Norfolk, and, in 1075, at Ixning or Exning, in Suffolk, married Emma, 
daughter of William Fitz-Osborn, earl of Hereford; sister of William, lord of Breteuil, 

in Normandy, and of Roger, son and heir of earl of Hereford. At this marriage 

he was accused of uniting with Waltheof, earl of Huntingdon, in a conspiracy against 
the Conqueror, on which account he was deprived of this estate. The parish was 
divided into three manors. 

The mansion-house of Great Samford is in the village, near the church, and on the Manor of 
same side of the way: one moiety of the estate was holden under the crown by the Samford. 
Roos family, and the other was granted by king Henry the second to a family surnamed 
Kemesec, who retained possession during several generations, till it was conveyed by 
females to the family of Welles, and passed successively to Coggeshall, Tyrell, 
Bateman, and Green. 

In 1210, Henry de Kemesec, son of Arnulf; and Derkin de Lare, held Samford, 
by the service of half a knight's fee ; which, in 1284, was in the possession of Ralph de 
Kemesec, whose service for it was a whole knight's fee ; Edmund, of the same sur- 
name, and probably his son, at the time of his decease, in 1287, and another of the 
same name, with Robert de Roos, in 1299, all held this possession by the same service; 
Matilda, wife of the said Robert, bore him two daughters, co-heiresses of this estate, 
of whom Petronilla died unmarried, in 1313, leaving her sister Isabel, wife of Robert 
de Welles, sole heiress ; but Joan, second wife of her father Edmund, held the third 
pai-t of this manor till her decease in 1331, her heir being William, son of Philip de 
Welles, who died in 1349, leaving his daughter Joanna, married to sir Henry de 
Coggeshall, his sole heiress : sir Henry died in 1375, and sir William, his son and 
successor, was living in the beginning of the reign of king Henry the sixth, having 
married Antiochia, daughter of sir John, son of the celebrated sir John Hawkwood, 
of Hawkwoods, in Sible Hedingham: on his decease he left four daughters, his 
co-heiresses; Blanch married to John Doreward, esq., Alice to sir John Tyrell,! of 

* On these occasions the brook rapidly fills, and covers a considerable portion of the low meadow 
grounds, rendering the ford impassable. These floods would be considerably diminished by clearing away 
.sand-beds and other obstructing matters, which might be usefully applied to the heavy lands. 

t He was treasurer of the household to king Henry the sixth; his son, sir Thomas, held a moiety of 
this estate at the time of his decease in 1476, followed successively by sir William; sir Thomas Tyrell, 
VOL. II. M 



78 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. Herons, Margaret to William Bateman, and Maud married first to Robert Dacre, 
esq. and afterwards to John St. George. This estate was the inheritance of Alice 
and Margaret, the latter of whom, on the decease of her second husband, John 
Roppeley, esq. held the whole of this manor, of which one moiety was held of the 
king as half a knight's fee, the other of William Roos:* her heiress was her only 
daughter Margaret, wife of William Green, esq. of Little Samford Hall : this lady, on 
the decease of her husband, held one half of the premises ; her successor being her son, 
sir John Green, whose successor was his son sir Edward, who dying in 1554, his son 
Rooke Green purchased of Henry Tyrell, esq. the moiety of this estate belonging to 
that family, and on his decease in 1602 held the whole of this possession. William 
Gilford, of an ancient family in Buckinghamshire, and whose ancestor was sheriflf of 
Essex and Hertfordshire in 1318 and 1319, became the proprietor of this estate, 
which descended to his son John, who died in 1414, leaving Margaret his sister his 
heiress, who was married to John Chauncy, esq., son of WiUiam, baron of Scirpen- 
beck : John Chauncy, esq. their son, married Anne, daughter of sir John Leventhorp, 
of Sawbridgeworth, by whom he had John, Ralph, and six daughters, but how long 
it remained in the possession of this family is not known. 

The demesne lands of this manor were afterwards divided among several proprietors, 
the nominal manor remaining with the Harvey family, till it was conveyed by the 
marriage of Emma, second daughter of the late Eliab Harvey, to general sir William 
Eustace, of Little Samford Hall. 

The mansion-house of Giffordsis in that part of the parish which is named Tinning- 
end ; the old house was on an inclosure containing about two acres, and surrounded by 
a moat, at an equal distance from the new house and a farm-house called Godmail : it 
was holden of the chief manor, under the Roos family. Ellen, daughter of sir John, 
son of John, and grandson of Sacer de Roos, was married to sir Geofrey Brockhole, 



Giffords 



knight banneret, who died in 1510 ; Thomas Tyrell, esq., and Thomas his son, who dying in 1540, left 
Katharine and Gertrude, co-heiresses. 

* The Roos family derive their surname from the lordship of Roos, in Holderness, in Yorkshire. 
Robert de Roos, lord of Helrasley or Hamlake Castle in that county, married Isabel, daughter and heiress 
of William de Albani, also named Todeney, lord of Belvoir Castle, in Rutlandshire, by whom he had 
William, Robert, and Emlin, married to William de Thany : sir Robert the second son, was knighted by king 
Henry the third : of his two sons, Robert and Sacer, the first was a knight templar, who after his return 
from Jerusalem, died in Yorkshire ; from whence his portraiture was brought and deposited in tiie Temple 
church in London. Sacer de Roos, the younger brother, inherited this among the other family posses- 
sions : his two sons were Robert and John. Robert received the honour of knighthood, and in 1310 was 
representative in parliament for Hertfordshire. Sir John de Roos possessed this estate in the reign of king 
Edward the third ; as did also Alice his widow, who died in 1375, and was succeeded by her grandson 
John de Roos, of Brockholcs, in Radwinter. The noble family of Manners, duke of Rutland, derive the 
title of lord Roos from Alinore, eldest sister, and one of the co-heiresses of Edmund lord Roos, married 
to sir Robert Manners. 



HALF HUNDRED OF FRESHWELL. 79 

who, on her decease in 1419, left him two daughters, (in her right heirs of this CHAP, 
estate of GiflFords, also named Stanley) ;* Joan, married to Thomas Aspall, and 



Margery to John Smnpter, of Colchester, whose son and heir was John, on whose 
decease, in 1425, he left a moiety of this manor to his daughters. Christian and Elene, 
by whom it was conveyed to their husbands; Elene to Ralph Holt, and Christian to 
Thomas Bernard, esq., and this lady dying without issue, the manor became the undi- 
vided property of her sister, Elene Holt. 

This estate was next in possession of the family of Gilford, from whom it derived its 
present name. John Gifford dying without issue, it descended to his sister Margaret, 
who was married to John Chauncy, esq., and on her decease, in 1448, it became the 
property of her son of the same name, who left it to John his younger brother ; the 
family retained it till the year 1547, and a short time afterwards it became the property 
of William Bradbury, esq., of Littlebury, who dying in 1550, left a son Robert his 
heir, whose younger brother Henry was his successor in 1576, and died in 1596, 
leaving William his son and heir. Afterwards it was successively the property of the 
rev. John Baker, in 1637; of the rev. W^illiam Byatt, rector of Foxearth; and in 1743 
of John Piper, esq., of Ashen; from whose family it was conveyed by marriage to 
Henry Sperling, esq. of Dynes Hall. 

A reputed manor in this parish has received the name of Roberts, or Free Roberts; Free 
the house is about half a mile from the church, on the road towards Hemsted: this 
estate was successively the property of Robert Mordaunt, esq. who died in 1572 ; of 
John Mordaunt, son of Philip, his son, who died in 1574, and whose brothers, James 
and Robert, were his successors. Afterwards the estate passed to the Harvey family. 

The church, dedicated to St. Michael, on a slight elevation in the centre of the vil- Church, 
lage, at the junction of the Walden, Thaxted, and Finchingfield roads, is a large and 
handsome building of stone, and has a nave, and north and south aisles of equal length, 
covered with lead, and a square tower, flanked with stone buttresses, and parapeted at 
the top. The chancel is exceedingly well built with stone, and supported by but- 
tresses, ornamented with niches, in which there are no figures remaining; the roof, 
rising high and acutely pointed, is covered with tiles. A capacious gothic arch sepa- 
rates the church from the chancel, on either side of which, as Ave enter, there are stone 
stalls, beautifully formed with clusters of three pillars, supporting elegant trefoil 
arches, retiring into the thickness of the wall; the beauty of some of them has been 
unfortunately obscured by unsightly pews. A very handsome gothic window, on the 
east end of the chancel, is believed to have been originally of stained glass, but none now 
remains : the windows in other parts of the church also exhibit superior workmanship, 

* The manor was holden of Philippa, duchess of York, as of her manor of Wimbish ; Elene had also 
the manor of Roos in lladvvinter, and of Newhall in Asheldam. 



80 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. but not agreeing Avlth each other in dimensions or form, yet all in the gothic style. 
The whole building is lofty and capacious; the nave and aisles measuring in length 
forty-three feet, and in width forty-six and a quarter; the chancel, forty-seven feet ten 
inches in length, and eighteen feet nine inches in width. The aisles are separated 
from the nave by four pointed arches, supported by well-formed pillars; those on the 
north clustered, and those on the south octagonal. On the south side of the chancel 
there is a building, originally entered under an archway, nearly of its whole width, 
but which has been filled up with a plastered partition. This building, which is be- 
lieved to have been the founder's chapel, is used as a vestry, and entered through one 
of the stalls. At the south end of this building, a spacious window has been destroyed, 
and the place filled up by a Avail of bricks, below Avhicli there are the remains of a 
handsome tomb of highly ornamented gothic stone- work; its mutilated state is partly 
accounted for, from the circumstance of the recess which it forms having been many 
years used for a fire-place, without any outlet for the smoke, excepting the door; a 
proper fire-place has however been erected.* 

Church- The church-yard forms a tolerably extensive inclosure, but having been entirely 

without trees, had a rather naked appearance ; to remedy which, sir William Eustace, 
the present patron, has inserted some rows of young lime trees, which in time will 
prove highly ornamental. 

William the conqueror gave the living of this parish, together with the chapel of 
Eure Herapsted, to Battle Abbey, which, in 1535, was parted from it, and became 
the property of Robert Mordaunt, esq. of Hemsted, in whose hands it continued till 
1634, when it was conveyed to the Harvey family, and, by marriage of the daughter 
of the late sir Eliab Harvey, to general sir William Eustace, the present proprietor. 
It is a vicarage; the great tithes belonging to the dean and chapter of Canterbury. 

Parsonage There is a farm, called the Parsonage, also belonging to the rectorial part of the 
li\dng ; but there has been no vicarage-house for many years : formerly, the founda- 
tions of the original vicarage-house were visible at a short distance eastward from the 
church. ' 

A glebe of about fifteen acres, belonging to the vicar, lies in various parts of the parish. 

Chantry There was a chantry in this church for a priest to sing mass, and to assist the par- 

son in the cure; the revenues were granted by Edward the sixth to Thomas Tyrell, 
esq. in the year 1548.f 

Obit. The sum of three shillings and four pence was given yearly, out of Pound-mead, for 

a yearly obit; and from this, three shillings were to be given to the poor. 

* The Registers are perfect from the year 1559, generally well and regularly kept, especially the earlier 
ones. 

t They were collected from lands in Great and Little Samford, Hemsted, Little Bardfield, Debden, and 
Pantfield. 



HALF HUNDRED OF FRESHWELL. 81 

A black marble slab in the chancel is inscribed: chap. 

VI. 



" Hie jacet Jacobus Calthorp. Generosus, obiit 28 die May, Anno Domini 1694, tetat. 65." Inscriu- 

tions. 

Also memorial inscriptions, of John Burrows, g-ent. who died January 31, 1694, 
aged 53 years; of Thomas Burrows, gent, who died June 21, 1780; of Richard Bur- 
rows, gent, who died on the 2d of December, 1753, aged 35; of his wife Elizabeth, 
who died 24th of July, 1782, aged 66; of John Burrows, who died May 10, 1784, 
aged 34; and of Mary, who died May 7, 1786, aged 39 years. 

Other inscriptions inform us that here a family vault was formed for Thomas Smith, 
esq. of Great Bardfield, in 1736; and that beneath a stone near the font is deposited 
the body of the Rev. John Gretton, A.B., son of the late Rev. Charles Gretton, A.M. 
rector of Springfield and Wicken Bonant, in this county, ob. March 2d, A.D. 1788, 
setat. 34. 

On an obelisk in the church-yard : 

" 1738. Put here by Jonas Watson, in pious memory of his father, Jonas Watson, who was buried near 
this place, July 4, 1693. Colonel Jonas Watson, who caused this stone to be erected, was killed at the 
siege of Carthagena. The nature of that climate rendered it impossible to bring his body over, according 
to his own and his friends' desire. After having served his king and country upwards of fifty years, he 
lost his life with great honour, in the 58th year of his age, Anno Domini 174*1." 

Mrs. Catharine Riley, who died in the year 1820, by her will, gave to the minister Benefac- 
of Old and New Samford two hundred pounds, to be distributed by them, in such 
manner as they should think best; which legacy was paid in the year 1828, and has 
been laid out in the purchase of Bank Annuities ; one half of the dividends of which 
is distributed amongst the poor of Great, and the other half amongst the poor of New 
or Little Samford, by the ministers of the respective parishes. 

The rev. W. Sword er was vicar of this parish from 1701 to 1726; he published, ^^; , 
in 1703, An earnest Persuasive to the practice of Family Piety, and the Reasonable- 
ness of the Fast of the Thirtieth of January; on Matt, xxiii. 35, in 1706; three Ser- 
mons against practical Atheism and occasional Conformity; on 1st Kings, xviii. 21, in 
1714; and a Funeral Sermon, on Phil. i. 21, in 1715. 

In 1821, this parish contained seven hundred and fifty-six, and, in 1831, eight 
hundred inhabitants. 



HEMSTED, or HEMPSTED. 

Hemsted, also written Hempstead, is a reputed chapelry to Great Samford, though Hemsted. 
in extent it considerably exceeds that parish, being in length four miles, and in breadth 
nearly three miles and a half; it lies between Great Samford and Bumsted HelioU, 



82 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. bordering on Hinckford hundred. The name is written Hamsted in Domesday, and 
in other records Hemsted and Hemstead, from the Saxon hem, or ham, a habitation 
or dwelling-, and j-tebe, a place : the present mode of Avriting- this name Hempsted, 
or Hempstead, is that least authorised by analogy or ancient usage. Included in the 
strong wet land district, it has the general character of a tenacious clay on marie, yet, 
with land ditching and good management, proves in a considerable degi'ee productive; 
and near the village and in many other places there is good sound land, and some of it 
dry enough for turnips.* This part of the country, including the two Samfords, 
Hemsted, and Radwinter, was formerly noted for large dairies, which have much 
diminished, many of them being employed in suckling calves, or fattening bullocks. 
This parish is well wooded, and celebrated for having produced remarkable timber- 
trees.f 

The village consists of a small number of straggling houses, and the inhabitants are 
generally employed in the labours of husbandry. 

Distance from SaflFron Walden six, and from London forty-four miles. 

Previous to the Conquest, Hemsted had no connexion with Great Samford; it was 
held, under Edward the confessor, by a thane named Wisgar; at the survey of 
Domesday, it belonged to Richard Fitz-Gislebert, whose under-tenant was Robert 
de Watevil. There are two manors. 

The ancient mansion of Hemsted Hall is about two miles distant from the church, 
north-eastward. This manor, from Richard Fitz-Gislebert, passed to one of the earls 
of Clare, who, at an early period, gave it to the De Veres, earls of Oxford,:}: and it 
was holden of them, as of their honour of Hedingham Castle, by the service of two 
knights' fees, but yet the earls of Clare remained lords paramount. Robert de Wate- 
vil, a descendant of sir Robert de Watevil, lived here in the reigns of king Richard 
the first, and of king John. The estate continued in this family till it was conveyed, 
by the marriage of Joan, daughter of sir John de Watevil, to sir William Langham, 
in 1341, who came and resided here, in his lady's right holding in Hemsted two 
knights' fees, under John de Vere, in 1358, and under Thomas de Vere, in 1370; 



Hemsted 
Hall. 



* Average annual produce per acre— wheat 22, barley 30 bushels. 

t Arthur Young, esq. remarks, in his Agricultural Reports, " At Hempsted I viewed two immense 
oaks, one of which is apparently of very great antiquity; they are, unfortunately, both pollards, but the 
size is such as must astonish the spectator." Many years ago, the celebrated Hemsted oak measured in 
diameter, of the extent of the boughs, 36 yards from north to south, 35 from east to west, and in height 
99 feet. Seven waggon loads of hay have stood under its shelter at one time. Also, on land belonging to 
sir W. Eustace, a wych elm, of a beautiful form, called the " High Tree," rises to an astonishing height. 

X The grant was in these words : " Ricardus de Clare, Comes de Herteford, Omnibus, &c. sciatis quod 
clamo quietum Comiti Albrico, cognato mes, et heredibus suis, de me et heredibus meis, servitium de 
Emsted, viz. duorum militum." This deed was written in the reign of king Henry the second, but was 
without date. 



HALF HUNDRED OF FRESHWELL. 83 

their son, sir William,* succeeded his father, and this manor continued in the family tiH ap. 
till Alice, only daughter of Richard Langham, esq. by marriage, conveyed it to her ' 

son and heir, Sigismund Cotton, esq. succeeded, in 1541, by his son William, followed 
by his son George in 1561, whose son, Thomas Cotton, esq. succeeded in 1592. 
The last of the family mentioned in the record as holding this possession was Anthony 
Cotton, esq. in 1631: his immediate successors cannot be traced, owing, as is believed, 
to the confusion of the times. Sometime about the middle of the seventeenth century, 
this estate became the property of the Harvey family, seated at Chigwell, purchased 
either by the learned physician Dr. William Harvey, or by his brother, Eliab Harvey, 
esq. with Crochmans and other lands in this parish, and Woodhall in Finchingfield. 
After having remained in this family for many generations, the Hemsted Hall estate 
has been lately sold, and is now in the possession of the Houblon family, of Chigwell. 

Gilbert le Moigne, of the family of that name, in Bumsted Steeple, held half a Moynes. 
knight's fee here of the earl of Oxford, as of his honour of Clare : it was in the pos- 
session of Robert le Moigne in 1257 and 1258, and from this family the estate retained 
the name of Moynes. 

The manor of Crochmans, also named in the record Winslows, alias Goldinghams, Croch- 
alias Free Roberts, had the mansion-house about half a mile north-west from the wtnsiows 
church or chapel of Hemsted : in 1332 it was holden of the house of Clare by John 
Grigge, esq. who left an only daughter named Egidia, married to William Crochman, 
who on his decease, in 1358, was succeeded in the possession of this estatef by his son 
John, followed by William Crochman his brother, and heir, in 1368;:}: who on his 
decease in 1391, left Mariota, his only daughter and heiress, married to Thomas 
Winslow,§ and afterwards to Thomas Holgyll. Mariota, on her decease in 1409, 
holding this estate, was succeeded by William Winslow, her son; who died in 1419 
leaving, by Agnes his wife, Joan his only daughter, on whose decease in 1431, her 
cousin Walter Huntingdon became heir to this estate; || Thomas his son did homage 
for it at Hedingham Castle in 1444, and died in 1498,^ leaving by his wife Margaret, 
daughter of William Tyrell, esq. of Beches, in Rawreth, Margaret, married to John 

* His heir was his son John, who died before his father, in 1417, leaving his son George his successor; 
whose only son, Richard, was the father of Alice. 

t This manor is stated to have been at that time in Hemsted, Great and Little Samford, Finchingfield, 
Radwinter, Ashdon, and the Bumsteds Helion and Steeple.— /?/(7M(\j. 11 Rich. II. 

X Arms of Crochman: Sable, three cinquefoils, between nine trefoils slipt. Other accounts of the arin-s 
of Crochman describe them as three cinquefoils between eight cross crosslets fitch^e. 

§ Arms of Winslow : Ermine, on a bend gules, three escallops, or. 

II He was the son of John Huntingdon, son of Elizabeth, sister of William Crochman the younger, fa- 
ther of Mariota. 

If Arms of Huntingdon: Party per fesse sable and argent, a fesse gules : in chief three mullets, or: the 
fesse party fretty, sable. 



84 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK 11. Parys, son of Robert Parys, esq. of Linton : and Anne married to William Mordaunt, 
of Woodhall, in Finchingfield : by their marriage settlement, to which the Parys, 
father and son, were parties, this manor became the property of the said William and 
Anne Mordaunt; in whose family it continued till sir Charles Mordaunt, sometime 
previous to his decease in 1647, sold it, either to Dr. Harvey or to his brother Eliab 
Harvey, esq., and it is now in the possession of Miss Harvey, youngest daughter of 
the late sir Eliab Harvey. The hall, which was formerly an occasional residence of 
the family, is demolished ; but the moat remains, and part of some out-houses form 
a cottage. 

Blackdon. 'Yhe hamlet and reputed manor of Blackdon, is about a mile north north-east from 
the chapel. Robert Watevil, by a charter without date, gave it to William, son of 
Isabel, as land in Hamsted ; namely, the whole land of Blackdon, and the land which 
was Walter Chamberlain's, and the land which was Alwine's, the provost. It was 
granted by William, son of Isabel, to Aubrey de Vere, earl of Oxford, of whom, and 

of Watevil, it was holden by John de Launde, in 1268; and belonged to George 

Westley, in the reign of king Henry the seventh : Richard Westley was his son, or 
descendant, and lies buried in the chapel; it afterwards was in the possession of 
Thomas Onyons, of sir Martin Lumley, bart. in 1637, and has since been purchased 
for the use of Guy's Hospital. 

Chapel 01- The church, or chapel, stands on a hill, nearly in the centre of the parish, and 
where there are the greatest number of inhabitants. It has a nave, and north 
and south aisles, a chancel, and a handsome tower, flanked with buttresses, 
ornamented with niches. The tower is lofty, and commands an extensive view 
towards the north, in which the church of Lavenham, in Suffolk, is visible. There 
are five musical bells. 

The exterior of this church has a plain appearance, devoid of ornament; and a 
building on its northern side has been erected over the vault belonging to the Harvey 
family, a portion of which, appropriated to the vault, is used for the monuments : the 
other apartment is used as a school-room and a vestry, and for parish business.* The 
interior is highly ornamented and beautiful; four clustered pillars, supporting pointed 
arches, separate each of the aisles from the nave, and an arch under the steeple exhibits 
a handsome west window in perspective. The nave and aisles measure in length 

* The Registers commence in the year 1664. and, with the exception of a year or two, are perfect down 
to the present time : the earlier entries are in a particularly neat hand-writing. From 1813 to 1829 
inclusive, the Register shows the amount of baptisms to have been 326, of marriages 96, and of burials 
170 i and the following statement will show the comparative ages of those who have died in this parish 
during that period: — 15 under 1 year; 17 above 1, and under 10 years; 1,3 above 10, and under 20; 
15 above 20, and under 30 ; 15 above 30, and under 40 ; 10 above 40, and under 50; 10 above 50, and 
under 60; 15 above 60, and under 70; 35 above 70, and under 80 ; 19 above SO, and under 9U; 8 above 
90, and under 100 ; 2 ages not entered. 



HALF HUNDRED OF FRESHWELL. 85 

fifty-nine, and in breadth thirty-nine and a half feet; and the chancel is in length C H A i\ 

twenty-six and a half, and in breadth sixteen and a half feet. 

Several slabs in the chancel and other parts of the church bear brasses with figures, tji^'iip- 
but without inscriptions, except the following, which is in black letter characters: 

" Pray for the souls of Richard Westley and Jane his wife : which Richard deceased the 23rd day of 
January, the year of our Lord 1518, on whose souls Jesus have mercy. Amen." 

In the apartment over the vault there are several very handsome monuments to 
the memory of the family whose remains are deposited beneath; the first and oldest 
is of black and white marble, forming a niche, in which is placed a well-carved bust 
of the celebrated Dr. William Harvey, who discovered the circulation of the blood. 
On a square pannel is the following : — 

" Gulielmus Harveius, cui tani colendo nomini assurgunt omnes academise, qui diurnum sanguinis 
motum, post tot annorum millia, primus invenit, orbi salutem, sibi immortalitatem consequutus ; qui 
ortum et generationem animalium solus omnium a pseudophilosophia liberavit ; cui debet qui sibi 
innotuit humanum genus seipsam medicina. Sereniss. majestat. Jacobo et Carolo Britanniarum monarchis 
archiatrus et charissimus ; Colleg. Med. Lond. anatomes et chirurgiae profess, assiduus et foelicissimus, 
quibus illustrem construxit bibliothecam suoq. dotavit et ditavit patrimonio. Tandem post triumphales 
oontemplando, sanando, inveniendo sudores, varias domi forisq. statuas, quum totum circuit microcosmum, 
niedicinae doctor et medicorum, iniproles obdormivit 3 Junii, anno salutis 1657, atatis 80, annorum et 
famae satur. Resurgemus." 

*' William Harvey, (a name so venerated that to it every seminary of learning does homage,) who, by 
being the first, after the lapse of so many thousands of years, to discover the circulation of the blood, 
insured health to the world, and immortality for himself; who rescued, unaided by any, the origin and 
generation of animals from a spurious philosophy; to whom mankind is indebted for Medicine having 
made a revelation of herself to them ; the chief and most respected physician to their most serene 
majesties James and Charles, monarchs of Britain ; and the indefatigable and successful professor of 
anatomy and surgery in the College of Physicians at London ; (for whom he founded, endowed and 
enriched, out of his own patrimonial property, a noble library ;) after labouring triumphantly in his 
studies, his practice, and his discoveries, — after various statues had been erected to him at home and 
abroad; — after having made himself acquainted with every thing connected with medicine and medical 
professors, — fell asleep, without offspring, on the 3d of June, in the year of salvation 1657, in the 80th 
year of his age, and full of honours. We shall rise again." 

A marble mural monument bears inscriptions to the memory of the following: — 
Eliab Harvey, of London, merchant, who departed this life the 27th of May, An. 
Dom. 1661, aged 72 years. Sarah Harvey, daughter of the said Eliab Harvey, who 
died on the 17th of May, 1665, aged 13 years. Also Elizabeth, another daughter of 
the said Eliab Harvey, who departed this life the 15th day of July, 1666, aged 9 years. 
Also, the body of Mrs. Mary Harvey, who died 30th of December, 1673, aged 67 
years, she being the only wife of the abovesaid Eliab Harvey. Also, sir Eliab 
Harvey, knt. eldest son of the abovesaid Eliab Harvey, died Feb. 20th, 1698, aged 

VOL. II. N 



86 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

liOOK II. 64 years. Also, dame Mary Whitmore, relict of sir William Whitmore, bart. of 
Astley, in Shropshire, eldest daughter of the same Eliab Harvey, died Jan. 30, 1710, 
aged 71 years. Also, Eliab Harvey, esq. eldest son of sir Eliab Harvey, knt. died 
June 3, 1686, aged 28 years. Beneath also lie William and Dorothy Harvey; he 
Avas second son, (and by the death of his brother Eliab) became eldest son and heir 
of sir Eliab Harvey, knt. and died October 31, 1731, aged 68: she was only daughter 
and heiress of sir Robert Dicer, bart. of the counties of Suffolk and Hertford, and 
died June 28, 1711, aged 48. They married Sept. 2, 1681, and had issue tvi^o sons, 
William and Eliab, who also lie beneath, and three daughters : Dorothy, married to 
sir Philip Monoux, bart. of Wooton, in the county of Bedford. Mary, to sir Edward 
Anderson, bart. of Kilwich, in the county of York: and Agnes, to Pulter Foraster, 
of Broadfield, in the county of Hertford, esq. 

A beautiful marble monument, under a funeral vase, bears the following: — 

" Here lieth interred the body of William Harvey, of Roehampton, in the county of Surrey, esq. ; he 
departed this life, the 18th of August, 1719, aged 80; and also Bridget, his only wife, daughter of sir 
Richard Browne, of this county, bart. She departed this life the 13th day of Nov. 1761, aged 58." 

Two medallions of white marble, with portraits of the persons commemorated, 
finely wrought by Roubiliac, are suspended on a pyramid of grey marble, which bears 
the following inscription: — 

" In the vault beneath lieth the body of William Harvey, of Winchlow Hall, and of Chigwell, in this 
county, esq. who died Dec. 24, 1742, in the 50th year of his age. He married the daughter and heiress of 
Ralph Williamson, of Berwick, in the county of Northumberland, esq. who, in the year 1758, erected this 
monument to the memory of her deceased husband. They had issue three sons, William, Eliab, and 
Edward now living, and two daughters, Mary and Philadelphia, who died infants, and lie by their father. 
Beneath also lieth the body of Mary Harvey, widow of the same William Harvey, who surviving her 
husband, died in the 76th year of her age." 



A plain black marble tablet on the wall bears the following: 



" Sacred to the memory of captain Edward Harvey, of the Coldstream Guards, eldest son of admiral 
Harvey, who fell honourably in the lines of Burgos, October 18th, 1812, aged 22 years, lamented by his 
friends, and respected by all who knew him." 

Many other members of the same family have been interred in this vault, the last 
of which was sir Eliab Harvey, admiral of the blue, knight grand cross of the bath, 
and member of parliament for the county of Essex, who died Feb. 20, 1830, aged 71. 

The considerable number of leaden coffins, of the shape of the human body, and 
which seem never to have been inclosed in wood, give a singular appearance to 
this vault. 



HALF HUNDRED OF FRESHWELL. 87 

John Pound, of Hemsted, gave a messuage and six acres of meadow or pasture lying (J H A f. 
here, for the relief of the poor and maintenance of the church : there is also another ^ 



messuage and some parcels of land, amounting in the whole to about six acres. The Ciunitif- 
donor unknown. 

The celebrated Dr. William Harvey, the son of Thomas Harvey, of Folkstone, in Dr. w. 
Kent, was the eldest of seven sons; he was born in 1578, took his degree of M.D. at 
Cambridge, was afterwards admitted into the college of physicians in London, to 
which he was appointed lecturer of anatomy and surgery. Li these lectures he opened 
his discovery relative to the circulation of the blood, which, after a variety of experi- 
ments, he communicated to the world in his " Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et 
sanguinis." He was physician to king James the first and to king Charles the first, 
and adhered to the royal cause in the civil wars. His discovery has eternized his 
memory: in 1651, he published his " Exercitationes de generatione animalium," a 
very curious work. His papers were destroyed during the contentions between 
Charles the first and the parliament. In 1654, he was chosen president of the college 
of physicians in his absence; but as he could not discharge the duty of that office, he 
desired them to choose Dr. Pringle. As he had no children, he settled his paternal 
estate upon the college: in 1653, he built a library and a museum, and, in 1656, 
brought the deeds of his estate and presented them to the college, and was then present 
at the first feast, instituted by himself, with a commemoration speech in Latin, to be 
spoken on the eighteenth of October annually, in honour of the benefactors of the 
college ; and he appointed a handsome stipend for the orator, and also for the keeper 
of the library and museum, which are called by his name; he died in 1657: this great 
physician had the happiness in his life-time to find the clamours of ignorance, envy, 
and prejudice against his doctrine totally silenced, and to see it universally established. 
A knowledge of the circulation of the blood is of the greatest importance in medicine, 
as it is perhaps impossible to define health and sickness in fewer words than that the 
one is a free, and the other an obstructed circulation. Dr. Harvey was not only an 
excellent physician, but of an admirable character as a man and a Christian philosopher: 
his modesty, candour, and piety, were equal to his knowledge ; the farther he pene- 
trated into the wonders of nature, the more he venerated its author. 

Hemsted, in 1821, contained six hundred and fifty-five, and, in 1831, seven hundred 
and eight inhabitants.* 



BUMSTED HELION. 

isted 

borders of Cambridgeshire and Suffolk; in length it is about three miles, and nearly 



From the extremity of Hinckford hundred this parish extends northward to the t^"">*" 
„„._.. . ^ _ ^ .. . . Ht'hon. 



* The editor gratefully acknowledges his obligations to the rev. W. Myall, of Great Sauiford, for 
valuable information relative to this and some neighbouring parishes. 



88 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

ROOK II. the same in breadth;* distant from Saffron Walden nine, from Braintree fourteen, 
and from London fifty-fiv^e miles. 

Lewin Cilt, and Ulwin, were the names of the possessors of the lands of this parish 
in the time of Edward the confessor, which, at the survey, belonged to Tihel de Brito 
and Alberic de Vere: it Avas divided into five manors. 

Hclions. The mansion-house of Helions is half a mile south-west from the church. This 

manor is what was originally holden by Tihel Brito; his surname, derived from his 
being one of the Britons or Armoricans who served in the rear of the Conqueror's 
army under Alan the red, which is Ti-Hellus in the record, is believed to have 
originated the family name, and also that of the parish, and of the manor. Robert de 
Helion had large possessions in the time of king Henry the second, f and was succeeded 
by his supposed son, William de Helion, who lived in the reigns of Richard the first, 
king John, and king Henry the third : his widow had possessions here, and Andrew, 
son of William and Amicia, died in 1289, holding estates here and in Haverhill: 
Henry de Helion was their son, who held this estate in 1304, of which a third part 
was in the possession of Alice, his widow, in 1314; their son Henry died in 1314, 
and his son John, and Agnes his wife, held this and other estates in Suffolk of the 
king, as of the honour of Helion: he died in 1349, and his son Henry died in 1391, 
in possession of this manor, and also of Nortofts, in Finchingfield; and his son and 
heir, John Helion, marrying Alice, daughter of sir Robert Swinborne, by his lady 
Joan, daughter and heiress of John Boutetort, esq. exceedingly enlarged the family 
possessions; John Helion, esq. his son, was the last male heir of this ancient family, 
who, dying in 1449, by his wife Editha, only daughter and heiress of Thomas Rolf, 
esq. of Gosfield, left two daughters, Philippa and Isabel 4 their mother Editha held a 
third part of this estate at the time of her decease in 1498. Philippa, the eldest 
<laughter, married to sir Thomas Montgomery, of Falkborne, and died without issue, 
leaving her sister Isabel her heiress, who conveyed the extensive possessions of the 
family to her husband, Humphrey Tyrell, esq. of Little Wai'ley, third son of sir John 
Tyrell, of Herons: their only daughter was Anne, married to sir Roger Wentworth, 
of Codham Hall, in Wethersfield, who made acknowledgement in the courts in West- 
minster Hall, in 1501, that he held, in right of Anne his wife, the third part of this 
manor of the king; yet this estate is not mentioned in the inquisition taken after her 
decease in 1534, and it is not known how it came to the crown; but, in 1553, it was 

* This parish, and also Bumsted Steeple, contain a larger proportion of meadow and pasture than of 
arable land, and are reckoned among the best grass lands in the county. 

+ Maud, the empress, when she made Alberic de Vere earl of Oxford, granted to him and his heirs the 
service of William de Helion, namely, ten knight's fees. — Diigdale's Baron, vol. i. p. 190. But unques- 
tionably they were restored to the Helion family. 

X Arms of Helion : Gules, a frette argent ; over all a fcsse, or. 



HALF HUNDRED OF FRESHWELL. 89 

granted, by king Edward the sixth, under the name of Denge Hullyons, with CHAP. 
Alvithley, Gerons, and the New House, Tailfeers, and Stewards, in Great Parndon, ' 

to the mayor, commonalty and citizens of London, and has been appropriated to the 
use of St. Thomas's Hospital, in Southwark. 

The manor of Bumsted Hall is the largest in the parish, extending into Bumsted ^"1"'^'^^ 
Steeple; it also formerly had a park, and, at the time of the survey, belonged to 
Alberic de Vere, ancestor of the earls of Oxford, in whose family it continued from 
the Conquest to the time of queen Elizabeth,* when, in 1571, this manor was sold to 
William Stubbing, esq. who died in 1603, and was succeeded by his son Richard, 
whose successor was his brother Edmund, who, on his decease in 1630, left William, 
his eldest son, his heir: he had also Thomas, Henry, and John. William Stubbing, 
esq. married Mary Collin, and, dying in 1638, left by her his son Edward, his heir. 
Proprietors of the estate, belonging to this family, have been Thomas, a second 
Thomas, on whose decease in 1744, he was succeeded by his son, Thomas Stubbing, 
esq. from whose family it passed to Richard Salway, esq. succeeded by William Salway, 
esq. The mansion-house is about a mile from the church eastward. 

The ancient manor-house of Bublowes is on rising ground, about half a mile from Bublowes, 
the manor of Helions, towards Hemsted: Simon de Bublowe, of an ancient family 
who were a long time owners of this manor, gave it to the hospital of St. John of 
Jerusalem, in the possession of which house it continued till the dissolution; and, in 
1543, was granted, by king Henry the eighth, to William Burnel, Avho, the same 
year, sold it to John Golding, on whose decease, in 1548, it descended to his son, 
Thomas Golding, who, in 1564, sold it to Francis Burnham, who conveyed it to sir 
William Cordel, from whom it passed to William Stubbing, esq. whose grandson, 
Thomas Stubbing, sold it, in 1701, to Thomas Took, D.D. who, in 1713, conveyed it 
to Robert Denet, esq. : it afterwards became the property of Richard Salway, esq. 

The manor of Olmsted Hall is on the northern extremity of the parish, near Castle- Olmsted 
camps and Ashdon; formerly it was considered a hamlet in Castlecamps, though 
styled the village of Olmsted, in Bumsted. It originally formed part of the lordship 
of Bumsted Hall, and was holden under the earls of Oxford by the Olmsted family, 
from whom it was conveyed to William and John Screen, and to Queen's College, 
Cambridge, to whom it at present belongs. 

Hersham Hall is also in the most northern part of the parish, extending into Castle- Hersliam 
camps and Haverhill. The Vere family were the original proprietors of this estate 
from the time of the Conquest, under whom it was holden by Aldelelm at the survey, 
being at that time reckoned in the hundred of Hinckford. In the reign of Henry the 
third, Peter de Tye held Hersham Hall under the family of Vere ; and it afterwards 

* In records of 1331, besides Bumsted Hall, it is named Earl's Bumsted ; and, in 1371, the distinction 
between Bumsted Helion and Bumsted Steeple first occurs, as does the name of Countess' Meadow, in 1416. 



90 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

IJOOK II. passed into the possession of the Lacy family, in the time of Edward the third: it 
belonged to Peter Bateman in the time of king Henry the seventh, and in the record 
a succession of noble proprietors are named, among whom are Hugh de Audley, earl 
of Gloucester, Ralph, Hugh, Thomas, William, and Edmund, earls of Stafford, and 
Humphrey, duke of Buckingham. This possession, together with the manor of Mole 
Hall, vulgarly More Hall, and formerly named Scoteneys, now belongs to Trinity 
College, Cambridge. The court is kept in Haverhill.* 

Churcli. The church is a good stone building, with a nave and south aisle, leaded; and a 

small chancel tiled, with a modern brick tower, containing five bells; it is dedicated to 
St. Andrew, and pleasantly situated on high ground : this churcli belonged originally to 
the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, and was let by them, in perpetual farm, to the 
prior and convent of Hatfield Regis, at the annual rent of thirty-four marks, the 
agreement confirmed in 1246, by Fulke Basset, bishop of London.f In 1538, king 
Henry the eighth granted the rectory and advowson of the vicarage to Richard 
Mabott, clerk, master of the hospital of St. Thomas the martyr, in Southwark, who 
presented one vicar; the lands being again surrendered to the same king, who granted 
them to William Burnel, and he, in 1552, conveyed them to John Stubbing and others. 
Afterwards they passed successively to Thomas Lond, or Lownd, in 1571, to William 
Lond; William Lamb, who died in 1608, in possession of the rectory and advowson 
of the vicarage, with the glebe lands of the rectory, containing forty-one acres: at 
the time of his decease, Mabel Hawkins, his cousin, Avas his heir. Devereux Talla- 
karne:]: held the rectory, and the fourth part of the fifth part of the manor of Rands: 
on his decease in 1628, he left John his son and heir, who afterwards married Frances, 
daughter of Henry Gent, esq. The Cowle or Cole family presented to the vicarage 
from 1635 to 1694. It afterwards passed to Trinity College, Cambridge. 
Guild of There was formerly a guild here, dedicated to St. Peter; a messuage belonged to it 

which was named Le Yeld Hall; in 1549, it was given to John Herford and WiUiam 
Willison, by king Edward the sixth. 

This parish, in 1821, contained seven hundred and seventy-three, and, in 1831, 
eight hundred and forty-seven inhabitants. 

* In the record of Domesday, Battle Abbey is stated to have held the manor of Hersam, in Hincfurd 
hundred. 

t They farmed also the tithes of the demesne lands of Helion's estate here of the prior of Prittlewell ; 
and, in 1336, Roger, vicar of this church, and John de Gippewic, vicar of Great Canfield, gave lands here, 
to the priory of Hatfield Broadoak. 

X On the northern wall of the chancel a monumental inscription informs us that the body of Devereux 
Tallakarne, son of sir John Tallakarne, who was slain in the battle of Rees, in France, at the age of 60, 
is buried here. His mother was Lucy, eldest daughter of Thomas Cotton, esq. His wife Mary, daughter 
of Thomas Steward, of Barton Mills, in Suffolk, is also interred here : this and another monument 
belonging to the Gardiner family are illegible. 



St. Peter. 



HALF HUNDRED OF FRESHWELL. 91 

CHAP. 

RADWiNTER, (in Records, redewintre.) vi. 



From Hemsted, this parish extends westward to Wimbish, and from Great Sam- Radwin- 
ford to Ashdon northward : it is ten miles in circumference. A fine spring named 
St. Pris's well, is the source of a rivulet which passing- across the greater part of the 
parish, and to the village, pursues its course towards Great Samford; the surrounding 
country is agreeably diversified by hill and dale, well-wooded, and richly cultivated.* 
Distant from Saffron Waldon four, and from London forty-three miles. 

In Saxon times the holders of the lands here, Avere Orgar; Aluric, a sochman; and 
Leffin ; to Avhose possessions, Frodo, Alberic de Vere, Tihil Brito, and Eustace de 
Boulogne had succeeded, at the time of the general survey :f there are four manors. 

The lands held by Frodo, Alberic, and Tihel constitute the manor of Radwinter Radwin- 

ter Hflll 

Hall, the mansion of which is about half a mile south-west from the church. Frodo 
Avas brother to Baldwin, abbot of St. Edmundsbury, in Suffolk; and progenitor of the 
ancient family of Tilney, in Norfolk: Gilbert, his son, was the father of Richard, and 
the father and son united in the conveyance of their part of this lordship, to Alberic de 
Vere and his heirs : the part in possession of Tihel, was that which afterwards was 
incorporated into the barony of Helion,:}: given by the empress Maud to Alberic de 
Vere. What Alberic himself held in this parish was very considerable, stated to have 
been half of Radwinter, and to which there belonged ample privileges. 

Robert, son of Robert, son of Ailric, one of Alberic de Vere's knights, held one 
fee under him in the reign of Henry the second. The heiress of Alberic de Vere was 
his only daughter Beatrix, married to Jordan Chamberlain, one of her father's 
retainers, who held under him, this manor and the advowson of the church: their two 
sons were John, and Martin; and they had a daughter named Arabella. The eldest 
son was mortgaged as a ward to Dionysia de Montchency, for the sum of two hundred 
pounds. His wife's name was Joan, who Avith her husband held lands and a tene- 
ment in RadAvinter,§ in 1309: on his decease without issue, his brother Martin 
Chamberlain was his heir; Avho had, by his Avife, also named Joan, his son and heir 
William; and Catherine, and Helen. W^illiam Chamberlain had Cecilia, married to 
AndrcAv de Bures; Avho on her decease without issue, in 1351, enjoyed this estate in 
her right, till his decease, when it came to the sisters of William Chamberlain; Helen, 
married to John Oveine, died Avithout issue, leaving Catherine sole heiress : by her 
first husband William Philip, she had no issue, but left by her second husband, 

* Average annual produce per acre — wheat 22, barley 30 bushels. 

t The under-tenant of Alberic de Vere was Blanc, and Goderet held under Tihel Brito. 
X Warine Fitz-Gerald held half a knight's fee of the honour of Helion. 

§ In the record these possessions are said to be in part in Little Radwinter, holden of the king : the 
other in Great Radwinter, holden of the countess of Oxford. 



familv. 



92 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK li. William fie Hemesi, Brian, her only son, who dying- without issue, the estate passed 
to sir Ralph de Hemenhall, some time previous to 1386, in virtue of a deed of assign- 
ment agreed upon by the heirs of the families of Philip and Oveine. Sir Ralph gave 
it to Robert de Ashtield, and others.* 

Cobhaiii This manor afterwards was conveyed to the noble family of Cobham, of Kent. 

The last of that surname was John lord Cobham, whose only daughter Joan, married 
to sir John de la Pole, left by him an only daughter, also named Joan, who had tive 
husbands: her children by John de Havenal, of Suffolk, died young; by sir Gerard 
Bravbroke she had her daughter Joan, afterwards baroness Cobham; her children 
by sir Nicholas Hawberk died young ; as did also those by her fourth husband, the 
celebrated sir John Oldcastle, of Cowling, in her right lord Cobham, who was with 
cruel injustice hanged and burnt under pretence of heresy : by her last husband, sir 
John Harpenden, this lady had no issue: and on her decease in 1433, her only daughter 
Joan was heiress to this, and her other estates, and in her right baroness of Cobham : 
previous to her mother's decease she was married to sir Thomas Brooke, a descendant 
of Williamde la Brooke, lord of the manor of Brooke, near Ilchester, in Somerset- 
shire: he had by her his son sir Edward, distinguished by the stjde of sir Edward 
Brooke of Cobham, Avho died in 1464, and was succeeded by his son John, Avho was 
summoned to the parliament in 1472 by the title of lord Cobham, and held a whole 
knight's fee in Radwinter of the earl of Oxford. He married Margaret, daughter of 
Edward Nevill, lord Bergavenny, by whom, on his decease in 1506, he left Thomas, 
his son and heir, who was thrice married, having by his first lady, seven sons and six 
daughters, but by the other two, he had no children. On his decease, in 1529, he was 
succeeded by his son George, who in the record is said to be possessed not only of 
this manor, but also of Bendish Hall. Sir William Brooke, his son, was his suc- 
cessor in 1558, succeeded by his son sir Henry, lord Cobham, in 1597; and these 
estates continued in the familj'- till 1603, when this unfortunate nobleman, George his 
brother, Thomas lord Grey of Wilton, sir Walter Raleigh, and others, were 
arraigned at Winchester for high treason. On this occasion, George, the younger 
brother, was beheaded, and the life of lord Cobham spared ; but his estate was con- 
fiscated, and though his ladyf had a noble jointure, yet she suffered him to live in 
extreme indigence and misery. He died in the utmost distress, in a mean garret, 
where he would have perished by hunger if he had not been relieved by his laundress. 
Upon the seizure of this estate it was granted, by king James, to Duke Brook, son of 
George Brook, esq., second son of the said George lord Cobham: it was afterwards 
conveyed to Alexander Prescot, alderman of London, and sheriff in 1612: his family 

* In 1422, this manor was in the possession of Mariota, daughter and lieiress of William Crochenian. 
t This lady was Frances, daughter of Charles Howard, earl of Nottingham. — Sir A. JFeldoii's Court of 
King James the First, p. 37. 



HALF HUNDRED OF FRESHWELL. 93 

was succeeded by sir William Wiseman, who sold it to sir Mark Guyon, knight, of c H A F. 
Cog-geshall, whose daughter Rachel conveyed it by marriage to Edward Bullock, esq. ' 



in whose family it has continued to the present time. 

The mansion belonffingf to the manor named Brockholes, also named Roos, is about Great 

• 1 1 • • p 1 • Brock- 

a mile and a half distant southward from the church: m the beginmng of the reign of hoks. 

Edward the second this estate was in possession of Robert de Roos, whose son and 

successor, sir John, married Alesia, daughter and heiress of sir Robert Asheldam : 

John his grandson, the son of his son John, was his heir, who died without issue only 

two months after the decease of his grandmother ; and was succeeded by his aunt 

Elene, daughter of sir John de Roos, by his lady Alesia. This heiress was married 

to sir Geofrey de Brockhole,* of an ancient Kentish family: Margery, their second 

daughter, and ultimately sole heiress, conveyed the family possessions to John, her sou, 

by her husband, John Sumpter, of Colchester, who, on his decease in 1420, left two 

daughters, his co-heiresses : Christine, married to Thomas Bernard, and Ellen, 

married first to James Bellers, esq., and secondly to Ralph Holt, of Grislelmrst, in 

Lancashire ; and who, on the decease of her sister, without issue, became sole heiress. 

By her first husband she had no children, but by Ralph Holt she had James and Alan. 

The latter held this manor in 1485, after which it passed to the Wiseman family, of 

Felsted, to that of Marshall, of Wethersfield, and to Thomas Wolfe, esq. deputy 

recorder of the corporation of Saffron Waldon. 

The mansion of Bendish Hall is a quarter of a mile northward from the church: in fiendish 
the reign of Edward the confessor the lands of this manor were included in what ^ ' 
belonged to Ledmar a priest, and afterwards to Ingelric, a noble Saxon, related to 
that king : at the time of the survey it belonged to Eustace, earl of Boulogne ; at 
present this manor forms a hamlet, partly in this parish, and partly in that of Ashdon, 
and is said to have formerly been a parish called Bendishes, of which the church has 
been destroyed. William earl of Boulogne, youngest son of king Stephen, gave this 
estate to the abbey of Feversham, in Kent, founded by his father in 1147, of which 
they retained possession till the dissolution of monasteries. In 1538, it was granted 
to sir Richard Riche, who, in 1546, sold it to George Brooke, lord Cobham, who 
being condemned for alleged treason, forfeited this and his other estates to the crown, 
from which it passed, through several families, to that of lord Maynard. 

In the time of Edward the second and Edward the third, the family of Westley, 
also named Bendish, had a considerable estate here, from which they are said to have 
derived their surname. We are informed by the rev. William Harrison, rector of 
this parish from 1558 to 1593, that Edmund Bendish, esq., attending king Edward 
the third to the siege of Calais, mortgaged his estate of Bendish Hall in Radwinter, 

* He was of Great Samford, knight of the shire for Hertfordshire in the time of Edward the third, and 
in 1385 sheriff of Essex and Hertfordshire. 

VOL. II. O 



94 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. to the monks of Feversham; and the siege proving of longer duration than expected, 
'- he came over to confer with his creditors, before the lapse of the mortgage; on which 

occasion he was assured that he need suspect no unfair treatment from them, especially 
as he was in the king's service, which would always he considered as a sufficient 
excuse for his delay of payment beyond the day assigned; on which he returned again 
to the siege. But when the day came, the monks secured the estate to themselves, 
notwithstanding their fair promises. This ungenerous treatment is said to have 
induced this gentleman constantly to warn his contemporaries, and to leave a written 
admonition to posterity, not easily to be persuaded to trust the fair promises of knave 
monk, or knave friar. Being deprived of their estate, the family removed to Steeple 
Bumsted, and made that the place of their residence.* 
Radwin- A reputed manor here, named the Grange, belonged to Tiltey abbey till the disso- 

ter Grange j^^^^^j^ q£ monasteries, and, in 1538, was granted to Charles Brandon, duke of 
Suffolk: it is stated to have formerly belonged to the Roos family, but is not known 
by whom, or when it was given to Tiltey. It successively passed to Humphrey 
Shelton, Henry Norris, and to the families of Bird, Brown, and Sharp, and to John 
Bullock, esq. of Radwinter Hall, to whose family it now belongs. The parsonage 
house, the residence of the rev. J. Bullock, is a large and handsome modern building, 
covered with cement, on elevated ground, rising above the road from Samford to 
Saffron Waldon ; and on the opposite side of the same road a capital mansion, called 
the New House, belongs to the Carter family. 
Chuicli. f hg church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, is an ancient building, chiefly of stone, 

in good repair; above its massive square embattled tower, a pointed spire rises to a 
considerable height, and is covered with lead : it has a nave and north and south aisles, 
and chancel, the whole leaded. There are five bells. In the east window of the 
north aisle are the arms of Bendish ; and an arch in the wall, with vestiges of arms 
and ornamental sculptures, is believed to have belonged to the same family.f • 

In the church-yard, near the large antique wooden south porch, a plain tombstone 
bears the following inscription : — 

Inscrip- " Sacred to the memory of John Carter, who died December 19, 1830, aged 55. 

tion. 

" How frail is mortal life ! a transient day il In vain the spring returns, the spring no more 

Gives it at once to blossom and decay ; Can wasting man to former prime restore : 

Manhood is lilce the rose, when wide display'd, ' Seek then eternal life ; thine hours improve. 

As fast his strength decays, his beauties fade. j| And taste a Saviour's everlasting love." 

iiev. w. The rev. William Harrison, a native of London, was inducted to this rectory in 

Harrison. 

* This statement appears in Holinshed's Chronicles, yet the truth of it has been disputed. 

t A plain stone in the church is inscribed to the memory of Elizabeth, wife of Richard Baines, who 
died in 1684, and in the church-yard there are several inscriptions to the memory of individuals of tlie 
family of Wale. 



HALF HUNDRED OF FRESHWELL. 96 

1558, and to the vicarage of Wimbish in 1570, which last he resigned in 1581: he C H A F. 

died in 1593. This gentleman wrote an historical description of the island of Britain, '. 

published in Holingshed's Chronicles; also the description of Scotland, translated by 
him from Hector Boethius, is prefixed to Holingshed's History of Scotland.* 

In 1821, there were seven hundred and seventy-three, and in 1831 eight hundred 
and nineteen inhabitants in this parish. 



ASHDON. 

This parish extends northward from Radwinter to the border of Cambridgeshire, -^*liJ"n- 
and to Hadstock north-westward; in length it is about three, and in width two miles. 
A fine spring of water rises near Wismore hill, which, flowing toward Bartlow End, 
joins the stream that separates that hamlet from Cambridgeshire. The heavy clay 
lands join the chalk district at this place.f The name is supposed to have been derived 
from the Anglo-Saxon, Ash and Dun; Ash-hill must, in that case, have been written 
^j-cej--bun, as is observed by the learned bishop Gibson;:}: but in the Saxon Chronicle 
it is Aj-j-an-bun, which Marianus Scotus, Florence of Worcester, and Roger de 
Hovenden, translate ColHs Asinorum, and Mons Asini, deriving it from Aj-j^a and bun. 
In old records it is written Ashden, Ashedon, Ascenduna, Assandun, Asheton, 
Aston, Essedune, and Hasheton. The village is distant from Safiron Walden three, 
and from London forty-five miles. 

Ailid, Alsy, and Ingelric; Oslac, a freeman; Alwin and Orderic; and Edeva, held 
the lands of this parish in the time of Edward the confessor; and, at the survey, they 
belonged to Ralph Baignard; Eustace, earl of Boulogne; Alberic de Vere and his 
under-tenant Renold; Tihel Brito, and Hervey de Ispania. There are three manors. 

The mansion-house of Ashdon Hall is near the eastern end of the church. Ralph A^^lidou 

Hall, 

Baynard was lord of this manor, and Geofrey was his son and successor; whose son 
William, for alleged treason against king Henry the first, was deprived of this and his 
other estates, which, in 1111, were given by that king to Robert, a younger son of 
Richard Fitz-Gislebert, from whom the noble family of Fitz- Walter descended, who 
held this lordship for many generations: John lord Fitz- Walter in 1361, Walter Fitz- 
Walter in 1375, and Walter his son, were succeeded by sir Walter Fitz- Walter, 
who died in 1406: his successor, Walter lord Fitz- Walter, left two daughters, 

* In the south window of the ancient parsonage-house of Radwinter, there was painted, " the sun in 
his glory," within which was a hare, couchant, argent; and encircling the hare, this inscription: "In 
sole posuit tabernaculum suum — In the sun hath he set his tabernacle ;" according to the taste of the age 
of Elizabeth, intended to form the rebus, " Hare in Sun" for Harrison. 

t There is a tolerable mixture of a lighter soil on gravel, in this parish, 

X Nominum locorum explicatio, ad calcem Chronic. Saxonici, p. 13. 



96 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. co-heiresses, of whom Anne, by marriage, conveyed this possession to Thomas Rat- 
cliffe, esq. succeeded by sir John, whose son and successor of the same name was 
summoned to parliament in 1485, and, in 1494, espousing the cause of Perkin War- 
beck, was condemned for treason and beheaded; but, in 1505, Robert, his son, was 
restored to his honours, and advanced to the title of viscount Fitz- Walter in 1525, 
and also the same year created earl of Sussex. He died in 1542, succeeded by his son 
Henry in 1556, followed by Thomas, his son, whose successor was his brother Henry, 
in 1583, who, on his decease in 1593, left R,obert Ratcliffe, earl of Sussex, his son, 
the last male heir of this noble family; and he, in 1619, conveyed this estate to 
William Bramston, esq. succeeded by his eldest son of the same name in 1649, whose 
heir was his son John, from whom the estate was conveyed to William Richardson, 
in trust for Robert Prujean. Afterwards it became the property of Thomas Richers, 
esq. of Fring, in Norfolk, whose son of the same name sold it to Thomas Sclater 
Bacon, esq. who, on his decease in 1736, left it to Robert King, esq. whose heir was 
Thomas Sclater King: the estate afterwards became the property of the right hon. 
lord Maynard. 
Newnham The manor named Newnham, originally belonging to Alsy and Ingelric, and 
afterwards to Eustace, earl of Boulogne, has the mansion-house about half a mile 
from the church: it formed part of the four knights' fees held of the honour of 
Boulogne by Bernard de Bailiol, and was what Gilbert de Lacy held in 1210, named 
Nivenham, near Walden, in Essex: he was probably of the noble family of the Lacies, 
earls of Lincoln. Sir Robert de Lacy died in 1347, holding this manor of John de 
Lacy, of Wiltshire, by the service of half a knight's fee: John, his son, in 1347, sold 
it to sir William de Clopton, of Listen, who came and resided here; the estate con- 
tinued in the possession of his family till Anne, the daughter and heiress of sir William 
Clopton, of Kentwell Hall, in Suffolk, conveyed it to Symonds D'Ewes, knt. and 
bai't. of the ancient family of Des Ewes, syndics of Kissel in Gelderland; the lady 
Anne was living in 1630, and was survived by two of her children by sir Symonds, 
of whom Sibil, the younger, was married to sir Thomas Darcy, bart. who had with 
her this estate, and Kentwell Hall. 
Mortis- A small rep\ited manor, named Mortlsfaux, Mortishaus, Mortivaux, or Mortimers, 

was formerly holden of Newnham Hall, as part of its demesnes: in 1381, it was sold, 
by sir John Seyton, to Edmund Bendish, esq. and was in the possession of Thomas 
Bendish, esq. at the time of his decease hi 1448, and, in 1545, was sold, by William 
Bendish, to Stephen Cobb, haberdasher, of London. It afterwards passed with 
Newnham to the noble family of Maynard. 
Walton?. Waltons is a large brick building, in a park, on the northern extremity of the 
county, rather more than a mile eastward from the church; it was originally erected 
by sir William Maynard, esq. and has descended with the other family estates, being 



HALF HUNDRED OF FRESHWELL. 97 

at present occupied as the seat of Wright, esq. It is not far distant from the C H A p. 

village called Ashdon Street, near Ashdon Place, now a farm-house. ' 



This portion of the parish is what belonged in Saxon times to Oshic, Alwln, and 
Orderic; and to Tihel Brito and Alberic de Vere, at the survey, beuig at that time 
named Stenitune, and Stauintun, and, at the present time, is known by the appellation 
of Stevington-End, or Stenton-End; there appears some ground for the belief that 
anciently it formed a distinct village, or parish: the inhabitants support their own 
poor, keep their accounts distinct from the rest of Ashdon, and though they apply on 
all necessary occasions to the justidfes of Essex, and to the quarter sessions at Chelms- 
ford, yet usually resort to Bartlow church, to which they pay churchwarden's rates, 
and are generally reckoned to be in the spiritual jurisdiction of that parish: the place 
is also named Bartlow End. The posterity of Tihel, surnamed Helion, held this 
estate in the time of Henry the second; it was afterwards in possession of the Wange- 
ford family,* and, in 1259, John de Wangeford and his wife Margaret, conveyed it 
to sir Richard de Wanton, Wawton, or Walton, but it is not known how long it 
continued in the possession of this family, from which it took its name.f 

That part of this estate which belonged to the Vere family was holden by Henry 
Gerret, at the time of his decease in 1344, and afterwards passed successively to the 
families of Chamberleyn, Kedington, Sandon, Crochman, Lekaud, Cordy, Arneburgh, 
Hotoft, NoAvers, and to a branch of the ancient family of Tyrell. Sir Thomas Tyrell, 
esq. of Herongate, living in 1458, married Emma, daughter of sir John Marney, of 
Layer Marney: his third son by her was Humphrey Tyrell, esq. of Little Warley, 
who married Elizabeth, daughter of John Walwyn, of Lounsford, esq. in Hertford- 
shire, by whom he had six sons; of these, Robert, the youngest, by his wife Dalston, 
had five sons, of whom Richard Tyrell, esq. resided at Ashdon Place, and died in 
1566, possessed of the manor of Waltons, lying in " Asheton and Barklowe;" by his 
wife Grace, he had his successor, Edward Tyrell, esq. warden of the Fleet, who 
married Elizabeth, daughter of sir Valentine Brown, by whom he had Robert, Henry, 
and Elizabeth. Sir Robert Tyrell, the eldest son, knighted in 1607, was his father's suc- 
cessor as warden of the Fleet, and married Susannah, daughter of Robert Millicent, esq. 
by Dorothy, daughter of John Maynard, esq. of St. Albans, the ancestor of lord Maynard. 
Sir Robert Tyrell removed to Bartlow, and sold this estate to William lord Maynard. 

Thickhoe is a reputed manor, anciently holden of the earls of Oxford as part of the Thickhoe. 
barony of Helion. In the time of king Henry the third, William de Thickhoe left 
John, his son and heir, and the name of Geofrey de Thickhoe appears in 1262, and 

* The Wangeford family remained some time settled at Toppesfield. 

t Their estate is called a carucate, in Essenden, Radwintcr, Barklow, Newenhani, Bendish, and 
Stiveton, in Essex, and lirend in Cambridgeshire. The family of Walton rose in importance, as, in 
1304, William de Wanton, Wawton, or W^alton, was representative in parliament for this county. Arms 
of Wanton : Argent, a chevron, sable. 



98 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

liOOK 11. John de Laundress and Maud, his daughter and heiress, also appear as early as 1334, 
" and as late as 1351. Richard Floud, servant of the crown,* in 1445 held here, among^ 
other lands in Ashdon, Londres, called also Black Garden; and, in 1747, this manor 
belonged to Audrey Buck, widow, at that time ninety years of age; she died in 1750. 
A parcel of land held by Edeva, and afterwards by Hervey de Hispania, was formerly 
named Roda, and Rede, and Rothe End. 

Chuicli. The church, dedicated to All Saints, is agreeably situated on ground rising above 

the village, and commanding an extensive and pleasing prospect: it is a large ancient 
building of stone, having a nave, and north and south aisles, leaded, and a chancel tiled : 
on the south side of the church there is a square building, which, by the parishioners, 
is called the old chancel. A small square tower, with a spire leaded, contains five bells, 
and a fine-toned organ has been recently presented by the rev. B. Chapman, the 
present rector. 

This rectory was appropriated to the priory of Lewes, in Sussex, to which it was 
given by Geofrey and Ralph Baynard; and having come to the crown, was, in 1537, 
granted, by king Henry the eighth, to Thomas lord Cromwell, on whose fall, coming 
again to the crown, it was, in 1552, given, by king Edward the sixth, to Richard 
Tyrell, of Waltons, and has since been purchased by Caius College, Cambridge. 
This rectory is a manor, with several copyholds. 

The parsonage-house, about a quarter of a mile north from the church, is a conve- 
nient and handsome mansion, on rising ground, with agreeable and extensive prospects. 

Chantry. John Chalne left lands for the endowment of a brotherhood of priests, or a chantry. 

CJiaiity. Some land and a house called Guild Hall having been left for charitable purposes, 

the parishioners have appropriated the former to the apprenticing the children of poor 
people, while the latter is used as a workhouse. 

Bartiow At Bartlow End, on ground separated from Bartlow church-yard, in Cambridge- 

shire, by a rivulet, there are several artificial mounds of earth, which are called Bart- 
low hills. They stand on a gentle acclivity, the country gradually rising round them 
like an extended amphitheatre. They consist of a line of four greater barrows, and 
of three smaller ones in fi'ont, at a distance of about seventy or eighty feet from the 
others. The diameter of the largest barrow is one hundred and forty-seven feet, and 
that of the three other principal barrows is about one hundred feet. The altitude of 
the largest is ninety-three feet, that of the one on each side of it sixty-nine feet, and 
the other principal hill, which has been lowered, is about forty-five feet high. The 
diameter of the smaller barrows is ninety-five feet, and as they are not more than 
from eight to ten feet high, the plough has passed over them. The earth of these 
was thrown up from the side of the brook which runs down the hollow between the 
hills and the church. The others were raised chiefly from the pit in front. 

These works of our forefathers are remarkable, as afibrding an instance of the errors 

* Valectus Corone Domini Regis. 



HALF HUNDRED OF FRESHWELL. 99 

Into which we may be led by trusting in tradition alone. Their antiquity is proved C H A P. 

to be great by the fact of their giving name to the place, low (hlfep) in Saxon '. 

signifying a barrow.* Camden speaks of Bartlow, or, as he calls it, Barklow, in the 
following words: "On the edge of the county next to Cambridgeshire is Barklow, 
remarkable for four artificial hills, such as were anciently thrown up for soldiers slain 
in battle, whose remains, as some think, could not be found. But, upon digging down 
a fifth and sixth, some time since, I am informed they found three stone coffins, with 
broken human bones in them. The country people say they were cast up after a 
battle with the Danes, for the dwarf elder, which grows plentifully hereabouts, with 
blood-coloured berries, goes by the name of Danes-blood, in memory of the numbers 
of that nation slain here." Holinshed describes this as the scene of the sanguinary 
battle of ^scendun, or Assandun, where, in 1016, Canute** finally triumphed over Battle of 
Edmund Ironside, and he says that the Bartlow Hills were raised over the bodies of 
those killed in that battle.f This battle of Assandun was fought, according to some 
authorities, in the kingdom of Essex, or, according to others, on the confines of 
Mercia. Camden and Gough place the scene at Assingdon, in the hundred of Roch- 
ford, in Essex; Blore fixes it at Essendune, in Rutlandshire; and Morant agrees with 
Holingshed in placing it at Bartlow, in the parish of Ashdon.if 

On the 2d of January, 1832, the three smaller barrows were opened, and a full Opening 
account of the discoveries which were made in opening them is published in the smaller 
Arch3eologia.§ The remains that were found were all purely Roman. In the central 

* See a disquisition on the lows in the peak of Derbyshire, Archaeolog. vol. vii. p. 131. 

t " In this place," Holinshed says, " where the field was fought, are yet seen seven or eight hills, 
wherein the carcases of them that were slain at the same hills were buried, and one being digged down 
of late, there were found two bodies, in a coffin of stone, of which the one lay with his head towards the 
other's feet, and manie chaines of iron (like to the water chains of the bits of horses) were found in the 
same hills." The hills are on lord Maynard's estate. 

X Malmesbury, speaking of Canute, says : — " Loca omnia in quibus pugnaverat et precipu^ Achedune 
ecclesiis insignivit ; ministros instituit, qui per succidua seculorum volumina Deo supplicarent pro ani- 
mabus ibi occisorum. Ad consecrationem illius Basilicas et ipse affuit, et optimates Anglorum etDaborum 
donaria porrescerunt. Nunc, ut fertur, modica est ecclesia presbytero parochiano delegata." With 
reference to this passage Morant remarked, that Canute's church " could not be the present church of 
Ashdon, because it stands too far from the field of battle : therefore it is with great reason supposed that 
it is Bartlow church, which stands near the hills, and hath a round steeple, being the Danish way of build- 
ing." From Robert of Gloucester, however, we are led to suppose that he built several churches in the 
neighbourhood of the field of battle, as he says — 

" An vp Assesdone & J>er aboute mest chyrchen he let rere. 
As vor her soulen, ]iat yslavve were Jjere. 
Vor he & ])c kyng Edniond mest armes J»ere here, 
An mest man slazt jjoruhem & batayles Jjcr were." 

^ It was written by John Gage, esq., and is entitled, " An Account of Roman Sepulchral Antiquities dis- 
covered at the Bartlow Hills, in the parish of Ashdon, Essex, on opening the lesser barrows." From it 
the present account is chiefly taken. 



Barrows. 



100 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

HOOK II. barrow, and in one of the others, there appeared to have lain in the bed of the chalky 
Romaii ^^ ^he depth of about a foot and a half, a Avooden chest, which was in both entirely 



ties 



aiiti<iui- pulverised. In the central barrow, the spike nails, that had fastened the chest on all 
sides, some of which were four inches and a half long, were seen lying in a square as 
they had fallen, and at the angles were the iron straps, with portions of wood adhering 
to them. Considerable quantities of pulverised wood were found lying about. A 
number of glass and earthen vessels, of different forms and texture, were found in both 
these barrows; the earthen vessels were generally marked with the potter's mark, 
among which marks four only could be distinctly traced ; on the first of which were 
the letters vtaiismsf, the t being in the form of a cross, and the fourth letter (marked 
here by ii) being not very distinct; on a second was visible the letters agomarvs; 
on a third oficvirili, and on a fourth ofceli. In the first of these barrows, a small 
deposit of burnt human bones was lying on the chalk, surrounded by the vessels just 
mentioned. In each of them was found an iron lamp, and in the central one there was 
also a little bronze lamp, and one or two bits of iron, with wood adhering to them, as 
if belonging to some small wooden coffer. 

In the other barrow, which was the second opened, there was discovered a remark- 
able brick sepulchre, in the shape of an altar, six feet three inches long, two feet three 
inches and a half wide throughout, and one foot eleven inches and three quarters high. 
It stood north and south on the bed of chalk, about a foot below the natural surface, 
and between seven and eight feet below the artificial soil. The basement consisted of 
a single course of bricks, raised in a floor of cement, full two inches thick. Each of 
the walls had seven courses of brick, regularly laid, excepting that the top course of 
the side walls was set two inches within the rest, by which means the mouth was con- 
tracted to eight inches, and the interior was thus better secured from wet. The lid 
was composed of two courses of brick, of different sizes, the under-joints being lapped ; 
and the whole was covered with a thick coat of cement. The largest of the top bricks 
measured one foot five inches, by eleven inches and a half, and was five inches in thick- 
ness. Within the sepulchre were found a number of glass and other vessels, several 
of them containing liquids and other matter, which were afterwards analysed by Dr. 
Faraday. A large cylindrical glass urn, open at the mouth, was nearly two thirds full 
of a clear pale yellow liquor, covering a deposit of burnt himian bones. On the top of 
the bones lay a gold ring, which, when taken out, was found to be a signet ring, 
having a cornelian intaglio, with the design of two ears of bearded coin. Afterwards, 
when the contents of this vase was examined by Dr. Faraday, a coin was discovered, 
much corroded, and adhering with rust to one of the bones at the top. It was of that 
kind denominated second brass, with tlie head of the emperor Hadrian on the 
obverse, and on the reverse a figure seated, holding something nearly defaced in 
the right hand, and a cornucopia in the left, " Probably," says Mr. Gage, "a Fortuna 



HALF HUNDRED OF FRESHWELL. 101 

Redux."* At the southern end was found the decomposed wood of a small coffer, CHAP, 
and the lock and iron straps that had belonged to it.f ;__ 



From the discovery of the Roman origin of these barrows, we may presume that Earth- 
they are connected with the camp or station which appears to have existed in their Bartlow. 
immediate vicinity. Vestiges of an earthwork may be observed in a little meadow by 
the brook side, within one hundred and fifty yards of the mounds to the north-west.| 
The agger is three hundred and seventeen feet long, from east to west, the eastern 
end being cut through by a ditch, which separates it from the Bartlow rectory garden, 
in which direction there is the appearance of the mound being continued. The 
western end is broken by the highway leading from Linton to Ashdon, which passes 
at the distance of rather more than eighty yards from the smaller barrows on the 
western side. At an angle, here, the earthwork forms a little enclosure in the form 
of a parallelogram, one hundred and twenty feet by sixty-three, with two entrances. 
Li this spot is a low mound, twenty-six feet in diameter. Towards the latter end 
of the year 1832, in a field near Linton, in Cambridgeshire, an urn full of Roman 
coins was discovered by a man attending on the plough : they were all of them soon 
dispersed. 

In 1821, the parish of Ashdon, with Bartlow End hamlet, contained one thousand 
and fourteen, and in 1831, one thousand one hundred and three inhabitants. 

HADSTOCK. 

The parish of Hadstock occupies the most northern extremity of Essex, and much Hadstock. 
of it projects into Cambridgeshire; from which it is in part separated by the stream 
that flows from Bartlow End to Linton: southward it joins Ashdon and Waldon, and 
does not exceed six miles in circumference. Distant from Linton three, and from 

* "There are several coins of the emperor Hadrian, having on the reverse a Fortuna Redux, with a 
rudder in her right hand, and a cornucopia in her left. Hadrian visited Britain in the year 120, and some 
of his coins are inscribed Britannia." — Arc.hcEolog. 

+ Among the vessels found in this sepulchre was one of wood, four inches and a half in height, and two 
inches in diameter, hooped round the middle, and also at the top and bottom, with bronze, and having 
a handle of the same material. The wooden ribs were in extraordinary preservation, but the bronze was 
much decayed. 

X Stukeley, who carefully traced many of the Roman roads, after describing the remains of the camp at 
Chesterford, gives the following notice of what he considers to be the course of the Icening- street from 
thence towards Suffolk : " Not far off by Audlen-house, upon an eminence, is a great Roman camp ; a hunt- 
ing tower of brick now stands upon it. Beyond this the Icening-street goes towards Icleworth in Suffolk, 
parting the countys of Cambridg and Essex all the way, and almost parallel to it runs a great ditch, viz. 
from Royston to Balsham, call'd Brentditcli, where it turns and goes to the river below Cambridg, there 
called Flightditch. I imagin these to be ancient boundarys of the Britons, and before the Roman road was 
made, which naturally enough would have serv'd for a distinction by the Saxons as at other places, had 
their limits lain hereabouts. Two mile both ways of Royston is chalky soil. About I'uckeridg 'tis 
gravelly. On Bartlow hills there is a camp too, castle camps, and Roman autiquitys found, I am told, of 
VOL. II. P 



UNrVERSTTY OF CAT.tfOKNI 



102 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. London forty-three miles. The name is probably from the Saxon pab, or head, and 
j-trocce ; but it does not appear how these terms can be applicable : the word hse'^, or 
hat, hot^ has been assumed as the initial syllable; and the name, where it first occurs, 
is written Hatestok; by which name, king Ed^v^ard the confessor confirmed the posses- 
sion of this estate to the monastery of Ely: the common name does not occur in 
Domesday, but the name of Cadenhou is understood to be applied to it in the reign of 
king Stephen, at which time it was in the hands of Nigel, bishop of Ely, and of which 
he had deprived the monks, but which he afterwards restored, with ample confirmation; 
yet the bishop retained possession of the lordship, as part of his barony, and had 
return of writs, pleas of unreasonable distress, gallows, tumbrel and assize of bread 
and beer, and free- warren : he also, in 1337, obtained the grant of a market and fair 
here, of which the latter is continued on the twenty-eighth of June, for horses and 
cattle. The demesne lands, however, appear to have belonged to the monastery of 
Ely till the dissolution, and were afterwards granted, by queen Elizabeth, in 1600, 
together with the manor of Littlebury, to Thomas Sutton, esq., founder of the Char- 
terhouse, who appears to have had the advowson of this rectory previous to the year 
1570.* By will, dated 1611, he bequeathed both these possessions to Thomas, earl of 
Suffblk, on condition of his paying, within a year after his decease, the sum of ten 
thousand pounds: in 1635, Theophilus, earl of Sufi'olk, was lord of this manor; and 
in 1691, the trustees of James, earl of Suffolk, sold it to Daniel Malthus, esq. This 
gentleman had been apothecary to the very learned Dr. Thomas Sydenham, and was 
afterwards apothecary to king William, and to queen Anne; marrying Elizabeth, 
daughter of John Portman, esq., he had by her his son and heir, Sydenham Malthus, 
esq., one of the six clei'ks in chancery, and a director of the South-Sea company in 
174.1 : he married Anne, daughter of Richard Dalton, esq., by whom he had, Daniel, 

Anne, Katherine, and Elizabeth. The lordship at present belongs to Malthus, 

esq., a nephew of T. R. Malthus, A.M., author of the Treatise on Population, and 
numerous other celebrated works. 

Scgons.oi A second manor here, is named Segons, or Vances; it is believed to be the estate on 
account of which a fine passed between Alured, son of Gilbert, and Martin Badekester : 
it was in the possession of sir Giles Allington, of Horseheath, in Cambridgeshire, at 
the time of his decease in 1586; Giles his son was his heir. There is no manor- 
house, and the former existence of a court only rests on tradition: the lands lie 
towards Bartlow, and are freehold, paying quit rents to Horseheath Hall. 

three remarkabl bariows thereabouts where bones have been dug up. At Hadstok they talk of the skin 
of a Danish king nail'd upon the church doors." — Itiner. Curios, cent. i. p. 75. Stukeley is evidently 
making great confusion, but there can be little doubt of his camp on Bartlow hills being the identical 
earthwork described by Mr. Gage. 

♦ See Dr. Browne Willis's Cathedral Churches, vol. ii. p. 341. 



HALF HUNDRED OF FRESHWELL. 103 

The church, dedicated to St. Botolph, is of stone, and of great apparent antiquity : C H A P. 
the entrance by the north porch, is under a massive Norman arch, slightly ornamented ' 



with carvings; formerly, Avhat was traditionally said to be a Danish human skin, was Church. 
nailed against the door here, and covered with iron rib-work: the iron remains, but the 
skin has been taken away by degrees, and only a small piece of it has been preserved 
at the parsonage, which from its appearance tends strongly to confirm the traditionary 
account. The original windows have been few in number and very small, not unlike 
the loop-holes of a castle: none of the present Gothic windows are ancient, and some 
of them quite modern. This building is large for a village church, and has a nave 
and two aisles, with a transept, as in a cathedral church. The screen, originally placed 
under the rood loft, has been removed to the west end, and exhibits a curious speci- 
men of carved work, in which is plainly distinguished a pretty well executed represen- 
tation of a fox delivering a grave lecture to a flock of geese, who are attentively 
listening to his admonitions; undoubtedly, a satire against the monkish hypocrisy of the 
times. The chancel has been much larger than at present, and beyond it ancient 
foundations may be traced in the church-yard, which, as well as part of the lower 
courses of the walls of the aisles, have apparently belonged to a former erection. 
On either side of the chancel there appear to have been chapels, or chantries : a plain 
stone tower contains five bells. 

There is a well near the church, called St. Botolph's well, from which a constant St. 
stream passing under the wall of the church-yard, affords an ample supply to the vil- Well, 
lage. The parsonage is a good old building, near the church, at the head of a pleasant 
lawn ; at a short distance, from a station called Bantom Upper Stile, a prospect into 
Cambridgeshire is presented, of wide extent, and highly interesting, including Horse- 
heath, where the elegant mansion of lord Montfort has been pulled down. An ancient Alms- 
building, called the guild, was accidentally burnt down, and an altns-house has been 
erected where it stood, but it is without endowment. 

Some allotments of land have been made here, to be occupied by industrious AUot- 
labourers, which promise to be highly beneficial.* land. 

In 1821, this parish contained three hundred and ninety-two, and in 1831, four 
hundred and twenty-four inhabitants. 

* Charities belonging to this parish, are : ten shillings per annum to the poor, left by the rev. Edmund 
Sherebrooke, rector of Ashdon and Hadstock. 

A mark per annum, given by Mrs. Buck. 

Five shillings a year, out of a farm in this parish. 

Twenty shillings a year out of a farm. The same sum annually, being the interest of twenty pounds, 
the purchase-money of a house in Linton, left to the poor here. 






104 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



liOOK II. ECCLESIASTICAL BENEFICES IN THE HALF HUNDRED OF FRESHWELL. 

R. Rectory. V. Vicarage. C. Chapelry. 



Ashdon, R 

Bardfield,Great,V. . 
Bardtield Saling, C. 
Bardfield, Little, R. 
Buinstcd Helion, V. 

Hadstock, R 

Heinsted, C 

Radvvinter, R 

Saraford, Great, V. . 

Samford, Little, R- • 



Archdeaconry. 



Colchester. 

Middlesex. 
Colchester. 



Incumbent. 



B. Chapman 

James Britton, M.A. 

T. B. Harrison .... 
Rev. — Hodson. .. . 

J. A. Carn 

V. of Great Samford 
J. Watson Bullock . 

Morgan Lewis .... 

W. P. Windham . . . 



Insti- 
tuted. 



1818 
18-29 

1782 
1809 
1786 
1801 
1806 

1801 

1822 



Value in Liber 
Regis. 



^■28 3 4 
11 

Not in chajge 
JI 
13 
19 

Not in charge 
•21 12 1 

18 

110 



Caius Col. Camb. 
SirC.M.Burrell.bart 

John Harrison. 
Trin. Col. Camb. 
Bishop of Ely. 

John Bullock, esq. 
4 Sir Wm. Eustace, 
\ K.C.B.ju7-e u,roris. 
New Col. Oxford. 



CHAPTER VH. 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 



Hundred 
of Uttles- 
ford. 



The north-western extremity of the county of Essex is occupied by the hundred of 
Uttlesford, which eastward is bounded by Freshwell and part of Dunmow, and by 
the half hundred of Harlow southward; westward extending to Clavering and the 
border of Hertfordshire, and to the county of Cambridge northward: it is of an 
irregular form, from north to south measuring fifteen, and from east to west, where 
■widest, nearly eleven miles; but from Plechdon Green to Broxted, it scarcely measures 
half a mile. 

The name has undoubtedly been derived from some ford, within the parish of 
Walden, generally believed to have been that in which sir Edward Bohun was 
drowned in 1333. The name is variously written in records, Odelsford, Odelsfort, 
Udelesfort, Wdelsford, Huddlisford. In some writings it is distinguished by the 
appellations of east and west Odelsford, Takeley being in the first of these divisions; 
the river Cam undoubtedly forming the line of separation. 

The general appearance of this part of the country is distinguished by a pleasing 
diversity of hill and dale; and everywhere presents woodland scenery, with an 
agi-eeable intermixture of meadow and arable lands. The hundred contains the fol- 
lowing twenty-six parishes: Walden, Great Chesterford, Little Chesterford, Wim- 




a 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 105 

bish, Debden, Widdington, Henham, Elsenham, Takeley, Birchanger, Stansted Chap. 

Montfichet, Quendon, Rickling, Newport, Wickharn Bonhunt, Arkesden, Great _ 

Wendon, Little Wendon, Wendon Loughts, Littlebury, Strethall, Elmdon, Haydon, 
Chrishall, Great Chishall, Little Chishall. 



WALDEN, or SAFFRON WALDEN, Walden 

or Saffron 
the chief town in this division of the county, is situated about a mile to the east of Walden. 

the high road, leading from London to Newmarket; about forty-two miles from the 

metropolis, fourteen from Cambridge, and twenty-seven from Chelmsford. Its name 

is generally supposed to have been derived from the Saxon words pealb, a Avood, and 

ben, a valley. The term Saffron is added to it, on account of the large quantity of 

that plant, which was formerly cultivated in its immediate neighbourhood, but the 

growth of which has been long since discontinued.* 

The situation of the town is very delightful and healthy, and the scenery round it, 

especially in the summer months, presents Nature in her gayest and richest attire. 

This is greatly owing to the beautiful park and grounds connected with Audley End, 

the seat of lord Braybrooke. The number of the principal streets in the town is seven. 

The inhabitants, by the census of 1831, amounted to four thousand seven hundred and 

sixty-two. The houses, many of which bear marks of antiquity, have, of late years, 

* This plant, which, though now but little used in medicine, was formerly supposed to possess ex- 
traordinary medicinal virtues, is said to have been brought into England, and first grown in Essex and 
Cambridgeshire in the reign of Edward the third. The soil, which is considered the best for its growth, 
is a moderately dry mould, such as commonly lies upon chalk. About the beginning of April, it is carefully 
ploughed, the furrows being drawn much closer together, and deeper, if the soil will allow it, than is 
done for any kind of corn. In May, the land is well manured with about twenty or thirty loads of good 
rotten dung per acre, which is carefully spread and then ploughed in. About Midsummer it is ploughed 
the third time, and between every sixteen and a half feet is left a broad furrow, which serves both as a 
boundary to the several parcels, and for throwing the weeds into, as occasion may require. The plants 
are usually set in July. From that time till September, or sometimes later, no more labour is required. 
About the beginning of that month they begin to spire, when the ground is carefully pared with a sharp 
hough, and the weeds are raked into the furrows. The flowers appear shortly after, and are gathered, 
when in a proper state, early in the morning. The owners of the saffron fields get together a sufficient 
number of hands, who pull off the whole flowers, carrying them home in baskets. They then pick out 
the three yellow chives, which are in the middle of the flower, with a considerable proportion of the 
style or string to which they are attached : the rest of the flower is thrown away. Next morning they 
return to the field, without regarding whether the weather be wet or dry, and so on daily till the crop is 
gathered. The chives are dried between sheets of white paper, on a kiln made for the purpose, in which 
process they are said to lose four fifths of their original weight, and the plantation is renewed every three 
years. So exceedingly rich was the ground when the growth of this plant was given uj), that it is said 
to have wanted no further manure for more than fifteen years. At present, however, its cultivation is 
but little regarded; and only here and there, in the garden of the horticulturist, is a root to be found, 
bearing any resemblance to that which was once so abundant in this neighbourhood. 



106 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. been much improved, and various alterations, of which notice will be taken hereafter, 

' have contributed much both to the appearance of the town itself and the comfort of its 

inhabitants. 

Of the early history of Walden little is known, upon which dependance can be 
placed, prior to the time of the Norman conquest. That it was in existence is evi- 
dent ; but its origin and the number of its inhabitants are uncertain. Dr. Stukeley 
supposes it to have been the site of a Roman station ; and many circumstances tend to 
confirm his opinion. In the reign of Edward the confessor, it appears to have been a 
place of some note. Ansgar was then possessed of it, and the following curious 
account is given of its extent. It comprehended, "for a manor nineteen hides;* eight 
carucates in demesne; twenty-two among the men or tenants; sixty-six villanes; 
seventeen bordars; wood for a thousand hogs;f fourscore acres of meadow, and one 
mill." At the time of the general survey, it was holden by Geoffrey de Magnaville, 
and was one of the forty lordships which he had in this county. 
Aiande- It is said that this powerful and illustrious individual accompanied William the con- 

family, queror to this kingdom, and so distinguished himself by his services, that he was 
rewarded with no less than an hundred and eighteen lordships. He fixed his residence 
at Walden, and built the castle, of which a part of the keep and other earth-works 
remain to this day. The name Magnaville, or Mandeville, was derived from Mande- 
ville, a town in Normandy; and his estate at Walden became the head of the barony, 
and of the honour of Mandeville. The time of his death is not known, but it was 
after the year 1086. 

He was succeeded by William his son, who, in addition to his other honours, was 
made constable of the Tower of London. He appears to have been little inferior to 
his father in bravery ; and was again succeeded by Geoffrey de Mandeville, his son. 
He also was remarkable for his courage; was made constable of the Tower, and 
advanced by king Stephen to the title and dignity of earl of Essex. It was, however, 
at a time of great civil commotion, when the contention for the crown between 
Stephen and Matilda, or Maud, to whom it had been left by her father, was dividing 
the kingdom. Geoffrey took part with Matilda, who confirmed to him whatever his 
grandfather or father ever had in lands, forts, and castles, particularly the Tower of 
London, with the castle under it, to fortify at his pleasure. She also conferred upon 

* A hide was as much land as would maintain a family ; some call it sixty, some eighty, and others one 
hundred acres. A carucate was as much arable land as could be tilled in a year with one plough. A 
villane was one who held land by a base tenure, and was in a state of great subserviency to his lord. The 
bordars were those who had a bord, or cottage, with a small parcel of land, on condition that they should 
supply the lord with poultry and eggs, and other small provisions, " for his board and entertainment." 

t At the present day, it may seem strange that wood-land should have been rated or let by the number 
oi hogs it would fatten. This, however, arose from the forests of oak, which were then cultivated, and 
from the abundance of acorns, which, by this means, were furnished for the use of swine. 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 107 

him the office of hereditary sheriff of London and Middlesex, Hertfordshire, and CHAP 

Essex, and the pleas and trials of all causes in those counties, with the third penny from — 

the pleas of the sheriffalty. She granted him likewise one hundred pounds in lands at 
Newport, to hold in demesne ; and licence to remove the market from Newport to his 
castle at Walden, receiving all customs, tolls, &c. belonging to the market. The 
market at Walden was to be held on Thursdays and Sundays ; and the fair there to 
begin on Whitsun-eve, and continue all that week. In addition to this, she made him 
very considerable grants of land at Depdene, Bonhunt, and the woods of Chatelege 
(Catlidge), and elsewhere; gave him all Maldon, with its appurtenances; and, finally, 
presented to him and his heirs the office of chief justice of Essex, and all pleas and 
forfeitures appertaining to the crown. 

It was not long that Matilda was able to support her hereditary dignity; nor was 
the defection of Geoffrey long concealed from Stephen. By order of the king, he was 
apprehended at St. Alban's in 1143; and, to obtain his liberty, was obliged to sur- 
render up to him the Tower of London, and his castles at Walden and Fleshy. It 
will not appear extraordinary that, in such lawless times, these indignities were 
resented by a man of his disposition. Accordingly, with a band of partisans, as 
desperate as himself, he ravaged the demesnes of the sovereign and his adherents with- 
out mercy, and seized and plundered the abbey of Ramsey, in Huntingdonshire ; on 
which account he was excommunicated. He is said to have been shot in the head by 
an arrow, while besieging the king's castle at Burwell, of which wound he died on 
the 14th of September, 1144. 

His eldest son, being in arms against Stephen, was made prisoner and banished. 
His second son, Geoffrey, was restored, by Henry the second, to all the lands belong- 
ing to his father, grandfather, and great-grandfather, as likewise to the earldom of 
Essex. He married Eustatia, a relation of the king, from whom he was divorced, and 
two of his best lordships, Waltham and Walden, were taken from him. At his death, 
however, in 1167, they reverted to his brother and successor, William de Mandeville, 
who went in pilgrimage to the Holy Land, with Philip, earl of Flanders, in 1177, 
and returned in 1179. He spent a great part of his time in Normandy, where he was 
entrusted with the custody of several forts and castles. But, having departed this life 
at Roanne, in 1190, his body was buried in the abbey of Mortimer, in Normandy, and 
his heart was brought over and deposited in the chapter-house of Walden priory, to 
which house he gave half his lordship of Walden, with half of the meadows and pas- 
tures, the mill, the little park, and his tenants and their services. 

Beatrix, his aunt, would have succeeded to his estates, as his lawful heir; but, being 
much advanced in years, waived her right in favour of her younger son, Geoffrey de 
Say. This was afterwards transferred to Geoffrey Fitz- Piers, who had married her 
grand-daughter (by her eldest son, William, then deceased), and obtained this barony. 



108 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK U. The administration of the earldom of Essex, and the title of earl, were conferred upon 
him. But the moiety of the lordship of Walden, with the appurtenances, which 
William de Mandeville had given to the monks here, was taken from them by 
GeoiFrey, notwithstanding their earnest efforts, and repeated applications to the king, 
the bishop, and the pope ; while only one hundred acres of arable land, the mill, and 
a meadow towards Periton, were left to them. 

It appears that he was sheriff of this county and of Hertfordshire, from 1191 to 
1194, and died October 2d, 1212, with a high character for his generosity, his legal 
skill, and that consequence which his alliance by blood and friendship with some of 
the chief persons of the nation necessarily procured him. 

His eldest son, Geofeey Fitz-Piers, took the name of Mandeville, but died without 
issue in 1216. His next brother, William, earl of Essex, died in 1227, unmarried,* 
and entailed his lands, with the earldom of Essex, upon his sister Maud, wife of 
Henry de Bohun, earl of Hereford, high constable of England. She died in August, 
1236. Humphrey, her son, succeeded her, who also died in 1275. His grandson 
and heir, of the same name, died in December 1298. His son and successor, 
Humphrey, in 1322. His son John in 1335; who, having no child surviving, was 
succeeded by his brother Humphrey, who had no issue. In 1347, he had licence to 
embattle his manor-house at Walden. Humphrey, dying in 1361, had for his heir, 
his nephew, Humphrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford, Essex, and Northampton, baron 
of Brecknock, and high-constable of England. At his death, in 1372, he left two 
daughters, co-heirs ; Eleanor, married to Thomas of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester, 
and Mary, to Henry, then earl of Derby, afterwards king Henry the fourth. 

Ann, eldest daughter to Eleanor, (married first to Thomas, and Edmund, lords 
Stafford, and afterwards to W^illiam Bourchier, earl of Eu,) became heiress to one 
moiety of the Bohun estates ; and king Henry the fifth, in right of his mother, to 
the other moiety. Upon the partition of this noble inheritance, in 1421, the manor 1 

of Walden, then valued at seventy-two pounds, two shillings and three-pence, 1 

with a park, fell to the share of the king ; and the manor was divided into the manors 
of Walden, and Brook Walden. The family having granted parcels of them to 
different persons, these fees, or parts of fees, took from their subordinate owners 
the appellations of De le Mares, Cloptons, Westleys, &c. But these diminutive 
manors have been incorporated into the others; and, of late, the only acknowledged 
manors are those of Walden, or Cheping Walden, and Brook Walden. 

In the year 1136, Geoffrey de Mandeville, the first earl of Essex of that family, m 

and of whom mention has already been made, founded a priory, about a mile from the 
town, and on the site of which Audley End was afterwards erected. This priory was 

* Arms of Mandeville, eail of Essex : Quarterly, or and gules. Geofrey Fitz-Piers, the second earl, ^, 

charged them with an escarbuncle of eight staves, uomette and fleury, sable. ;{ 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 109 

converted into an abbey in the year 1 190, dedicated to the honour of God, of St. Mary, chap 
and St. James, and of the order of the Benedictines. It was richly endowed with ^^'" 
lands and churches, of which Walden was one ; and appears to have continued to 
flourish, until the suppression, in the reign of Henry the eighth. It was valued 
(according to Speed) at four hundred and six pounds, fifteen shillings and eleven 
pence, and was granted, in 1538, to sir Thomas Audley, who was, at that time, a great 
favourite with the king. He was born at Earl's Colne, in this county, in 1488, was 
bred to the law, and in 1526, was appointed autumn reader in the Inner Temple. 
Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk, to whom he was chancellor, recommending him to 
the king, he was chosen speaker of the house of commons, styled afterwards "the long" 
or " the black parliament." In this service, he acquitted himself so much to the king's 
satisfaction, that the next year he constituted him attorney of the dutchy of Lancaster, 
serjeant-at-law, and king's serjeant. 

Upon the surrender of the great seal by sir Thomas More, in 1532, the king deli- ~ — 
vered it to Audley, with the title of lord keeper, and knighted him. The year after, 
he was appointed lord chancellor, in which office he continued above twelve years. 
Soon after he was made chancellor, the king gave him the priory of Christ church, 
Aldgate, which he made his town residence. In 1538, he was created baron Audley 
of Walden, and installed knight of the garter. In April, 1544, he resigned the office 
of chancellor, owing to ill health; died the last day of that month, and was buried in 
the chancel of the church. 

By Elizabeth, his second lady, daughter of Thomas Grey, marquis of Dorset, he 
had two daughters; Margaret, four years and a half old, at the time of his decease, and 
Mary, a year younger. The latter died when about seven years of age, and Margaret 
became sole heir to her father's estates. She married, first, lord Henry Dudley, a 
younger son of John, duke of Northumberland, slain at the battle of St. Quintin's, in 
Picardy, in 1557; and, secondly, Thomas Howard, fourth duke of Norfolk, and had 
by him two sons, Thomas and William, and two daughters; Elizabeth, who died in 
her infancy; and Margaret, married to Robert Sackville, earl of Dorset. Their 
mother died the 10th of January, 1569. 

The duke of Norfolk, having been declared guilty of high treason for his political 
intrigues with Mary, queen of Scots, was beheaded on the 2d of June, 1572, and his 
estates were forfeited to the crown. However, his son, Thomas Howard, was 
restored in blood in 1584. He was one of those brave men who signalized them- 
selves in the defeat of the Spanish armada in 1588; and, for his good services therein, 
received, at sea, the honour of knighthood from the lord high admiral. He after- 
wards distinguished himself in several other expeditions, and particularly as vice- 
admiral, at the taking of Cadiz, in 1596, where he commanded the attack on the Spanish 
ships in the harbour. The year following, he was summoned to parliament, by the 

VOL. II. 2 



110 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. title of baron Howard of Walden. In May, 1597, he was installed a knight of the 
garter; and in 1603, created earl of Suffolk. In 1614, he was constituted lord high 
treasurer of England, and held the office four years. He built the extensive and 
magnificent mansion, which, in honour of his maternal grandfather, he called Audley 
End. He died on the 28th of May, 1626, and was buried in the vault at Walden. 

Theophilus, his eldest son and successor, was made a knight of the garter in 1628. 
He died the 3d of June, 1640, was buried at Walden, and succeeded by James, his 
son, who had been made knight of the bath at the coronation of Charles the first. 
He had three wives : the first was Susan, daughter of Henry Rich, earl of Holland, 
by whom he had an only daughter, Essex, married to Edward lord Griffin, of Dingley, 
in Northamptonshire. By his second wife, Barbara, daughter of sir Edward Villiers, 
he had one daughter, Elizabeth, married to Thomas Felton, esq. afterwards a baronet. 
His third wife, Ann, eldest daughter of Robert Montagu, earl of Manchester, by 
whom he had no issue, survived him many years. Leaving only two daughters, he 
Avas succeeded by his third brother, George ; who, dying soon afterwards without 
issue male, was succeeded by his brother Henry, at whose decease, in 1709, he had 
for his successor his son Henry; who, in 1706, had been created baron of Chesterford, 
and earl of Binden. In 1714, he was constituted lord lieutenant of Essex, and in 
1718 departed this life, leaving his son, Charles William, for his successor; who, in 
1719, was also appointed to the same lieutenancy. In 1721-2, he died, in the twenty- 
ninth year of his age, without issue ; whereupon the title and estates reverted to his 
uncle Edward, second son of Henry, the fifth earl. He died the 22d of June, 1731, 
in the sixtieth year of his age, unmarried; and was succeeded by his brother Charles; 
who, dying two years afterwards, left an only son, Henry : he also died the 22d of 
April, 1745, intestate, and without issue, in the thirty-ninth year of his age ; where- 
upon the earldom devolved on Henry Bowes Howard, a descendant from Thomas 
Howard, earl of Berkshire, second son of Thomas, the first earl of Suffolk above- 
mentioned. 

But, in pursuance of a settlement made in 1687, by James, the third earl, in favour 
of his daughters, failing the issue male of his father, the estates were claimed and 
obtained under a decree of chancery, by the representatives of those daughters, 
Elizabeth, countess of Portsmouth, and Anne, her sister, married to William Whit- 
well, esq., of Oundle, in Northamptonshire, as co-heirs of lady Essex Howard, wife 
of lord Griffin, and George William, lord Hervey, afterwards earl of Bristol, grand- 
son to lady Elizabeth Felton. Nevertheless, the house and park, which had been sold 
by earl James to Charles the second, previously to the date of the settlement, though 
returned to the family by king William, was excepted from its operation, and adjudged 
to the earl of Effingham, as heir-at-law to Henry, earl of Suffolk, before mentioned ; 
and purchased from lord Effingham by lady Portsmouth. At her decease in 1762, 







f^ 



e > 






HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. Ill 

she bequeathed her landed property to the son of her sister, John Griffin Whitwell, CHAP, 
an officer in the army, who assumed the surname of Griffin, in pursuance of his aunt's ' 

will. Colonel Griffin, on his return from the campaigns in Germany, during which 
he had served with distinction, was invested with the order of the Bath, and progres- 
sively rose to the rank of Field Marshal. After having been frequently chosen to 
serve in parliament for Andover, he, in 1784, established his claim to the ancient 
barony of Howard de Walden, derived, through his maternal ancestor, lady Essex 
Howard, and took his seat in the house of Lords. In 1788, he was created baron 
Braybrooke, of Braybrooke, in Northamptonshire, with remainder to Richard Aid- 
worth Neville, esq. of Billingbear, to whom, as his nearest relation, he left the Audley 
End estates, at his death in 1797, at which period he was colonel of the 4th Dragoons, 
and lord lieutenant of Essex. Lord Braybrooke died in February 1825, leaving two 
sons; Richard, then member of parliament for Berkshire, the present lord; and 
George, in holy orders, master of Magdalene College, Cambridge, who assumed the 
name of Grenville, pursuant to the will of his cousin, James lord Glastonbury.* 

The residence of this noble family, known by the name of Audley End, was built Audley 
by Thomas, the first earl of Suffolk, already mentioned. It was commenced in 1603, 
and finished in 1616, and is situated in a finely-wooded park, about one mile west of 
Saffron Walden. The present mansion, although a large and beautiful structure, 
comprises but a small part of the original building, which, if not superior, was deemed 
equal to the palaces at Hampton Court, Nonsuch, and Richmond. The model was 
brought from Italy, and is said to have cost five hundred pounds. The whole expense 
of the building has been estimated at two hundred thousand pounds: the style of its 
architecture is chiefly Elizabethan. 

When first completed, it consisted of various ranges of buildings, surrounding two 

quadrangular courts : that to the west was very spacious, and was approached through 

a grand entrance gateway, between four round towers. The corridors, on the north 

and south sides, were supported by columns of alabaster. Within there was a smaller 

court, three sides of which remain, and form the present mansion. Many parts were 

taken down at different times, including the gallery, two hundred and twenty-six feet 

in length, thirty-two feet wide, and twenty-four high, which was removed by the 

countess of Portsmouth in 1749. Two uniformly projecting porches ornament the 

western front of the present mansion, each having seventeen marble columns at the 

angles; some of them white, with black bases and capitals; the others of a dark veined 

* Arms of Braybrooke : First and fourth ; sable, a griffin segreant argent, beaked and langued or, for 
Griffin: second and third; quarterly gules, a saltier argent, charged with the rose of Lancaster : Fretty 
often pieces, or and gules, in a canton per pale, or and ermine, a ship of three tops, sable, for Neville- 
Crests : a talbot's head erased, sable, for Griffin, issuing from a ducal coronet or, a bull's head, pied, proper 
attired, of the first, charged on the neck with the rose of Lancaster. Supporters : Two lions regardant 
argent, maned and tufted sable, accolled with an olive branch proper. Motto : Ne vile velis. 



112 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK 11. niarble, with white bases and capitals. The ballustrade of these and of the house is per- 
forated, and variously ornamented; and the summit is adorned with turrets and clustered 
chimneys. The windows are large and square headed, with numerous stone mullions, 
and several of them project from the rooms. No expense was spared by lord Howard 
to render the interior of the mansion, which he found in a very dilapidated state, com- 
modious and handsome; and his example has been followed by his successors, who have 
scarcely suffered a year to pass away without making- some alteration. The hall, 
which retains its ancient character, may be considered as an interesting- specimen of 
the age to which it belongs, and the carved screen at the north end is well worthy of 
notice. The saloon, which is approached from the hall by folding doors, at the top 
of a double flight of stone steps, is spacious and lofty, and has a ceiling of stucco, 
ornamented with pendantives. The frieze, cornice, and pilasters, are richly carved 
and gilded, and the Suffolk arms are emblazoned on the mantle-piece of the chimney. 
The room also contains portraits of many of the distinguished personages connected 
with the history of the place, let into pannels, on one of which is the following 
inscription : — 



Inscrip- 
tion. 



" Henry 8. A. D. 1539, granted the monastery of Walden, on the site of which this house now stands, 
to lord chancellor Audley. Elizabeth, A. D. 1597, by special writ, summoned to parliament Thomas 
lord Howard de Walden, in the next reign created earl of Suffolk. He built this house A.D. 1616. After 
many reductions, it descended, A.D. 1762, to sir John Griffin Gritfin, K.13., confirmed lord Howard de 
Walden, Geo. HI., A.D. 1784. He, among other additions and alterations, refitted (the ceiling excepted) 
this saloon, to commemorate the noble families, through whom, with gratitude, he holds these possessions." 

In the drawing-room adjoining, on the south side, are some good pictures of the 
Italian and Flemish schools; and the library, at the extremity of the wing, which 
has been recently completed in a style to accord with the other apartments on the 
same floor, contains a good collection of books, principally acquired since the 
death of lord Howard. The chapel at the north-west end of the building was fitted 
up about the year 1771, under the direction of Hobcraft, and has since remained 
unaltered. The ceiling of the family seat is decorated with the arms of Audley and 
Howard, and their numerous quarterings. The windows of stained glass were 
executed by Picket, of York, from designs by Rebecca. The state apartments and 
summer dining-room are on the ground-floor, and the house contains numerous por- 
traits of members of the different families to whom its possessors have been allied. 

Contiguous to the house is a flower-garden, recently laid out, and the park and 
grounds are pleasantly diversified with hill and dale. Through this delightful spot 
there are two public walks, one leading towards Littlebury, and the other towards 
Audley End. The latter, in the direction of which there has been a slight alteration 
within the last two years, by bringing the southern entrance nearer to the town, is so 
constructed as to form a private carriage-way, as well as a foot-path for the public. 



I 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 113 

The ancient building of brick, at the southern extremity of the village of Audley chap. 
End, probably used as an almshouse or hospital in the time of the monastery, is not ' 



devoid of interest to the antiquary. It consists of two courts, one of which was long- 
since converted into a farm house : the other is occupied by poor persons, selected by 
the owners of Audley End, to whom the property devolved with the rest of the 
demesne. There is, however, no tradition of any charitable endowment connected 
with the buildings; but the dwellings are neat and comfortable, and afford a desirable 
asylum to those who are permitted to reside there. The chapel, now used as a barn, 
between the two courts, is in a ruinous state; and, with the exception of an iron cross 
still surmounting one of the gables, no traces of its original destination are observable. 

Returning to Walden, from the village of Audley End, the first building which Chuich. 
arrests the attention, as most deserving of notice, is the church, an edifice which must 
be admitted by every one to be the chief architectural ornament of the town. On 
the site of the present beautiful fabric, an old church is said to have formerly 
stood, the revenues of which were connected with the abbey, to which the church of 
Walden, together with those of Arksden, Great Chiswell, Elsenham, and many others, 
were attached. The present is a comparatively modern building, chiefly erected in the 
reign of Henry the seventh, and about the close of the fifteenth century. 

A vicarage was instituted here by Reginald the first abbot, who came in about 1174. 
Near two hundred years after, the abbey wanting money to repair the damages sus- 
tained by a great wind, the monks prevailed with the bishop of London to appoint a 
commission for re-uniting the vicar's portion to their revenue, they providing a secular 
priest. This was so settled : but, about 1435, a vicarage was again appointed, to be 
in the gift of the convent, and an agreement was made between the abbot and the 
vicar, specifying what his tythes should be. Upon the dissolution, the patronage was 
placed in the hands of lord Audley, and has since continued in those of his descendants. 
The present structure is justly considered one of the most stately and beautiful 
parish churches in the kingdom. Its appearance, whichever way you enter the town, 
is imposing and magnificent; nor does it lose any thing of its architectural beauty and 
grandeur by a nearer approach. The western end is remarkably fine, and has been 
lately improved by the erection of a spire, from a design by Messrs. Rickman and 
Hutchinson, at an expense of between three and four thousand pounds.* The work 
is admirably executed, and cannot fail to excite the commendation of every beholder. 
The interior of the church is very neat and well arranged: the windows are ornamented 
with mullions and tracery, between several of which are niches, probably intended 
for the statues or effigies of saints. The roofs of the nave, chancel, and side aisles are 
of timber, elegantly painted ; and the spandrels between the arches, which support the 
centre, are well carved in stone. Over the south porch is a council chamber, in which 
* This sum was to be raised from the church rates by a vote of the parishioners in 1831. 



114 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. the corporation annually meet to choose the mayor. Not far from this is a strong and 
spacious vault, of curious workmanship, supposed to have been co-eval with the 
church ; but there does not appear to have been any family deposited therein. It has, 
therefore, for many years, been converted into a charnel-house. The eastern end, 
and part of the south aisle of the chancel, were built by lord Audley; the north part 
of the chancel by the inhabitants, assisted greatly by John Leche, vicar of the parish 
from 1489, till his death in 1521. At the altar is a painting, copied by Peters, from 
Correggio's Holy Family, said to have cost five hundred guineas, which is surmounted 
by a dove in stained glass. 

The burying place of the Howard family is under the communion table. The vault 
was originally approached by steps from the chancel; but the present entrance is on the 
outside, through the porch, which projects at the eastern end of the church. On the 
left side are I'anged the coffins of the six last earls of Suffolk,* who possessed Audley 
End; and, on the right side, those of lord Howard de Walden and his two wives. 
Several plates are affixed to the walls, taken off the coffins of older members of the 
family, when their remains were lowered into a vault, beneath the pavement of the 
present one, to make room for their descendants. 

On entering the church, one of the first impressions made upon the mind is con- 
nected with its lightness, neatness, and accommodation. It was completely repaired 
about forty years ago, at an expense of little less than eight thousand pounds. To 
this the late lord Howard contributed very munificently, and erected, for the use of 
himself and family, a handsome pew gallery, between the nave and the chancel. An 
account of this general repair of the church is recorded by the following inscription 
over the southern door: — 

Inscrip- " Deo optimo inaximo auspice templuiu hoc sacro-sanctum vetustate pene prolapsum lestituerunt 

^^on. Johannes Griffin, Dominus Howard de Walden, et Dominus Braybrooke de Braybrooke, patronus et 

paraciani, A D. 1791, 1792, 1793. 

Translation : 

" Under the propitious eye of God, most mighty and most blessed, this church, consecrated to his 
holy service, and almost fallen into decay by age, John Griffin, lord Howard de Walden, and lord Bray- 
brooke de Braybrooke, the patron, together with the parishioners, restored, in the years of our Lord 1791 , 
1792, 1793." 

So fresh does the work appear, that few persons would suppose so many years can 
have rolled away since the restoration and the improvements, to which this inscrip- 
tion refers. 

There are, however, several other alterations of a more recent date. Many seats 
have been erected for the convenience of the congregation, and a fine-toned organ, 
with a handsome gallery to receive it, has been built at the west end of the church, at 

* For their history, see pages 110, 111. 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 



115 



the expense of many hundred pounds. This excellent instrument of sacred music 
was opened for public worship, January 7th, 1824. 

To enumerate at large the various monumental inscriptions in this church, would 
much exceed the limits of a general history. There are, however, two, which, from 
their antiquity and curiosity, as well as from the relation they bear to the history of 
the church itself, it would be improper to omit. Of these, one of the most singular, 
and which affords something like a specimen of the poetical genius of the times, is that 
of lord Audley. His tomb, of touch marble, which is in the south chancel, has the 
following inscription : — 



CHAP. 
VII. 



" The stroke of deathes inevitable dart ; hath 
Now, alas ! of lyfe beraft the hart ; of syr 
Thomas Audeley of the garter knight ; late 
Chancellour of Englond under our prince of 



Might; Henry the eight wurthy high renoun; and Inscrip- 
Made by him lord Audley of thys town ; obiit 
Ultimo die Aprilis anno Domini 1544, regni regis 
Henrici8.36. Cancellariatus sui 13,et sujE3etatis56." 



In the north chancel is an altar tomb of John Leche, to whom allusion has been 
already made. In addition to the vicarage, which he held at Walden, he was also a 
member, as was likewise his sister, dame Bradbury, of " the gilde or fraternity of the 
Holy Trinity," established by letters patent from king Henry the eighth, dated at 
Westminster, the 24th of March. Leche was distinguished for his piety, benevolence, 
and magnificence ; as appears, among other circumstances, from the following epitaph, 
engraven on a tillet of brass, running round the altar tombstone which covers his 
remains : — 



'* Quo non est, nee erit, nee clarior exstitit ullus 
Unctorum clausum hoc marraore pulvis habet. 

Huic Leche nomen erat, divinae legis amator, 
Hujus quem templi curam habuisse palam est. 

Iste huic multa dabat sacro donaria fano, 
Inceptique operis sedulus auctor erat. 



Pauperibus fuit inde pius, pavit miserosque, 
Et me, qui temere haec carmina composui. 
Hujus sit ergo aniniae coelum jam munus ut altum, 
Hue qui ades instanti pectore funde preces. 
Spes mea in Deo est." 



Translation : 

" Enclosed within this altar tomb, the dust contains a man, than whom no saint is now, or was, or will 
be more renowned. His name was Leche, — a lover of the law of God, — and who, it is manifest, had the 
cure of this church. Many benefactions did he confer on this sacred place ; and was the diligent and per- 
severing promoter of the building from its commencement. To the poor he was beneficent ; the wretched 
he kindly relieved ; and me, among the number, who have ventured to compose this tribute to his memory. 
That heaven above may, therefore, be the reward of his soul, do you who are present with a fervent heart 
pour forth your prayers. My hope is in God." 



On the north side of the church is an elevated seat for the children of the charity 
school, against which the following list of benefactors is inscribed : — 

" Mr. Thomas Penning, merchant, gave by his will five hundred pounds, in 1718. — 



116 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK 11. Ann, countess dowager of SufFolk, by her will, fifty pounds, in 1720.— Charles Wale, 
by his will, a rent charge of five pounds a year for ever, in 1722. — Rebecca Dent, by 
her will, one hundred pounds, in 1722.— Dame Elizabeth Osborne, by her will, in 
1733, gave the sum of two hundred pounds, to be laid out in the purchase of lands." 

As it regards the dimensions of the building, suffice it to say, that its entire length, 
including the porch at the eastern end, is two hundred feet; its breadth eighty-two. 
The height of the tower is eighty-five feet, that of the spire one hundred and eight, 
making a total, from the ground to the top, of one hundred and ninety-three feet; but, 
on account of the hill, on which it stands, presenting an elevation of little less than two 
hundred and fifty feet from the lower parts of the town. The tower contains a peal 
of eioht bells. The rev. Nicholas Bull was inducted to the vicarage in 1803, and is 
the present incumbent. 

Dissent- The dissenters, who are very numerous in this town, have six places of worship; of 

o°Vor-'^^* which that devoted to the society of Friends, appears to have been the earliest. 

^^'P" Although the meeting-house was not opened until 1676, yet, for many years before, 

meetings were held by them in the town. There is a regular register of births from 
1639, and of bui-ials from 1657. 

The congregation of Lidependents, in the Abbey-lane, had its origin in 1665. On 
the 24th of August, 1662, came into operation the " Act of Uniformity," by which two 
thousand of the clergy were led to relinquish their benefices. Among these was the 
rev. Jonathan Paine, incumbent of St. Michael's, Bishops Stortford, who was an 
active and devoted minister of the gospel. He preached at that place, till compelled 
to relinquish his engagements by the five-mile act, in 1665. He then visited the 
neighbouring town of Saffron Walden, and had a congregation, which, under the 
shelter of the proclamation, made by Charles the second, March 15th, 1672, formed 
themselves into a regular worshipping assembly. Some of his hearers were the im- 
mediate descendants of the congregation gathered together by the successful labours of 
John Bradford, the martyr, who was for some time a preacher in the parish church. 

In 1692, the site of the present place of worship was purchased, and the rev. William 
Payne, M. A., was the first minister. He was followed by the rev. Thomas Harris, 
the rev. S. Hayward, author of many celebrated theological works, the rev. James 
Sutherland, M. A., and other ministers in succession. In 1811, the old place of wor- 
ship was taken down, and the present building erected. The rev. William Clayton, 
who was at that time minister of the congregation, continued to occupy it till April, 
1831, when he resigned his pastoral charge, and is succeeded by the rev. Luke Forster, 
Avhose acceptance of the office was publicly recognised, December 5, 1832. 

A separation from the congregation, then assembling in the Abbey-lane, took place 
in 1774, when a large proportion of the people came away with the rev. Joseph 
Gwennap, and buijt the Baptist chapel, at the entrance of the toAvn. Mr. Gwennap 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 117 

left Walden in 1783, and was succeeded by the rev. Matthew Walker, in 1786. He chap. 
resigned the station in 1809, and was followed by the rev. Josiah Wilkinson, who was . 



ordained October 18th, in the same year, and is still minister of the congregation. 

In 1711, a society of dissenters, distinguished by the name of general Baptists, was 
formed, which has continued to the present time. One of the first ministers was the 
rev. Joseph Eedes, who presided over it from 1729 to 1769. He was succeeded by 
the rev. Thomas Barom; who, having two other congregations to serve, one at 
Melbourne and the other at Foulbourne, was assisted by Mr. Christopher Payn. 
Mr. Barom resigned about the year 1790, and was followed by the rev. Stephen 
Philpot, who died in 1821. 

In 1819, a secession took place from different congregations in the town, owing to 
a difference of opinion on certain points of doctrine. After meeting in an apartment 
in tlie High Street for nearly three years, the present place was erected, at the ex- 
tremity of the town, on the London road, and opened for worship in 1822. The rev. 
John Dane Player is minister. 

The last place built for public worship is Wesleyan. It was opened in 1824. 

There are but few towns in the kingdom which, considering its population, present 
on the Sabbath a more interesting spectacle than Walden. Perhaps in no one is that 
sacred day more carefully and religiously observed than here. To this cause, aided 
no doubt by the care which is taken of the instruction of the young, and the vigilance 
of the magistracy, may be traced the order, by Avhich, generally speaking, the town 
has been distinguished. 

There is certainly very considerable attention paid here to the welfare of the rising National 
generation. Beside those places of instruction which are intended for other classes schoolsr 
of society, there are two schools upon the 7iational system, in which about two 
hundred and sixty children of both sexes receive daily education. More than 
three hundred others are connected with the Sabbath schools among the Dis- 
senters, beside those who attend the church school only on the Sabbath, or receive 
gratuitous education among the Dissenters during the week. There is in addi- 
tion a blue-coat school, under the direction of the mayor and aldermen, in 
which about twenty-four children are clothed and educated for three years. There 
is also a grammar-school, which, from its antiquity, its endowments, and other 
circumstances connected with its history, demands particular attention. It is 
said to owe its foundation to " the good intente, mynde, and godlie purpose" 
of the rev. John Leche, which was partly effected during his life-time, and fully 
accomplished after his decease by his sister and heir, dame Johane Bradbury, of 
London, widow. 

It appears by an indenture tripartite, now preserved in the council chamber at 
Walden, « made the 18th day of May, 1525, and in the seventeenth year of Henry 

VOL. II. R 



118 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK 11. the eighth, between dame Johane Bradbury on the oon partie, and the treasorer and 
chambrelyns of the fraternity or gilde of the Holy Trinite, in the parish churche of 
Walden, on the seconde partie, and the abbot and covent of the monastery of the same 
town on the thred partie," that a house and school-room were built by the " said dame 
Johane and master Leche, opposite the lane called the Vicar's-lane, in the town of 
Walden." And further, that dame Bradbury thereby granted a rent-charge of twelve 
pounds per annum, out of the manor of " Willynghall Spayne," in the county of 
Essex, to the gilde of Walden, for the support of " a priest to say mass, and to teach 
children grammar in the school, after the order and use of Winchester and Eton." 
He was to be chosen by the gilde, and examined by the abbot and vicar. After a 
year's probation, he was to retain the situation for life, except in case of delinquency, 
or being promoted to any "benefice, with or without cure of souls." In case of 
infirmity, he was to provide an usher at his own charge. He was to reside in the 
school-house, and was not to be absent above twenty days in the year, and that by 
special licence of the vicar. 

The first master of the school was William Dawson, clerk. He afterwards became 
sir William Dawson, and further endowed the school with about five roods of 
meadow ground, lying almost immediately behind the school premises. 

The learned sir Thomas Smith, who was born at Walden, and was secretary to 
Edward the sixth and queen Elizabeth, had his early education at this school. He 
purchased the gild of Walden for five hundred and thirty-one pounds fourteen shillings 
and eleven pence; and, through his interest at court, the school was raised to a royal 
foundation. It was he that introduced the culture of saffron at Walden, from which 
it has its present appellation. He was very partial to his native town, and thus de- 
scribed it in his "de republica Anglorum;" "Walden vel Saffron Walden, a croco 
dictum, oppidum in agro hlandissimo croco ridente, situm." 

In 1593, Peter Manwood, esq. who had been also educated at this school, purchased 
a piece of land, with a cottage upon it, of about three acres, called " the slade," situate 
in the parish of Walden, near the road which leads from that place to Hadstock. 
This is now let for ten pounds per annum. 

Besides these endowments, there is some land at Tollesbury, in Essex, which pays 

a fourth of its rent to the schoolmaster, so long as he remains unbeneficed. The whole 

of the annual value of the school is about forty pounds, with a house, school-room, 

and meadow. The management of the school is so far under the control of the mayor 

and aldermen, that it is left to their discretion " to choose and nominate some fit man 

to be master," according as " it shall be necessary." The school-room is used at 

Charities P^'^sent for the instruction of boys on the national system. 

and cha- fhe inhabitants of Walden possess no small share of charities and charitable insti- 
ntable m- . * 

stitutions- tutions. The almshouses are the first which deservedly claim our attention. The 



1 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 119 

present range of buildings, which is two hundred and sixty-two feet in length, is CHAP, 
certainly one of the most imposing objects in the place. They were erected in a ' 

meadow, belonging to the old estate, at an expense of between four and five thousand 
pounds, and entered upon in the spring of 1832. Provision is here made for thirty 
persons who have paid to the parish rates, but who, either by age or misfortune, have 
been reduced to the necessity of seeking such an asylum. The number is annually 
filled up, as vacancies may occur, on the first Monday after Christmas. 

Independent of two excellent rooms and a cellar, which are assigned to each person 
elected to this charity, the present allowance is five shillings and six pence per week, 
seven quarts of beer to a man, and half as much more if he has a wife living with him. 
There is a fire constantly kept in the hall, for the general benefit of the occupiers, from 
Michaelmas to old May-day, and occasional donations of wood and money are pre- 
sented to them at different times in the year. Medical attendance and advice are also 
furnished them, in case of sickness, free of all charge. Nor can any thing be more 
convincing of the advantages and comforts of this pleasing retreat, than the earnest 
manner in which it is sought for, when a vacancy occurs, and the gratitude and satis- 
faction which are expressed by such as obtain admittance. 

The present is, as we have observed, an erection of very recent date. The insti- 
tution itself, however, has no small claim to antiquity. It appears to have been formed 
in the year 1400. The following is a brief extract from a copy of the agreement, first 
made and entered into at its establishment. " In the name of our Lord God Jhu, 
Amen. Inasmuch as every good deed and work of charity ought and should be had 
in perpetual mind, therefore, at this present time it is writt and set in memory, that in 
the year of our Lord God 1400, the most worshipful men and parishioners of Walden, 
by consent and help of all the commonalty of the aforesaid town, in the reverence of 
God and of our lady, in help and subsidy of their souls, and of all their friends, 
ordained and made a house of charity, in a street called Daniel' s-lane, &c." The form 
of agreement here follows at length, from which it appears that the number of inmates 
originally provided for was thirteen poor men. But, " if any poor strange sick man 
or woman casually came" by the town, they were to " be received into the foresaid 
house of alms, and there kept and relieved, until they were recovered and whole of 
their sickness." The charity was supported by alms begged from the inhabitants, by 
a person appointed to go round every week, if necessary, and make collections for 
the purpose. A priest was also appointed to say mass, and the whole establishment 
was formed upon the principles of the Romish church. Estates were soon left for its 
support, and, within a hundred and fifty years after its formation, the far larger pro- 
portion of the endowments which it now enjoys were in the hands of its managers. 
But with other monastic establishments it appears to have fallen into the hands of the 
crown, at the time of the suppression. 



120 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. In the reign of Edward the sixth, it was re-granted and confirmed by charter, in 
consequence of which it has been called " the almshouse of Edward the sixth." By 
this name it is described in the charter granted by William and Mary, agreeably to 
the provisions of which it is now governed. The election of members, and the general 
management of the house, are at the direction of the mayor and aldermen for the time 
being. Under their superintendence the present range of buildings was erected, and 
the apartments in the old ones are let at a low rent to the deserving poor of the parish. 
In addition to this charity, which appears to have been the first established in 
Walden, a great number of legacies have been left at different times, of which the 
following is a brief outline. 

In 1481, a house and land were left by Geffrey Symond, alias Heyreman, at first 
for superstitious uses; afterwards to the fraternity of our lady's gikle and their heirs, 
and are now part of the almshouse estate. In 1676, Samuel Leader left a house to 
maintain one poor person in the almshouse more than before. In 1612, William 
Turner left five pounds a year, charged on lands, for the relief and cherishing of the 
poor people in the almshouse, and five pounds a year for the poor of Walden for ever. 
In the fifth year of his reign, Henry the eighth, in conjunction with Katherine Semar, 
master Leche, and dame Jane Bradbury his sister, gave houses, lands, rent-charges, &c. 
by letters patent, and by deeds or wills, for the support of the grammar-school. In 
1623, Thomas Adams, esq. left copyhold lands at Tollesbury; one fourth to the 
overseers, towards clothing the poor; one fourth to the master of the grammar-school, 
having no cure or preferment; if otherwise, for further clothing; remaining two fourths 
to apprentice out poor children. Elizabeth Erswell, in 1652, left houses and lands to 
be paid to such poor men and women as the corporation should approve. William 
Leader, in the reign of Charles the second, left a messuage and lands, to be given in bread 
to the poor. For the same purpose, or money in lieu thereof, Anthony Pennystone, in 
1659, left two hundred pounds, since laid out in lands, under the direction of the court 
of chancery. In 1682, land was given by Matthew Bromfield, to clothe and put forth 
children apprentices. Lettuce Martin, in the fifth of Elizabeth, left three pounds 
six shillings and eight pence to the poor of Audley End and Walden, to be paid 
annually out of lands. In 1692, land was left by Hayues Bailie, to apprentice one 
child out of six parishes yearly, of which Walden is one. Jane Sparrow, widow, and 
Joseph Sparrow, in 1705, left a house and barn, the rents to be distributed by the 
corporation to poor inhabitants of honest life, overburdened with children, or meeting 
with accidents in the world. In 1717, Thomas Penning, esq. bequeathed five hundred 
pounds, laid out in the purchase of lands, by order of the court of chancery, toward 
educating children in the charity-school. Charles Wale, esq. in 1719, for the same 
purpose, left a rent-charge of five pounds yeai'ly. In 1733, dame Elizabeth Osborne 
left two hundred pounds, to be laid out in lands, for the benefit and support of the 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 121 

charity-school. James, earl of SuiFolk, in 1688, and Edmund Turner, esq. of Walden, CHAP, 

in the same year, left upwards of two hundred and thirty pounds, since laid out in 

lands, by order of the court of chancery, for the poor of Walden. In 1700, Edmund 
Turner, of Audley End, left two hundred pounds to be laid out in lands, and the 
rents to be divided : two thirds to Audley End, and one third to the poor of Walden. 
Richard Reynolds, esq. in 1734, left a house for a workhouse, conveyed in con- 
sideration of one hundred and forty pounds raised by the parishioners. In 1744, 
Henry, earl of Suffolk, gave to tlie parish a piece of ground for a pest house, on which 
it now stands. Sarah, viscountess of Suffolk, and also viscountess of Faulkland, in 
1776, left six hundred pounds for the benefit of twenty poor men, and nineteen poor 
women of Walden. In 1623, Thomas Turner left lands for five dozen loaves of bread 
weekly to the poor ; twenty shillings as an increase of diet to the poor of the alms- 
house yearly; twenty shillings for a sermon; one pound thirteen shillings and four- 
pence to the ringers; and six and eight-pence to the parish clerk. A rent-charge of 
five pounds a year was left by Matthew Rand, to the poor in Castle-street. A small 
annual sum was left by Mrs. Hubbard, to be distributed to the poor in bread. Jeffrey 
Symonds, alias Heyreman, left land, to repair a road at Sewer's End. And, by the 
will of the late lord Howard, an annuity was left for clothing annually twelve poor 
men, and twelve poor women, of the parish of Walden; and five of each sex of the 
adjoining parish of Littlebury; to be chosen and nominated by the occupier of the 
mansion-house at Audley End, with the advice of the respective vicars of the said 
parishes. 

Beside the charities, which are rendered permanent by legacies and annuities, there 
are provisions for the comfort of the poor, derived from voluntary contributions. 
For several years past, coals have been furnished them at reduced prices during the 
winter. In 1831, a clothing society was established, the object of which was to 
induce them to lay by a part of their earnings, which is paid into a bank, pro- 
vided for the purpose, once a month, and is received by them in full, at the close 
of the year, in the form of clothing. To encourage them in this act of economy, a 
bonus is granted them equal to more than one fourth of the whole amount. In 1827, 
a Ladies' Benevolent Society was formed, with the view of visiting the afflicted poor at 
their own habitations, and rendering them such relief as their situation might seem to 
require, and the state of the funds woidd allow. Each of these institutions has been 
remarkably well conducted, has afforded relief to numerous families, and is yet in a 
flourishing condition. 

To these may be added the allotments of small portions of land to the labouring 
classes belonging to the parish. The plan was commenced in 1830, in consequence of 
the resolution of a vestry held December the 17th, 1829, at a period when the unem- 
ployed population was unusually great. Through the zealous and active co-operation 



122 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. of lord Braybrooke and other gentlemen, the proposal was acted upon without delay; 
and, at this period, about thirty-five acres are so occupied, consisting, exclusive of the 
road-ways, of one hundred and fifty-eight allotments, varying from twenty to eighty 
rods. In these thirty-five acres, upwards of seven hundred individuals have an interest, 
including the heads of families and their children. Nor does it appear, from subsequent 
consideration, that any plan has been adopted in country towns and villages, which is 
better, if equally adapted, to benefit the labourer, and attach him to the soil, from 
which he is to derive support. 

Of these institutions it is one important advantage that, as character is properly 
regarded in those who make application for their benefit, they become, to no incon- 
siderable extent, the giiardians of the public morals; at all events, they are a check 
to that gross licentiousness which, in some places, is found to prevail to a disgraceful 



excess. 



Antiqui- 
ties and 
other cu- 
riosities. 



Of the antiquities of Walden, the castle is the first to attract the attention of the 
tourist. It was built, as we have already observed, by Geoff'rey de Mandeville, in 
the time of William the conqueror. But the documents which remain respecting it 
are so few, and the history so scanty, that we have it not in our power to give an 
accurate account of its original dimensions. Only a part of the keep and some of the 
walls which belonged to the foundation, and formed the dungeon, are now standing. 
Some of them are thirty feet out of the ground, which has been dug away round them, 
and which has left them in the state in which they now appear. That it was a place 
of great strength is evident, and that its extent was very considerable, may be inferred 
from the remains of old walls, which have been found by workmen when digging for 
the foundations of modern houses. It is probable that it bore a resemblance to other 
castles of the same date, and that its original altitude was from fifty to eighty feet 
greater than any of the earth Avorks which at present are standing. Were this not 
the case, it would have been an exception to the castles of the same age, many of which 
yet remain, and to the plan of building them, which was then so generally adopted. 
The materials of which they were formed varied, according to the places of their 
erection, and the form according to the choice of the architect. But the manner of 
their construction, and the apartments of which they consisted, seem to have been pretty 
uniform, and to have been used for similar purposes in every part of the kingdom. 

The Pell, or Repel ditches, form the next subject for the researches of the anti- 
quarian. They are the remains of an ancient encampment, of an oblong form, and 
were originally of much greater extent than at present The south bank is about 
seven hundred feet long, twenty high, fifty broad at the base, and six or eight feet wide 
at the top. The west bank is five hundred and eighty-eight feet long. Both banks 
and ditches are extremely bold and well preserved, but the time when they were first 
formed is not certain. Near to them is a field, now in the occupation of Mr. Wyatt 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 123 

George Gibson, in which were found, a short time since, the remains of a considerable CHAP 

number of human bodies, evidently of those who had fallen in battle. Out of ten 

holes which were dug promiscuously in different parts of the field, nine presented as 
many bodies. In a trench, about one hundred and twenty feet long, were not fewer 
than from fifty to seventy ; at the end of which, embedded in chalk, were the remains 
of a man and a horse. From the teeth found in many of the heads which were taken 
up and examined, and of which even the enamel was entire, they appeared to have 
been between thirty and fifty years of age. On the breast of one was a buckle, said 
to be Roman; and in the cavity, which contained the bones of the horse and man, 
were a Roman tile, and a pot, which appeared to have been exposed to the tire. One 
of the skulls had the evident marks of a cut from a battle axe, or other sharp weapon; 
and the bodies, which are to be found in various parts of the field, are not two feet 
from the surface. From these circumstances it is natural to conclude, that the persons 
buried fell in battle, and not improbably the ditches just referred to were an embank- 
ment, raised for defence at the time of this engagement. 

In different parts of the parish have been found the tusks and teeth of elephants, 
some of them embedded in gravel; some of them below the gravel, in a stratum of 
black mould; and some in chalk; but most of them from ten to twelve feet below the 
surface. Marine shells have likewise been discovered in a bed of blue clay. 

To these natural curiosities may be added some of an artificial kind, which are not 
undeserving of notice. In an old house in the town is a curious relic of old English 
workmanship. It consists of a large oaken beam over the fire-place, eight feet six 
inches in length, and one foot three inches in breadth, at the centre; beautifully carved 
in relief, with the following devices. The figure of a ton is cut in a scroll, between 
the syllables myd and dyl; and, being read after them, makes up the word Myddylton^ 
probably the name of the person who once possessed the building; and, upon the side 
of the vessel is a single letter, seemingly an R. to denote his christian name; the date 
of the year also in Arabic figures, which fix it at 1387, is placed at two transverse 
angles of the same letter. All the letters, figures, and the bolt of the ton, are formed 
of the twigs of vines stripped of their leaves. 

Over the fire-place in the hall of the old almshouse was a curious plate, with an 
inscription in old English characters; which, although it does not mentionthe year, is 
sufficiently indicative of the time when it was engraven. The following is a full 
length copy, only in a different letter. 

" Orate pro anima magistrl Thomae Bryd, nuper rectoris ecclesiae parochialis de Munden Magna, ac 
aniinabus Thomae Bryd, ct Agnetis uxoris suae parentiiin ejusdcni magistri Thomae, quibiis ex bonis hoc 
caminum aedificatum est necnon animabus Johannis Bryd, fratris sui et Johannae uxoris suae, ac omnium 
fidelium Domini defunctorum quorum animabus propitietur Deus. Amen." 



124 



BOOK 11. 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 
Translation : 



Altera- 
tions and 
improve- 
ments. 



" Pray for the soul of master Thomas Bryd, late rector of the parish church of Great Munden, and 
for the souls of Thomas Bryd, and Agnes his wife, parents of the said master Thomas, from whose goods 
this hearth (or chimney) was erected ; also for the souls of John Bryd his brother, and Johan his wife, 
and of all the faithful of the Lord who have departed this life, to whose souls may God be propitious. Amen." 

On the green behind the castle, Dr. Stukeley mentions a singular work called the 
maze, which he supposes to have been a British ciirsus, a place of exercise for the 
soldiery. He describes it as formed by a number of concentric circles, with four 
outworks issuing from the sides, all cut in the chalk. It is probable he refers to a 
spot on the common known now by the same name, and which was re-cut some years 
since, and turfed with grass, under the direction of Mr. Robinson, whose house was 
immediately behind it. Although much worn away, the traces of it are still very 
apparent, but the original design and use of it are, after all, uncertain.* 

Beside the church and the almshouses, to which allusion has been made already, 
there have been, within the last twenty years, alterations and improvements in the 
town, which, while they add to the respectability of its appearance, contribute in no 
small degree to the comfort of its inhabitants. 

One of the first of these was set on foot by Mr. Robert Paul, who, having purchased 
a building which greatly obstructed the entrance to the market-place on the southern 
side, offered it to the parish for one hundred and ninety pounds, which sum was 
collected by voluntary contributions. The building alluded to was opposite the White 
Horse, and extended twenty-seven feet across the road. This was removed, and, in- 
stead of an entrance eighteen feet wide, is now presented an openiug of forty-five feet. 

* Mazy earth works, resembling that mentioned above, are found in different parts of England and 
Wales. In Cambridgeshire we find them at Comberton and Hilton, and there are several in Dorsetshire 
and Lincolnshire. In some places they go by the name of Troy-Towns, and in others by that of Julian's 
Bower. Dr. Stukeley (Itin. Curios.) imagines them to have been introduced by the Romans, and would 
have us believe that they were intended for practising the game called by the Romans Troja Ludiis, the 
origin of which is described in the iEneid, (lib. v.) Stukeley's arguments, however, are only the sem- 
blance between the names of Troy Town and Troja Ludus, and between Julian'' s Bower and lulus ; and 
when we consider the nature of the Troja Ludus and the appearance of these earth works, his hypothesis 
appears at least exceedingly improbable. In some parts of England, more particularly towards Wales, 
Troy Town is a name sometimes given to the figure of a labyrinth among the lower orders. In Wales, these 
earth works are called Caer Troi, and as troi signifies in Welsh to turn or tvind about, it would seem that 
it should rather be interpreted the winding banks, than supposed to have any allusion to Troy. It may 
be observed that the word bower, when found in names of places like these, seems to be a corruption of 
the Saxon word Bup^, which is applied either to a town or to a work made with ramparts of earth. 
At the maze (called there mazles) at Comberton, in Cambridgeshire, it has been a custom, from time 
immemorial, among the villagers, to hold a feast every three years about the time of Easter. It would 
seem most probable that such works originally served for some religious ceremony among the Britons, to 
whom they are generally attributed, as among all the ancient systems the labyrinth was a sacred symbol. — 
See Ilutchin's History of Dorset, \o\. i. p. 100, 101, for descriptions, with engravings, of mazes in Dorset.— Ed. 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 125 

In 1818, the old market-cross, the removal of which had been long considered a ^ H a p. 

VII. 

desideratum, was taken down. The gaol was also removed from the market-place, 

and a house of correction built at the upper part of the town, together with a small 
hospital for the reception of invalids. The expense of this alteration exceeded four 
hundred pounds, more than three hundred and thirty of which were voluntary con- 
tributions. The market-place is now one of the most open and airy of any in the county. 

In 1831, was opened a new market for cattle, on the site of premises lately used 
as a public-house, and known by the sign of the " eight bells." It is entered by a 
handsome archway, and is bounded on the road-side by iron pallisades. The expense 
of this was upwards of twelve hundred pounds, raised also by subscriptions. 

Within the last two years a bridge has been built over the Slade, and a good road 
made for both foot passengers and carriages, towards either Linton or Ashdon. 

The hills leading to Cambridge and Newport have been greatly improved by being 
lowered, and rendered in every respect more commodious both for the ascent and 
descent of carriages. Footpaths, on different roads near the town, have been made or 
improved, by which pleasant promenades have been furnished to the inhabitants, 
especially towards Littlebury and Audley End. 

In addition to horticultural and other societies, an institution has lately been formed, 
the design of which is more particularly to encourage the cultivation of literature and 
science, by the name of the Saffron Walden Institution. A small museum has been 
already collected, to which additions are constantly made; and lectures are to be 
delivered as often as practicable, for the benefit of the public. It is proposed also to 
erect a commodious building in the vicinity of the castle, in which meetings may be 
held, and accommodation afforded to societies, which either are or may be estab- 
lished in the town. Under the Reform Act, it has been made one of the polling 
places for the northern division of the county, embracing fifty-four parishes. 

There is a good supply of every necessary comfort of life, at all times during the Market;, 
week. A regular market, however, is kept every Saturday, which is well attended 
by the inhabitants of the neighbouring towns and villages, and particularly by dealers 
in corn and cattle. There are also two fairs; one on the Saturday before Midlent 
Sunday, and the Monday following; and the other on the first and second days in 
November, unless either of them should fall on the Sabbath; in which case it is kept 
on the day following. An annual fair has also been kept at Audley End, on the fifth 
and sixth days of August, with the same exception, which is now removed to Walden. 

It only remains to treat of the manner in which the town is governed, and the Govern- 
several changes which it has undergone. In the reign of Henry the eighth, it was a the town 
Guild or Fraternity of the Holy Trinity. In a grant made to it by that king, it is 
stated that, as he hoped " he might evermore be remembered in their perpetual 
prayers, so he charitably desired that he might be admitted a brother thereof, and 

VOL. II. s 



126 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. his dear wife, queen Katherine, a sister."* This was afterwards dissolved, and, at 
the intercession of John Smith, esq. and under the influence of his brother, sir 
Thomas Smith, then secretary to Edward the sixth, a charter was granted by that 
monarch, rendering Walden a corporate town. By this charter the corporation was 
to consist of a treasurer, two chamberlains, who were justices of the peace, and 
twenty-four aldermen. In the reign of James, the town was again incorporated by 
his letters patent, " both burghers and inhabitants, (in room of the late treasurer, 
chamberlains, and commonalty,) by the name of mayor and aldermen," and divers 
liberties, franchises, and other privileges were granted to the same. 

The charter, however, under which the town is now governed, was granted in the 
reign of William and Mary, by which it is appointed that there shall be " one honest 
and discreet man, who shall be, and shall be called, the mayor of the town aforesaid; 
and one man, who shall be, and shall be called, the recorder of the town aforesaid; 
and twelve honest and discreet men, besides the mayor of the town for the time being, 
who shall be, and shall be called, the aldermen of the town aforesaid; and one honest 
and discreet man, who shall be, and shall be called, the town-clerk of the town afore- 
said; also one honest and discreet man, who shall be, and shall be called, the coroner 
of the town aforesaid ; to do and execute all and singular the things, which do there 
belong or appertain to the ofl&ce of a coroner of the town aforesaid." The recorder, 
the deputy-recorder, the mayor, the ex-mayor, and the two senior aldermen, are 
justices of the peace; and the mayor is to continue in office one whole year, or until 
the appointment of one of the aldermen to occupy his place. This appointment is 
required to be made on the feast of St. Michael, from year to year. 

The gentlemen who at present act under this charter are the following : — 

The right hon. lord Braybrooke, recorder; Vicesimus Knox, esq. deputy-recorder; 
Charles Barnes Wilkins, esq. mayor. Aldermen: William Mapletoft, esq.; Thomas 
Smith, esq.; Charles Fiske, esq.; Samuel Fiske, esq.; John Archer, esq.; Thomas 
Archer Catlin, esq.; Nathaniel Catlin, esq.; Stephen Robinson, esq.; Charles T. 
Master, esq.; Henry Burrows, esq.; C. T. Master, town-clerk and coroner. 

This extensive and improving parish is between twenty and thirty miles in cir- 
cumference: in 1821, it contained four thousand one hundred and fifty-four, and, in 
1831, as already stated, four thousand seven hundred and sixty-two inhabitants.f 

* See Strype'3 life of sir Thomas Smith, in 1698. 

f The preceding interesting and very complete history of Audley End, and of Saffron Walden, is from 
the pen of the rev. J. Wilkinson, of that town, who has kindly contributed it to this work. 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 127 

CHAP. 
VII. 
GREAT CHESTERFORD. 



The district extending north north-west from SaflPron Walden, and including Great Great 
and Little Chesterford, appears to have been divided at an early period, and in the ford''. 
most ancient records bears these distinctive appellations. The Saxon name, which 
is written rrea;-tejij:ojib, is derived from Ereaj-tep, the Saxon form given to the 
Roman word castrum, alluding to the camp there, and from a ford over the river, 
which is supposed to have been there. The village* is pleasantly situated, with an 
open prospect into Cambridgeshire : distant from Saffron Walden four, and from 
London forty-five miles. 

The lands of this north-western extremity of the county are included in the chalk 
district, which extends beyond Walden in that direction; the general character, on 
the hills, a thin dry turnip soil, on chalk; in the vales a good loam, on gravel.f 
There were formerly very extensive uninclosed common lands here, but, in 1803, an 
act of parliament was passed for the inclosure of three thousand five hundred acres; 
and cottagers, who previously had cowgates on the commons, have now allotments 
of land which they cultivate to the best advantage. 

Earl Edgar had the lands of Great Chesterford toward the close of the Saxon era; 
at the time of the survey they were among the possessions of the king, and afterwards 
this lordship became the property of the family of Mareschal, earls of Pembroke, and Mareschai 
was made to belong to the marshalship of England. William le Mareschal married ^°" ^' 
Isabel, daughter and sole heiress of Richard Strongbow, and was, in her right, created 
earl of Pembroke, in 1199: their five sons were W^illiam, Richard, Gilbert, Walter, 
and Anselm, who each in succession enjoyed the family honours, and the office of 
marshal of England, but all died without issue: Anselm, the last of them, died in 
1245: there were also five daughters; Maud, married to Hugh Bigot, earl of Norfolk: 
Joan, to Warine de Montchensy, lord of Swanescarap; Isabel, to Gilbert de Clare, 
earl of Gloucester, and afterwards to Richard Plantagenet, earl of Cornwall; Sibil, 
to William Ferrers, earl of Derby; and Eva, to William Brus, lord of Brecknock. 
In 1225, on the decease of Anselm le Mareschal, earl of Pembroke, his large estate 

* It was formerly a market-town, described as a " great towne and populous, having in it to the 
number of five hundred houseling people, and more :" and being of the ancient demesne of the crown, 
enjoyed numerous important privileges on that account; these may be seen in the charter of king Charles 
the first, dated May the twenty-third, 16.34, and preserved in the church chest. Of these privileges, 
the exemption from tolls at fairs, markets, bridges, &c. was of importance, when a great part of a lord's 
revenue was from this source ; and the knights of the shires' wages were felt as an incumbrance of some 
weight, when they were paid by the country, and these were among the exemptions. The ancient tenure 
here is borough- English ; the youngest son or daughter, uncle or other kinsman, claiming tlie inheritance 
of those wlio die intestate. 

+ Average annual produce — wheat 18, barley 22 bushels. 



128 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II, was divided among his five sisters, his co-heiresses; and to Maud, the eldest, 
was apportioned eleven hundred and twenty pounds per annum, with the office and 
rod of marshal of England, into which she was invested in 1246. This lady, after 
the death of her first lord, was married to John de Warren, earl of Surrey. Her 
three sons, by Hugh Bigot, were Roger, Hugh, Ralph; she had also one daughter, 
and resigned the office to her eldest son, Roger Bigot, earl of Norfolk,* in 
1247, one year previous to her decease. — The earl married Isabel, daughter of 
William, king of Scotland, by his third queen, Ermengard de Beaumont, great 
grand-daughter of king Henry the second, but died in 1269, without issue. He 
held this manor of the honour of Strigul, to which also belonged the advowson 
of the church: Roger, the son of his brother Hugh, was his successor, who, 
though he had two wives, had no issue. He left all his estate to king Edward 
the first, to whom he also resigned his office of marshal, receiving in return, besides 
a sum of money to pay his debts, a pension for life:f he died in 1307, and, in 1312, 
king Edward the second conferred this manor, and afterwards the marshalship, on 
his brother, Thomas de Brotherton; who married first, Alice, daughter of sir 
Edward Hayls, of Harwich; and, secondly, Mary, daughter of William lord Roos, 
who survived him, but had no issue. By the lady Alice he had Margaret, first 
married to John de Segrave, and afterwards to sir Walter de Manny, knight of the 
garter: the lady Margaret, in 1398, was created duchess of Norfolk for life, but died 
in the following year, having survived her second husband, who died in 1372. By 
her first husband she had two daughters, Anne, abbess of Barking, and Elizabeth, 
married to John de Mowbray, of Axholm, to whom she conveyed this and other large 
estates. He was slain by the Turks, near Constantinople, in 1368, on his journey to 
the Holy Land; of his two sons, John and Thomas, John, the eldest, was created earl of 
Nottingham in 1377, at the coronation of king Richard the second; and, dying in 1382, 
in the eighteenth year of his age, was succeeded by his brother Thomas, created earl 
of Nottingham in 1382, and, in 1397, duke of Norfolk, and constituted earl marshal 
of England, being the first instance of the conjunction of these titles, the term, 
" grand, or lord marshal," having been previously used. This nobleman being a party 
in the murder of the duke of Gloucester, on that account received great honours and 

* It is recorded of this nobleman, that he joined with Humphrey Bohun, earl of Hereford, in the reso- 
lution of refusing to go to the war in Gascony, unless accompanied by the king ; and that when urged by 
his majesty to go without him, he answered, *' Sir, I am ready to attend your person in the front of the army, 
as I am bound by hereditary right." To which the king answered, *' But you shall go with others, without 

me." The earl replied, " lam not so bound, neither shall I go without you ;" the king swore, " By , 

sir earl, you shall go, or hang;" but the earl, with the same oath, answered, " Sir king, I will neither go 
nor hang." And so departed, without leave. 

t He had one thousand pounds to pay his debts and for present use, and one thousand pounds per 
annum for life ; and to have his office and estate returned, if he should have children. 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 129 

riches from Richard the second : but for seditious or disloyal expressions, was banished CHAP, 
for life, and died at Venice in 1400. By his first lady Elizabeth, daughter of John !_ 



le Strange, of Blackmere, he had no offspring: but marrying, secondly, Elizabeth, 
sister and co-heiress of Thomas Fitz-Alan, earl of Arundel, widow of William, son 
of William Montacute, earl of Salisbury, he had Thomas, John, Margaret, and 
Isabel: after his decease, his lady was married to sir Robert Goushill, who dying, she 
was again married to Gerard Ufilet, and held this manor as part of her dower, till 
her decease in 1424. Her eldest son Thomas, earl marshal, married Constance, 
only daughter of John Holland, duke of Exeter, but had no children. He was 
beheaded in 1405, being accused of a conspiracy against king Henry the fourth. 
His brother John, in 1413, was restored to the earldom of Nottingham, with the 
office of earl marshal, and to the dukedom of Norfolk, in 1416: he died in 1432, 
leaving, by his lady Katharine, daughter of Ralph Neville, earl of Westmoreland, 
John, his son, the third duke of Norfolk ; who, by his lady Eleanor, only daughter of 
William Bourchier, earl of Eu, had his son, John Mowbray, the last duke of Norfolk 
of this family, who died in 1477, leaving an only daughter, named Anne, on which 
this and his other estates went to his heirs-at-law, of the families of Howard and 
Berkley; as descendants of Margaret, married to sir Robert Howard, ancestor of Berkley 

I3.TIlllv 

the noble family of that name, and of Isabel,* who, married to James lord Berkley, 
had by him William and Maurice. On the partition of the Mowbray estates, this 
manor, with the title of earl marshal, was the portion of William lord Berkley, 
knighted in 1458, created, in 1481, viscount Berkley; in 1483, made earl of Not- 
tingham, and, in 1485, constituted marshal of England, and also advanced to the title 
of marquis of Berkley. He was three times married, but had only two children, 
Thomas, and Catharine, who died in their infancy; and he consequently, in 1487, 
devised the castle and manor of Berkley, with several other manors, to king 
Henry the seventh ;■]■ by this arrangement his brother Maurice, who had (as has been 
supposed) incurred his displeasure, by marrying Isabel, daughter of Philip Mead, 
alderman of Bristol, (a person beneath his quality), was disinherited, and enjoyed 
none of the family honours, yet recovered a great part of the estate, including this of 
the Chesterfords.J The ancient manor-house was not far from the site of the pre- 
sent mill.§ 

♦ She had been first married to sir Hent7 Ferrers, of Groby, and had by him only one daughter, named 
Elizabeth. 

t In return, the king authorised him to convey twenty-five of his other lordships to whom he pleased. 

J See Dugdale's Baronage, vol. i. 

§ This appears from the record. " Maud, lady marshalless of England, countess of Norfolk and Warren, 
gave forty shillings yearly, issuing out of her mill at Chesterford, just by her court there, to the nuns of 
St. George, at Thetford, to buy them clothes, half linen, half woollen." — T. Madox's History of the E.v- 
chequer, p. 33, from Hit. Brev. Ric. ii. rot. xviii. 0. 



130 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



Holdens. 



Church. 



BOOK II. In 1502, Maurice Berkley and his wife Isabel, gave this manor to the abbey of St. 
Peter, in Westminster, which grant was confirmed, in 1503, by khig Henry the 
seventh, to John Islip, abbot, with leave to appropriate the rectory to himself and his 
successors, on which a vicarage was ordained. On the dissolution, it was granted, 
in 1540, by Henry the eighth, to lord chancellor Audley, whose only daughter 
Margaret, married to Thomas, duke of Norfolk, succeeded to this estate; and from 
her it has descended to the present owner, the marquis of Bristol. 

There was formerly an old ruinous building called Holdens, which from family 
writings appears to have been in the possession of Thomas Lambert, whose only 
daughter and heiress, Anne, was married to John Baker, esq., servant to king Henry 
the eighth; of seven sons, John Baker, the second, had this estate: he married Jane 
daughter of Thomas Sherbroke of Yorkshire, and left Jane his only daughter, his 
heiress, married to Robert Newport, of Chesterford, who on his decease left by her 
six daughters. 

The church, dedicated to All Saints, is a spacious and lofty building of stone, with 
nave, north and south aisles, and chancel, the whole leaded, and in an excellent state 
of repair : a square tower contains six bells ; above which there is an ornamental 
lantern. 
Chantry. On the south of the chancel there is a chapel, formerly "our lady's chantry," 
founded by William Holden and Katharine his wife ; and endowed with farms, lands, 
and rents : he died in 1523.* There is a room on the northern side of the chancel, 
for a free-school, endowed with land, by William Hart, esq., and under the manage- 
ment of the master and fellows of Magdalene-college, Cambridge. 

In 1719, the living of this church was augmented by the gift of 200/. from bishop 
Robinson, to which was added the same sum, from queen Anne's bounty. 

* There is tlie following inscription in the chapel : " Pray for the sowls of William Holden and Katheryn 
his wife, founders of our Ladies chauntre, which William decessed 2 Dec. 1523." On the grant of this 
chantry by Edward the sixth, the property belonging to it, and the state of the institution, are described as 
" lands and tenements put in feoffment by William Holden, to find a priest for ever to sing masse in the 
church of Chesterford, and help the cure; and one sir John Gust, clerk, of the age of fifty-eight year.s, 
and of good usage and conversation, and teacheth a grajumar schoole, and hath to the nombre of twenty 
schollers and more, ys now incumbent thereof." 

Also the following : *' Here lieth the body of Susannah Richers, one of the daughters of sir John Payton, 
of Doddington, in the isle of Ely, knt., relict of sir John Richers, of Tring Hall, in Norfolk, esq., she 
died in 1706, in the 90th year of her age." 

" Here lieth Mr. John Howard, seventh son of 'JTiomas lord Howard, baron of Walden, and knight of 
the garter ; he lived twelve days, and died the 24th day of May." 

Charities : in 1459, the rev. Richard Hill, rector of this parish, gave an estate, value nineteen pounds 
per annum, the income to be distributed to the poor for ever, by the minister and twelve trustees. It is 
applied to supplying any poor farmer in the parish with the amount of any horse, cow or other animal he 
may have the misfortune to lose. Also, an annuity of twenty shillings was given to the poor out of an 
estate in this parish. 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 131 

The village of Great Chesterford is, without doubt, the site of a Roman station. C H A F. 

. . VII. 

The Roman camp which might, some years ago, be completely traced, was of an ' 

oblong form, rounded at the corners. Stukeley, in his Itinerarium Curiosum, has ^^^^^ 
given a plan of it, as it might be traced in 1722. The then Crown Inn was opposite Chester- 
the centre of the wall of the south-east end, and was separated from it by the road; 
and the south-west side reached along the brow of the bank that rose up from the side 
of the river Cam. The foundations of the walls, Stukeley says, " were very apparent, 
quite round, though level with the ground, including a space of about fifty acres." 
Great part of it served for a causeway to the road from Cambridge to London. " The 
rest," he continues, "is made use of by the countrymen for their carriages to and fro 
in the fields. The earth is still high on both sides of it. In one part they have been 
long digging it up for materials in building and mending the roads. There I measured 
its breadth twelve feet, and remarked its composition of rag-stone, flints, and Roman 
brick. In a little cottage hard by, the parlour is paved with the bricks. They are 
fourteen inches and a half long, and nine broad." At the north-west end, Stukeley 
observed the foundations of a temple very apparent. It being almost harvest time, 
" the poverty of the corn growing where the walls stood, defines it to such a nicety, 
that I was able to measure it with exactness enough. The dimensions of the cell or 
naos were fifteen feet in breadth, and forty in length; the pronaos, where the steps 
were, appeared at both ends, and the wall of the portico around, whereon stood the 
pillars."* He adds, that he had seen many Roman coins which were dug up " in the 
city or borough-field as they call it." 

Many coins, both of the early and of the later emperors, have been found here,t 
but the most numerous are those of Caligula, Trajan, Constantine, and Constajitius. 
There were also found a bronze bust, various fibulae, with brass and gold utensils and 
instruments, as well as many urns and entire skeletons, " and a small urn also of red 
earth, containing several written scrolls of parchment, but dispersed before any account 
or explanation could be obtained. A stone trough, the only one of the kind perhaps 
in England, discovered here, and sometime used for water at a smith's forge, was in 
the hands of the late Dr. Gower, of Chelmsford, who supposed it to be a receptacle 
of ashes, of the kind called by Montfaucon and others, Quietorium. It is a half octagon, 
with a flat back, about three feet long, and about a foot or eighteen inches deep : in 
four compartments are reliefs of human figures down to the waists, in tolerable pre- 

* " I remarked," he adds, " that the city was just a thousand Roman feet in breadth, and that the 
breadth to the length was as three to five, of the same proportion as they make their bricks. 'Tis posited 
obliquely to the cardinal points, its length from north-west to south east, whereby wholesomeness is so 
well provided for, according to the direction of Vitruvius." — Stukeley, Itin. Cur. p. 75, 

t A pot, containing a large quantity of very fine coins, was found here in 1769. 



132 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



Cambo 

licum 

Iciani. 



BOOK II. servation. That in the middle, which seems older than the others, has nothing in its 
hands; that to the right holds a kind of patera, with a handle; one to the left, in a 
palvdmnerdum, has a singular weapon, like a trident, with a bar across the top, or 
perhaps a vexillum; the other, but half a figure, holds a spear."* 

Stukeley and Baxter thought that Great Chesterford was the Camboricum of 
Antoninus, but every circumstance that we know relating to Camboricum points so 
strongly to Cambridge as the site of that important station, that the supposition of its 
being at Chesterford must be abandoned. Horsley imagined it to be Iciani, which 
was, perhaps, the more probable conjecture, yet it does not seem to answer well to 
that station, which Re}Tiolds has placed at Thetford, in Norfolk. It seems most 
probable, therefore, that the station at Chesterford is one of which the Roman name 
has not come down to us, with Cambridge, perhaps one of the important posts on the 
line of forts which stretched from this part through Cambridgeshire towards the fens.f 
A smaller camp, distinct from the great station, may be traced near the church, and 
several others have been noticed within a distance of a few miles. 

In 1821, this parish contained seven hundred and fifty-five; and in 1831, eight 
hundred and seventy-three inhabitants. 



Little 
Chester- 
ford. 



Manor. 



LITTLE CHESTERFORD. 

This small parish is separated from Littlebury by the river Granta, and extends 
from Great Chesterford to Walden ; in length it is a mile and a half, and in breadth 
a mile and a quarter: the 'village is small, and the houses of humble appearance, chiefly 
occupied by those who are engaged in agricultural labour. 

InJ;he time of Edward the confessor, this manor belonged to queen Edeva ; and at 
the survey, was holden under Walter the deacon. 

The manor-house is pleasantly situated on the highest part of the parish, with an 
agreeable prospect. The estate belonged to Robert de Hastings, forming two of the 
ten knights' fees of his barony ; his daughter and heiress Delicia, by marriage conveyed 
it to Godfrey de Louvain. In 1302, Thomas de Bret held this manor under Matthew 
de Lovain, by military service, as one knight's fee: and died here in 1345. Thomas 
Hasilden, esq. had this possession in 1409, whose family were seated here till Frances, 

* Gough^s Additions to the Britannia, vol. ii. p. 62. — Horsely has given a figure, wretchedly engraved, of 
this relic, in his Britannia Romana. He saw it in a mill at Chesterford. 

•f- Speaking of Vandlebury, or the entrenchment on the Gogmagog hills, Gough observes, — " Vandlebury 
is the fourth of the chain of forts which begins at the large camp on the hill where the hunting tower 
stood, opposite to Audley End. Littlebury church stands in another. The walled town at Chesterford 
is a third. To Vandlebury succeeded Grantaceaster ; then Arbury ; and last, Belsars hills ; all within 
sight of one another, reaching from the woodland of Essex to the fens, and crossed by several parallel 
ditches, quite to the Devil's ditch." 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 133 

only daughter and heiress of Francis Hasilden,* by marriage conveyed this estate to C H A p. 
sir Robert Peyton, of Isleham, in Cambridgeshire. Sir Robert was at the siege of ' 



Boulogne with king Henry the eighth : with his lady Frances he had, besides this 
estate, those of Steeple and Gilden Morden, in Cambridgeshire; he died in 1550, his 
lady in 1580, and both were biu'ied at Isleham: their children were Robert Peyton, 
esq. of Isleham, and William ; and Richard, of this place, who married Margaret, 
daughter of sir Leonard Hyde, of Sandon, in Hertfordshire, who on sir Leonard's 
decease was married to John Carey lord Hunsdon. The Peyton family sold this 
manor to Thomas lord Audley, through whose posterity it descended to the marquis 
of Bristol. 

Manhall, formerly a manor, and comprising seventy acres of woodland, is situated Manhall. 
at the southern extremity of the parish. In the time of Edward the confessor, 
the lands which bore the name of Manhall were in the possession of Siward, 
and of a freeman whose name does not appear ; at the survey, this estate belonged 
partly to Alan, earl of Bretagne, and partly to Geofrey de Mandeville: it was after- 
wards given to the abbey of St. Edmundsbury, by Stephen; and in 1257 it passed, 
in exchange for other lands, from Symond, abbot of St. Edmundsbury, to Richard, 
earl of Gloucester, who, in 1259, obtained leave to build a castle here. William de 
Montchensy, on his decease, held this manor of the earl by the service of half a knight's 
fee, and the yearly payment of twenty-four shillings to the bishop of Ely ; two shil- 
lings to William Putyne; two shillings to the abbot of Walden; eight pence to Simon 
Voygard ; and to the heirs of William de Butiler a pound of pepper : from the 
Montchensy family it passed to that of Bourchier; and by marriage, to sir William 
Parr, baron of Kendal, created earl of Essex and marquis of Northampton, who, in 
1545, conveyed it to lord Audley, from whom it has descended to the marquis of 
Bristol, with the farm called Little Chesterford Park, as well as the advowsons of Little 

Cli tester- 

Great and Little Chesterford, which livings were consolidated some time ago : the ford Park. 
former is a vicarage, the latter a rectory. In both parishes, the great and small tithes 
were commuted for land under the Act of Enclosure. The hon. and rev. Richard 
Fitzgerald King is the present incumbent, having been nominated by the crown, upon 
the vacancy occasioned by the elevation of archdeacon Blomfield to the see of Chester. 

* Arms of Hasilden : Argent, a cross florie, sable. This family was originally of Cambridgeshire : 
Richard, the son of Thomas Hasilden, had by his wife Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Stephen Tuber- 
vil, his son and heir John, who marrying the daughter and heiress of Henry Hampton, esq. of Hertford- 
shire, had by her, besides other children, John, her heir, in 1452, high sheriff' of the counties of 
Huntingdon and Cambridge ; and who held the manor of Little Chesterford of the duke of York, as of his 
honour of Clare. He married Elizabeth, sister of John lord Tiptoft, daughter and heiress of * * * * 
Dennys, by whom he had several children, of whom Katharine was married to James Uockwra : John, 
his son and heir, by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of sir John Cheney, had Frances his daughter and 
heiress. 

VOL. II. T 



134 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. 



Climch. 



Mouu- 
inent. 



The church is a small ancient building-, dedicated to St. Mary ; it is entered by the 
north porch under a Gothic arch, ornamented with sculptured heads ; many of the 
windows are single lancet-shaped, one of which is at the west end; some of those on 
the north and south are Gothic, of later origin. The chancel is entered under a 
heavy wooden screen. An ancient tomb of fine marble in the chancel bears the effigy 
of the person it commemorates, in a recumbent postm*e, his right arm upon a cushion; 
and in his hand a veil, partly shading a death's head, with various appropriate orna- 
ments, well executed : above these, the family arms are inclosed in a pediment, and 
under them is the following inscription : — 

" Here lies the body of James Walsingham, esq., who was son of Thomas Walsingham, esq., late of 
Scadbury, in the county of Kent, (by the lady Anne Howard, daughter of Theophilus, earl of Suffolk), he 
was lineally descended from sir Richard Walsingham, knt., who lived in the reign of king Henry the III. 
He died October the * * * * aetatis suae 82. This monument was erected by his sister, the lady Elizabeth 
Osborne."* 

In 1821, this parish contained one hundred and ninety-two, and in 1831 two hun- 
dred and eleven inliabitants.f 



WIMBISH, WITH THUNDERSLEY. 

Wimbish. The two parishes of Wimbish and Thundersley were united in the year 1425, 
when the latter was made a hamlet to the former : by their union a large parish is 
formed, in circumference about sixteen miles ; extending from Walden south-west- 
ward and eastward to Radwinter : in proportion to its extent it contains few inhabi- 
tants, and those chiefly agriculturists. The soil, a deep and heavy loam, on clay, 
requires the crop and fallow mode of cultivation. J The hedge-rows toward Walden 
contain timber of a larger growth than those toward Hadstock and Ashdon.§ The 
name of Wimbish, formerly written Gwimbich, is supposed to be derived from the 

* A very ancient tomb, raised on a foundation of flints, to the height of two feet, had a Latin inscrip- 
tion on a brass plate, which has been taken away ; it was to inform posterity that " George Langham, 
esq., formerly lord of this village, died on the 13th of September, 1462, and is here buried with his 
wife Isabel." 

There are the broken remains of many other ancient monuments, and a Latin inscription is tolerably 
perfect, which informs us that William Hasilden, esq. formerly lord of this manor, died 23d April, 1480, 
and lies here with his wife, who died 20th of February, 1476. 

t Charity. — Land of the annual rent of three guineas was left for the benefit of the poor of this parish, 
to be distributed at the discretion of the trustees. 

X Annual average produce per acre — wheat 20, barley 26 bushels. 

§ Mr. Young mentions an oak at Wimbish, belonging to Allen Taylor, esq., which had been named 
Young's oak ; in 1792, at five feet from the ground, it measured eight feet five inches and three quarters 
in girth : also a larch,onIy twelve years old, at the same height, measured two feet four inches. In 1805, 
the oak was eight feet ten inches ; the larch, five feet one incli : the oak having in thirteen years increased 
four inches and a half : the larch, two feet nine inches ! 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 135 

Saxon Irpim, beautiful, and bach, a wood, and the whole country having been un- chap. 
doubtedly covered with wood, adds to the probability of this conjecture. ' 

From Saffron Walden it is distant three, and from London forty-five miles. 

The parish or lordship of Wimbish is believed to have been given to Christ 
Church, in Canterbury, by Thurstan, in the time of Edward the confessor, and which 
in the record is named Winebisc* It did not long remain in the possession of this 
church, for in the Confessor's reign it had been conveyed to Ailid, and at the survey 
belonged to Ralph Baignard. In Domesday-book it is entered under Dunmow hun- 
dred, and Thundersley under that of Uttlesford. There are three manors in Wim- 
bish, as there are also in Thundersley. 

Wimbish Hall is near the church ; and the manor was originally part of the barony Wimbish 

Hall 
of William, the son of Ralph Baynard, which he forfeited to the crown by attaching 

himself to the party of Robert Courthose, in opposition to Henry the first ; and that 
monarch afterwards gave it to Richard Fitz-Gilbert, the ancestor of the earls of Clare. 
The immediate descendants of Robert were the Fitz- Walters, lords of Woodham 
W^alter; and by an heiress of that noble family it was conveyed, by marriage, to Thomas 
Ratcliffe, esq. whose grandson, Robert Ratcliffe, lord Fitz- Walter, was created vis- 
count Fitz- Walter, and earl of Sussex : and the estate continued in the possession of 
these noble families, till Robert,f the last earl of Sussex of the Ratcliffe line, who died 
in 1629, sold it to Allan Currants, esq., citizen and merchant- tailor of London, from 
whose family it was purchased by Matthew Wymondsel, esq. of Wansted ; who 
bequeathed it to his son, Charles Wymondsel, esq., and in 1775 sold this and other 
estates in the neighbourhood to Allen Taylor, esq., who was possessed of it at his death 
in 1830, and bequeathed it to his widoAV, Mrs. Elizabeth Taylor, Avho dying in 1833, 
it is now the property of her brother, Thomas Walford, esq. of Birdbrook. 

The mansion belonging to the manor of Tiptotes,^ is near Sewer's End,§ Tiptotes. 
about two miles north-west from the church, and derives its name from the 
ancient and honourable family of Tiptotes, or Tiptofts, some of whom became 
barons of the realm, and earls of Worcester. In 1331, John de Wanton was 
sheriff of Essex and Hertfordshire; and lord of this manor at his decease in 1347; 
John, his son and heir, by his wife Margaret, left Margaret, and Elizabeth his co- 

* This grant, recorded by W. Thorn among the evidences of the church of Canterbury, is also given by 
the learned T. Maddox in his Fonnulare Anglicanum, p. 238. It is witnessed by king Edward the con- 
fessor, and lady iElgyva, the two archbishops, Eadsige and ^Ifric, earl Godwin, earl Lcofric, Elgar the 
earl's son, ^Iweard bishop of London, Alfwin bishop of Winchester, .... Leofcild Scire, prepositus or 
sheriff; and Osulf Fila, and Ufric and .-Elwin, son of Wulfred, and ^Ifric son of Withgar, and all the 
theigns of Essex. 

t John Fitz-Walter, at the time of his decease, in 1361, held this manor, of the king, as parcel of the 
barony of Fitz-Walter. — Inq. 35, Ed. III. 

X Also named Wantons and Pinkeneys, from subsequent possessors. 

§ Formerly Siward's End. 



136 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. heirs;* of whom Margaret had this estate for her portion, and being married to 
Harleston, left by him her son Ivo de Harleston. He held this manor of Edward 



duke of York: John, his son, was his successor; who married Elizabeth, daughter of 
William Clopton, by whom he had his son John, who on his decease left Alice, and 
Margaret, co-heirs, by his wife Margaret, daughter and co-heir of William Bard- 
well. Alice, married to sir Richard Fitz-Lewis, conveyed to him this estate; and 
Margaret was married to Thomas Darcy, esq. of Danbury.f 

Sir John Fitz-Lewis, by his lady Alice, left one daughter, his heiress, in the pedi- 
gree called Elizabeth; in the post mortem inquisition, YAd^; and in Dugdale, Ellen. 
This lady was married to sir John Mordaunt, son and heir of John, lord Mordaunt, 
whom he succeeded in honours and estates in 1562: this nobleman by will, dated in 
1571, left this manor to King's Hall and Brazen-nose college, Oxford, for the main- 
tenance of three scholars, to be nominated by his executors and afterwards by his 
heirs for ever ; and for other charitable purposes.^ 
Bradokes. The old mansion-house of Bradokes, or Broadoaks, stands in the fields two miles 
from the church. The account of the possessors of this estate cannot be traced back 
farther than the reign of Henry the eighth, when it was in possession of the Mordaunt 
family; and was conveyed, in 1551, by Edmund Mordaunt, to John Wiseman, esq. 
of Felsted ; from whose family it passed by marriage to Mr. Richard Clagett, of Lon- 
don ;§ and on the decease of Wiseman Clagett, esq. of Barnard's Inn, who died in 
1741, this manor with appurtenances, was purchased of his executors, in chancery, by 
the right honourable Charles, lord Maynard. 

Thun- Thundersley, formerly a parish, had a church near the hall, but both the church 

dtrslcy. ^ i 

and church-yard have disappeared. The lauds of this parish belonged to Ailmer, in 

the time of Edward the confessor; and at the survey became the property of Alberic 

de Vere, whose under-tenant Ralf, from this place took the surname of De Tunderley. 

There are three manors. 

Thunderley-hall manor appears to have been in the joint possession of Geofrey de 

Thunderley, and Alexander Rivollam, of this place, in the time of king Henry the 

second ; it being on record that a moiety of the church was given to Hatfield priory 

* Arms of Wanton : Argent, a chevron sable. 

t Arms of Harleston : Argent, a fesse ermine between two barrs geraelles, sable. Crest : On a helmet, 
mantled gules, doubled argent, out of a crown or, a stag's head ermines, attired or, browsing a hawthorn, 
proper, with berries or. 

X Dugdale's Baron, vol. ii. p. 312, and Wood's Hist, and Antiquit. of the University of Oxford, lib. ii.p.214. 

§ Thomas, the son of John Wiseman, succeeded his father in this estate, and had William; Thomas, 
who died without issue ; John ; Robert ; and two daughters, nuns. William, the eldest son and heir, 
received the honour of knighthood, and by his lady, Jane, daughter of sir Edmund Huddleston, knt., had 
John, Dorothea, and Winifred. Sir John, who next succeeded, had his son Aurelius Percy Wiseman, who 
was killed in a duel in London in 1684 ; he died unmarried, and his two sisters were Lucy and Elizabeth. 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 137 

by Geofrey de Thunderley, and that afterwards the remaining moiety was given to ^ ^ '^ **• 

the same monastery by Alexander Rivollam, for the remission of all his sins, and those 

of his dear wife, and all his friends. This last grant was in 1143. It is hence con- 
cluded that the church was at that time appendant to the manor, which was in posses- 
sion of the said proprietors.* In 1485, a moiety of this manor belonged to John 
Brett, in right of his wife Maud; and from that period till the year 1624, when the 
manor, with the advowson of the church, belonged to Robert Wiseman, esq. there 
appears to be no record. The son of Robert, was sir Richard Wiseman, hart, in 
1628; and the Wiseman family of Torrel's Hall had this possession. 

The reputed manor of Dales or Caldecots was a considerable time holden under P'^^'^s <'i- 
the earls of Oxford, by the Thunderley family, till it passed to that of Att-Dale, in 
1346, by the marriage of the daughter of Andrew de Thunderley to William Att- 
Dale. In 1445, it was in the possession of Nicholas Caldecot, or Calcot; and of sir 
James Caldecot in 1485; who, in 1498, did homage for this possession at Castle 
Hedingham: he died in 1502, and Thomas, his son, is supposed to have died without 
issue, for the next recorded owner is his sister, Muriel Caldecot,f the second wife of 
Robert Mordaunt,:}: of Turvey, in Bedfordshire, to whom she brought this estate; in 
whose family it continued, till it was purchased of John Mordaunt, esq. in 1652, by 
Dr. Bromfield, who gave it to the poor of St. Andrew's, Holborn, London. 

The manor of Abbots belonged to Walden abbey; the mansion-house is about two Abbots. 
miles west from the church. Having passed to the crown, it was granted, in 1538, 
by king Henry the eighth, to Thomas lord Audley, whose grandson, Thomas lord 
Howard, of Walden, sold it to Richard Martin, junior, and John Haile. The next 
possessor of it, upon record, was sir Robert Quarles, of Romford, knt. from whose 
son it descended to William Holgate, of Walden, who died in 1672, and his daughter 
Anne conveyed it to her husband, James Monteith, gent, of Greenwich, of an ancient 
family of that name in Scotland: he died in 1681, his wife in 1685, and they are both 
buried in the chancel of the church of Saffron Walden. His son, James Monteith, 
sold this estate to Richard Derbyshire, esq. of the six clerks' office in chancery; from 
whom it passed, in marriage with his niece, to John Birkhead, esq. of the same office. 

* From the original grants at Colne priory, formerly in the possession of Richard Androwes, esq. and in 
the Evidence-house of the Barrington family, adjoining to Hatfield church. 

t Arms of Caldecott : Gules, on a chevron argent, three dolphins haurient sable. 

I William, the son and heir of Robert Mordaunt, married Anne, daughter and co-heiress of Thomas 
Huntington, by whom he had four sons and six daughters, and left this estate to George Mordaunt, his 
fourth son, who, having no issue, gave it to his next brother, Edmund, who was succeeded by Henry 
Mordaunt, his eldest son, whose eldest son of the same name was his successor, and living in 1620, who 
married Barbara, daughter of Henry Bradbury, esq. of Littlebury, by whom he had, besides other children, 
his eldest son Henry, who married Lcttice, daughter of John Holgate, esq. of Walden, by whom he had 
his son John, the last of the family who had this estate. 



138 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. 

Church. 



Inscrip- 
tions. 



The church of Wimbish, dedicated to All Saints, is an ancient building of stone, 
with a nave, north aisle and chancel. In 1740, the tower and part of this church, 
decayed by age, fell to the ground, and anew tower of brick has been erected, which, 
with the other repairs, was finished in 1755. The tower contains three bells. 

The following inscription is on a wooden tablet against the north wall of the chancel : 



' } her 



anagram. 



" Deo uni trino sit Gloria. 
Mrs. Mary Wiseman now with God, 
Mi Jesu rais me ami 
Maria Wiseman 
Here pious eyes may justly weep 
For her that's underneath asleep. 
Could we believe one surely blest 
Might in her tomb remain a guest. 
But to her very ashes I 
Must pay a devout obsequie ; 
Justice and passion both incline 
Me to adore her very shrine. 



That by this venting of my grief. 
My troubled soul may find relief; 
All that to virtue will be just, 
With me must reverence her dust ; 
Beauteous before it was calcin'd, 
But oh ! the beauty of her mind ! 
Though I her absence chiefly find, 
The loss is unto all mankind. 
Who fitly may with me bemoane 
The loss of such perfectione ; 
She to her sex a pattern stood 
Of all that's imitably good." 



" Here lies interred the body of Mrs. Mary Wiseman, who bore to her husband two daughters and one 
son, (of whom she died in child-bed); she departed this life on Thursday, the twenty-second of June, 
1654, in the flower of her age, having been married four years, seven months, and four days." 

" So Phoenixes expire to be || And Pelicans their own lives give. 

Renewed in their posteritie ; || To make their tender offspring live." 

" She was of an honourable extract, being daughter to sir Rowland Rydgeley, of Dunton, of the ancient 
family of that name and place, in Warwickshire. Her mother, the lady Lettice Rydgeley, being one of 
the daughters and co-heirs of sir Thomas Knowlys, and the hidy Odela, his wife, who was one of the 
daughters and co-heirs of the lord Meroda, marquess of Bergen, in the Low Countries. Sir Thomas 
Knowlys, knight of the garter, treasurer of the household, and privy counsellor to queen Elizabeth ; 
he was brother of the late earl of Banbury, and the lady Lettice, countess of Leicester, the earls of Essex 
and Holland, and the earls of Northumberland and Warwick, being their nephews and her cousin 
germans. Sir Francis Knowlys, aforesaid, married the lady Katharine Carey, sister to Henry lord 
Hunsdon, privy counsellor, knight of the garter, and chamberlain to queen Elizabeth, to whom they were 
cousin germans. Their mother was daughter to Thomas Bullein, earl of Wiltshire, and sister to queen 
Anne Bullein, who was the wife of Henry the eighth, king of England. The marquis of Bergen was of 
the house of Nassau, and uncle to the late prince of Orange." 

There are also the following inscriptions in the chancel belonging to the same family : 



" Ipsa Johan Wiseman repetito nomine Strangeraan, 
Quod sibi conjugii posuerunt jura secundi, 
Uxor erat binis, bis tristia funera vidit ; 



Tertio temporei perfecit munera lecti ; 
Anni plus decies sextum volvuntur in orbe, 
Qui sibi nascenti gratas, traxere tenebras." 



English: 

" Johanna Wiseman, by her second name Strangeman, a name which the laws of a second marriage 
conferred on her, was twice a wife, and buried twice her husband : she a third time performed the offices 
of the bed, and died herself, being more than sixty years of age." 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 139 

Upon a stone on the ground : CHAP, 

" Here rest the sad remains of Aurelius Piercy Wiseman, of Broad-Oaks, in this parish, esq. the last 
of the name of that place, and head and chief of that right worshipful and ancient family, who was 
unfortunately killed in the flower of his age, Dec. 11, 1680." 

The rev. John Raymond, the present incumbent, is patron of the vicarage. 
In 1821, these consolidated parishes contained eight hundred and nine, and, in 1831, 
nine hundred and twenty-one inhabitants.* 

DEBDEN. 

Debden extends westward to Newport, and southward to Widdington; it is bounded Debden. 
eastward by Wimbish, and by Walden on the north: its computed breadth is about 
three miles, and its length four. 

The lands of this parish are diversified in appearance by an intermixture of valleys, 
with hills of considerable height; the soil generally arable, with a considerable 
portion of woodland.f The name in records is Depden, Deepden, Deopden, Depdon, 
Dependon, Dependana, Diependin; supposed from the Saxon beop, deep, and ben, 
a valley. The village is small, and pleasantly situated on an eminence : distant from 
Saffron Walden two, and from London forty-one miles. 

Siward was the proprietor of these lands in the time of Edward the confessor, and 
they belonged to Ralph Peverel at the survey: the whole was ultimately divided into 
six manors. 

William, son of William, son of Ralph Peverel, succeeding to this estate, lost it, Debden 
with all his other possessions, and was compelled to fly from the country for the 
atrocious crime of poisoning Ralph, earl of Chester. Henry the second afterwards 
gave it to his son John, earl of Mortain, who, succeeding to the English crown, 
conferred this estate on Geofrey Fitz-Piers, earl of Essex, whose daughter Maud 
conveyed it, by marriage, to Henry de Bohun, earl of Hereford, and high constable 
of England; and who, in her right, became earl of Essex. His successors were his 
son Humphrey, his grandson of the same name, who died in 1298, and his great 
grandson, Humphrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford, Essex, and Northampton, who 
died in 1372, having married Joan, daughter of Richard, earl of Arundel, by whom 
he left two co-heirs; Eleanor, married to Thomas, of Woodstock, duke of Glou- 
cester, sixth son of king Edward the third; and Mary, married to Henry, earl of 

* Charitable gifts — Sir Ralph Wiseman, of Rivenhall, gave an annuity of four pounds to the poor of 
Wimbish, out of the manor of Broadokes : and Dr. Wivel, of Walden, gave three pounds a year, payable 
out of a farm called Will's Abbey, in Walden, for six sermons, to be preached in Lent, in Tliundersley 
church, which being demolished, they were, by a decree in chancery, ordered to be preached at Wimbish. 

t In the Domesday record it is stated, that there were here at that time two arpenni (acres) of vine- 
yard that bore, and two that did not bear. 



140 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. Derby, afterwards king Henry the fourth. The lady Eleanor had one son and four 
" daughters, of whom Anne, the eldest, became ultimately the sole heiress of her mother, 
succeeding to a partition of the Bohun estates with the other co-heir, who was king 
Henry the fifth. Hence this manor becoming vested in the crown, as belonging to 
the dutchy of Lancaster, was part of the jointure of the queens of Henry the fifth, 
Henry the sixth, and Edward the fourth: it was conveyed, by a grant from 
Henry the eighth, to Thomas lord Audley, from whose only daughter and heir 
Maro-aret, it descended to her son, Thomas, baron Howard de Walden and earl 
of Suftblk; in whose family it continued till 1660, when it was sold by James, earl 
of Suffolk, to Thomas Grove, esq., who sold it to sir Richard Browne, knt. and 
bart.; he died in 1672, and was succeeded by his son sir Richard, who married 
Frances, sister of sir Robert Atkins, chief baron of the exchequer. They both died 
within three days of each other, in 1685, sir Richard having previously, in 1630, sold 
this estate to John Edwards, esq. whose son and heir Henry, one of the masters in 
chancery, sold it) with the manor of Deynes, to Richard Chiswell, esq. in 1715.* 
He was the son of Richard Chiswell, citizen and stationer of London ;f and his 
grandson, Richard Muilman Trench Chiswell, erected the mansion, and in the im- 
provements of this beautiful seat left a monument of his judgment and good taste. 
Mr. Holland was the architect employed. The house is placed on a rising ground above 
a fine sheet of water formed under Mr. Chiswell's directions ; and the south-eastern 
front, built in the Grecian style, and ornamented with stately pillars, has a good effect. 
The whole of this extensive inclosure is agreeably diversified, and from shady walks 
on the higher grounds, fine views are presented over the surrounding country. 
Mr. Chiswell married Mary, daughter of James Jurin, M.D. by whom he left an only 

* Richard Chiswell, the father of the purchaser of Debden Hall, was born in 1639, in the parish of St. 
Botolph's, Aldersgate, London ; and, on his decease in 1711, was buried there j his first wife, Sarah, was 
daughter of Mr. John King; his second wife was Mary, daughter of Richard Royston, esq. bookseller to 
king Cliarles the first and second : his surviving children by his second wife were, John who died in 
India, Richard, and Royston : the former was an eminent merchant, elected member of parliament for 
Calne, in Wiltshire, in 1714, died in 1751, and was interred in this church. He married Mary, daughter 
and co-heiress of Mr. Thomas Trench, merchant, of London -. she died in 1712, having borne ten children, 
of whom William and Trench died at Constantinople ; and two daughters, and Richard, one of the sons, 
survived their father. Arms of Chiswell : Argent, two bars nebule, gules : over all a bend engrailed, sable, 
thereon a rose between two mullets, or. 

t He was the most considerable and esteemed bookseller and publisher of the age in which he lived ; the 
eccentric John Dunton speaks of him as the most eminent of that business in the three kingdoms. "Mr. 
Richard Chiswell (he observes) well deserves the title of Metropolitan Bookseller of England, if not of 
all the world. His name at the bottom of a title-page does sufficiently recommend the book. He has not 
been known to print either a bad book, or on bad paper. He is admirably well qualified for his business, 
and knows how to value a copy according to its worth; witness the purchase he has made of archbishop 
Tillotson's octavo sermons."— JoA« Dunton's Life and Errors, p. 280. In the original charter of the Bank 
of England, Mr. Chiswell was appointed one of the first directors. 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 141 

The mansion-house of Mole Hall is about half a mile from the church southward, chap. 
daughter and heiress, Mary, married, in 1779, to sir Francis Vincent, bart. to whom 



she conveyed this estate; and by her, who died in 1826, he had sir Francis Vincent, '^"'*^Hall 
the ninth baronet; and Anna Maria, married, in 1817, to captain William Johnson 
Campbell, son of the late lieutenant-general Colin Campbell. Sir Francis died in 
1791, and was succeeded by his son sir Francis, the ninth baronet, born in 1780; who 

married, in 1802, Jane, daughter of the rev. Bouverie, brother of William, first 

earl of Radnor, and by her (who died in 1805) had Francis, cornet in the ninth Light 
Dragoons, and a daughter named Ellen. Sir Francis, the tenth and present baronet, 
succeeded his father in 1808, and, in 1824, married Augusta Elizabeth, only child of 
the hon. Charles Herbert, R.N. second son of the first earl of Caernarvon.* 

The manor of Deynes belonged formerly to Tiltey abbey, and, till the suppression Deynes. 
of that house, was held under it by a family named Wright. The mansion-house is 
about half a mile from the church, and called Deynes House, and Debden Grange ;f in 
1538, it was granted to Charles Brandon, duke of Somerset, from whom passing 
successively to several proprietors, it became the property of Mr. Chiswell, in 1715. 

The manor-house of the estate named Tendring is on the north of the road to Tendring. 
Thaxted, eastward from the church: it was in possession of Roger Tewe in 1483, 
and successively belonging to several proprietors, passed to John Wiseman, esq. of 
Felsted, in 1526, and to his son, sir Thomas: to Thomas Knightingale, esq. in 1623, 
to his son of the same name in 1635; to Robert Woolley; Henry Lewes in 1679; 
and, in 1696, having become the property of Adam Newman, esq. was by him sold to 
the proprietor of Debden Hall. 

Contiguous to Tendring is the manor of Weldbarnes, having a mansion on the Weld- 
same side of the road; it formerly belonged to the noble family of Grey, of Wilton, 
and was in possession of John de Grey at the time of his decease in 1323, holden of 
Eleanor de Verdun by the service of a rose. Successive proprietors were Henry, 
the son of John de Grey, in 1342, whose heir was his son Reginald: sir Henry de 
Grey, of Wilton, in 1395, whose son and successor, sir Reginald, died in 1441, 
lea^'ing Reginald, his son, his heir. In 1501, lord Grey, of Wilton, conveyed this 
possession to John Mordaunt, from whom it passed to several individuals of the family, 
and was sold by Edmund Mordaunt, in 1551, to John Wiseman, esq. from whose 
family it was conveyed, in marriage by a female heiress, to sir John Marshall, 
descending to his son of the same name and title, and to his grandchildren. 

* Arms of Vincent : Azure, three quatiefoils, argent. Crest : out of a coronet, proper, a bear's head 
argent. Motto, " Vincenti dabitur." " It is given to the conqueror." 

t In the patent it is styled " Maueriuiu, doniinum sive Grangia, sive firnia vocat Dynes, alias Dynes 
house, ex antiquo vocat Depden Grange cum pcrtinen" spectautibus Monasterio de Tiltey."— 3 Pars Pat. 8 
Elizab. 

VOL. II. U 



U2 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

liOOK II. In 1510, this manor belonged to sir William Waldegrave, from whose family it was 

conveyed to John Rowley, esq., of Berk way, high sheriff of Hertfordshire, in 1650; 

from whose family it passed by marriage to William Levinz, of Grove, in Notting- 
hamshire, who sold it to William Blackmore, esq. 

Amber- The mansion-house of the manor of Amberdon Hall is two miles south-eastward 

from the church, on ground rising high, and commanding extensive prospects over the 
country, with woodland scenery in its vicinity. In records the name is Amberdana, 
Ambredon, Ambyrden, Amerdene, Amerton, apparently formed from the Saxon 
words Ambep, a wine or water vessel or a barrel, and bon, a hill: sometimes it is called 
Flambards, from ancient owners of that name. Formerly there was a church or 
chapel here ; the site of fish-ponds may be traced, and the house has evidently been 
much larger than at present; there are also other evidences of its having been a hamlet 
of itself, distinct from Debden. In the survey it is styled a viUa, and by the Confessor's 
charter of confirmation, it appears to have anciently formed part of the possessions of 
the abbey of Ely: it afterwards went with Debden Hall, to Si ward, and at the survey 
belonged to Ralph Peverel; afterwards John Fitz-Lambert, and Robert de Mortimer, 
successively held it of the crown, as of the honour of Peverel. In 1285, it was so 
holden by Robert de Mortimer; and passed, by female heirship, to Geofrey de Corne- 
wall, who held it at the time of his decease in 1365. The families of Berners* and 
Fynderne succeeded ; and, in 1515, sir William Fynderne entailed this estate on his 
heirs male ; and in want of such, on sir John Cutt, of Horeham Hall, in Thaxted ; to 
whom it ultimately descended, and who, on his decease in 1554, left a son, named John, 
eleven years of age. The estate was afterwards in the possession of Edward West, 
esq., who about the close of the reign of queen Elizabeth, sold it to sir Thomas Dacre, 
knt., whose son Tliomas sold it to sir James Stonehouse, son of George Stonehouse, 
esq., of Little Peckham, in Kent: from this family it passed to Thomas Sclater Bacon, 
esq., of Linton, in Cambridgeshire, who left it by will to Robert King, esq., who died 
in 1749. A family of note took their surname from this place; and there are coats of 
arms in various parts of the hall. 

Church. The village church, dedicated to All Saints, is a handsome Gothic building within 

* Hugh de Berners held lands at Eversden, in Cambridgeshire, in 1086, and Ralph, son of Hugh, by 
marrying Nesta, the sister and heiress of Pain Burnel, became possessed of his great estate. The fifth in 
descent from Hugh, was sir Ralph Berners, great grandfather to Nicholas Berners, possessed of this estate 
in the time of king Henry the sixth : he was the son of John Berners, son of John, third son of Ralph, by 
Christian his wife, daughter and heiress of Hugh de Wyndesore, esq. of West Horsley, in Surrey. He 
lived at Amberdon Hall, having married Margaret, daughter and co-heiress of John Swynborne, esq., by 
whom he had his only daughter and heiress Catharine, married to sir William Fynderne. This appears 
from an epitaph formerly in the church, preserved by Weever, " Here lieth buried Nicolas Barners, with 
hi« wife Margaret, one of the daughters and co-heirs of John Swindon, esq. (more correctly Swynborn,) 
who died 1441." The head of this family resided at Little Horksley during several generations. 



I 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 143 

the park, and shaded by a fine grove of trees. It was originally built in the cathedral chap. 
form, with two aisles, a nave, and chancel, and the tower in the centre ; this being " 

decayed, fell down, and demolished the chancel, which has been re-edified, and the 
ancient style of the architecture well preserved, with elegant and appropriate orna- 
ments. A very elegant font, in Coade's artificial stone-work, was the gift of R. M. T. 
Chiswell, esq.* At the east end, a chapel contains monuments of the Chiswells.f 

In 1821, this parish contained nine hundred and forty, and in 1831, nine hundred 
and eighty-five inhabitants. 

* On the northern wall of the chancel, a monument bears the following inscription : — , 

" Binos abhinc passus meridiem versus, reconditum est quod mortale fuit Thomse Carter, S.T. P. et 
hujus ecclesiae annos xlv Rectoris dignissimi : qui, post diutini ministerii vices, pie, prudenter, et fideliter, 
impletas : post insigne probitatis, beneficentiae et humanitatis edilum in omni vit4 documentum : post 
irruptum annorum circiter xliv, nee malis divulsum queri moniis conjugium: post extremam fere humani 
curriculi metam feliciter et alacri animo assecutam prole auctus, famS. cohonestatus, omnibus charus, 
dierum Satur. Tandem 8vo. id. Octob. A. D. 1697, Coslum petiit An. nat. 74, multis ille bonis llebilis 
occidit. Tumulo accesserunt postea (viz.) 9 kalend Octob. A.D. 1698, Annae Uxoris ejus reliquite, vita 
comitis fidissimae nee ips^ morte, nisi brevi etaegre sejungendae Anno nat. 75, moerens posuit Alius nat. 
max. T. C." 

"Two paces from hence toward the south is deposited what was mortal of Thomas Carter, professor of 
theology, and the very worthy rector of this church forty-five years ; who, after having discharged the duties 
of his long ministry piously, prudently, and faithfully ; after having been a singular example of probity, 
beneficence, and humanity, in every part of his life ; after having lived in the strictest harmony with his 
wife about 44 years ; after having happily and cheerfully attained almost to the utmost period of human 
life, blessed with offspring, honoured with reputation, dear to all men, full of days, at length, on the 
eighth of October, in the year of our Lord 1697, took his flight to heaven, aged 74 years. He died 
lamented by many good men. To his tomb were afterwards added, on the twenty-third of September, in 
the year of our Lord, 1698, the remains of Anna, his wife, during his life, a most faithful companion to 
him, nor by his death separated from him, but for a short time, and not without difficulty, aged 75 years. 
Their eldest and afflicted son, T. C. caused this to be erected." 

There are also inscriptions to the memory of Richard Chiswell, esq., who died in 1751, aged 78 : and 
also of Mary his wife, who died in 172G, aged 43. Also, here lie the remains of Mr. Dudley Foley, who 
died in 1747, and of Elizabeth his wife, who died in 1742. Their two children, a son aged 14, and a daugh- 
ter aged 16, lie buried at Cheam, in Surrey. There are also buried here, Richard Chiswell, esq., who died 
in 1751, and Mary his wife, ob. 1726. Sir Richard Brown, knt. and bart. was byried here in 1672; and 
also his son sir Richard with his lady, Frances, sister to sir Robert Atkins, baron of the exchequer : they 
both died in 168.5, within three days of each other. 

t Charitable gifts. Serjeant Bendloes gave twenty shillings yearly for ever, to three poor people, to buy 
fire-wood or clothing, or to repair the poor-house. — An unendowed almshouse for four dwellers was given 
by sir John Stonehouse.— In 1644, John Measont, of Henham, gave a house and five acres of land in this 
parish: one third part of the yearly income for the use of the poor of Debden ; the like third part to the poor 
of Henham, and the remaining third part he reserved to himself during life. — An annuity of four pounds was 
left by Dr. Thomas Carter, rector of this parish, of which ten shillings is to be paid for a sermon on the 
twenty-ninth of May, and the remainder to be expended in woollen cloth, for clothing four poor men 
who keep their church, three of Debden, one of Bartlow. 



144 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. 



WIDDINGTON, OR WIDINGTON. 



Widding- Yhe parish of Widdington, from the extremity of the hundred of Uttlesford, where 
it joins Freshwell, extends westward to Rickling, Newport, and Quendon ; and from 
Debden southward to Henham : it is in length five miles, and one and a half broad ; 
from Newport and Quendon it is separated by a small rivulet, over which there is a 
good bridge of brick, kept in repair by this parish and Newport : it was erected at the 
expense of Richard Chiswell, esq. 

The Saxon name of this parish is compounded of Wib, inj, cun, a town by 
the wide meadow or pasture lands; variously written in records, Wichington, 
Widintun, Wedington, Wedyton, Widiton, Wyddington, and Wodeton, from 
which last some have concluded the Saxon name to have been jJo^injcon, the town 
among woods. 

The village is small and of ancient appearance, the inhabitants dependant on agricul- 
tural employment. Distant from Saffron Walden four, and from London thirty- 
nine miles. 

In the time of the Saxons, the two manors of this parish belonged to Ingulph and 

Turchil; at the survey, Robert Gernon held Widdington Hall, and Priors Hall 

belonged to the monastery of St. Valery, in Picardy. 

Widdin?- Widdington Hall manor-house is an ancient building-, a short distance from the 
ton Hall. " ^ . 

church south-eastward : formerly it had a chapel, now converted into a parlour, the 

massive walls of which were three feet in thickness : after remaining several genera- 
tions in the family of Robert Gernon, the first Norman proprietor, this manor was 
conveyed by the marriage of heiresses to the families of Playz, Howard and De Vere; 
under the last of whom it was holden by a family surnamed Lenvois, Le Vasey, or 
Veyse, from whom it was at one period named Basey. In the reign of king Henry 
the second, Robert Lenvoise had tliis possession, and another, supposed of the same 
family, had succeeded hi 1327, whose name is written Robert le Veyse, and in the re- 
gistry of the diocese, Lennesey. He was succeeded by Gilbert Lenvois, who was lord 
of Widdington, in 1361 : he is also named Veysy, in the inquisitions. His heiresses 
were Katharine and Maud : of these, the first, married to John Duke, esq., master of 
the pantry to king Edward the third, conveyed to him this estate, which his son of the 
same name had possession of in 1393 : John Green, esq. married his daughter and heiress 
Agnes; he presented to the living the last time in 1466,* and was buried with his 
wife in the chancel. In 1516, sir Thomas Fynderne, of Amberdon Hall, in Debden, 
died holding this possession, and was succeeded by his grandson, Thomas Fynderne, 

* Arms of Green : Gules, a lion rampant double queued, parted per fesse, argent and or. 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 145 

esq. whose cousin and next heir was Anne, married to sir Roger Wentworth, of chap. 
Codham Hall : succeeded by sir Thomas Seymour ; after whom the next possessor ' 



was Edward EIrington, esq., of the ancient family of that name, of Theydon Bois ; 
whose successor, on his decease, in 1558, was his son Edward, followed by Edward 
EIrington, his son, in 1578, and by his grandson, of the same name, in 1618, who 
sold the estate to Edward Turner, esq., of Walden, who was in possession of it 
in 1635,* and in whose family it continued till the decease of Edmund, the son of 
Thomas Turner, esq. when, in default of issue male, the estate passed to various 
possessors. 

The mansion-house of Priors Hall is near the church, being of stone; it has on that Priors 
account been named Stone Hall. The original appropriation of this estate being to an 
alien priory, it was seized by king Edward the third during his French wars, and 
obtained, either of that prince or his successor, king Richard the second, by William 
of Wickham, bishop of Winchester, who gave it to New College in Oxford, which 
was founded by him. It yet remains in this appropriation, and the college keep a 
court here. 

The chm'ch, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, is a small building of stone, which was Church. 
in part re-built about the time of the Reformation; and recently, the ancient square 
tower having fallen down, a small wooden turret supplies its place above the west end, 
which has been rebuilt with brick. There were formerly six stalls in the chancel, 
understood to have belonged to Priors Hall ; and in the wall two slender pillars with 
ornamented bases and capitals support a semicircular arch, with a Saxon moulding, 
the whole having the appearance of Saxon workmanship. The parsonage is a good 
house near the church. 

In 1821, this parish contained three hundred and sixty-seven, and in 1831, three 
hundred and eighty-six inhabitants. 



HENHAM. 

The grounds of the parish of Henham are in general high, well wooded, and richly Henham. 
luxuriant, extending from Widdington southward, and to the hundred of Dunmow on 
the east; the river Granta, or Cam, forms the boundary between this parish and that 
of Ugley, flowing towards Audley End and to Cambridge ; and other streams take 
their course in nearly an opposite direction toward the Stort and the Chelmer; which 
shows the propriety of the appellation "ad montem," "at the hill," usually applied to 
this parish, its Saxon name Hean, high, and ham, a mansion, being nearly of the same 

* Arms of Turner : Azure, a fesse engrailed, argent ; on it a lion passant, or, between three mill rinds 
of the second. 



146 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



Henhani 
Hall. 



BOOK II. import. In length it is about three, and in breadth two miles : the village contains 
some good houses, and a place of worship belonging to the Independents; it is on high 
ground, pleasant, and healthy; distant from Bishop's Stortford seven, and from London 
thirty-seven miles. 

In the reign of Edward the confessor, the lands of Henham belonged to Ailid, to 
two freemen, and to Ansgar, a sochman: at the time of the survey, they were in the 
possession of Ralph Baynard, Eudo Dapifer, and Geofrey de Magnaville. There are 
three manors ; and the rectory is also a manor. 

Henham Hall is near the church ; and the manor is what belonged to Ralph Bay- 
nard, from whom it passed to his son Geofrey, and to his grandson William, on whose 
forfeiture, for desertion of the cause of king Henry the first in his contest with Stephen, 
this possession was given to Robert, a younger son of Richard Fitzgislebert ; whose 
son Walter was his successor, followed by Robert, son of Walter, who assumed the 
surname of Fitzwalter, borne by his noble descendants, barons of the realm, for many 
generations. Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Walter, lord Fitz- Walter,* con- 
veyed this inheritance, by marriage, to sir John Ratcliffe, who died in 1461. Robert, 
his descendant, created earl of Sussex in 1529, to his second lady had Frances, daugh- 
ter of Hercules Meutas, of W^est Ham, widow of Francis Shute, esq., and she, at the 
time of her decease, in 1627, held this manor of Henham, and the rectory, of the king 
by knight's service. Her daughter and heiress, was Jane, married to sir Alexander 
Ratcliffe, who had this possession in 1635, which he sold to Lawrence Wright, M.D. 
of Dagenhams, in Havering : he died in 1657, and, with Mary his wife, was buried in 
the church of South Weald. Sir Henry Wright, bart. of the same place, was his 
son and heir : he married Anne, daughter of John, lord Crew, of Stene, by whom he 
had Henry, who died in 1681, aged nineteen, and Anne. He himself having died 
before his son, in 1663, aged twenty-seven; they are both buried in the church of 
South Weald. The widow, lady Anne Wright, enjoyed this estate as part of her 
jointure, till her decease, in 1708, when it descended to her daughter Anne, a very 
rich heiress; married, first, to Edmund, son of sir Robert Pye, of Farringdon, in 
Berkshire; afterwards to William Rider, esq. She sold this estate in 1720, with the 
concurrence of the heirs-at-law, to sir John Blount, hart., one of the directors of the 
South Sea Company; on the dissolution of which, it was purchased by Samuel Feake, 
esq., of Shering, succeeded by his son, Stephen Feake, and by J. S. Feake, esq. 

Plechedon Hall, vulgarly named Prison Hall, is about a mile south-eastward from 
the church ; beyond which, in the same direction, is Plechedon Green, and the ham- 
let, which is two miles in extent. This manor includes what belonged to Eudo 



Pleche- 
don. 



* Thi.s noble family resided a considerable time at Henham Hall. Robert Fitzwalter was born there in 
1249 : as was also Walter, his son, in 1275 ; Walter, the son of Walter, in 1370, and Elizabeth, eldest 
daughter of Walter, lord Fitzwalter, in MSO.—Monaslic. Anglic, vol. ii. p. 76. 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 147 

Dapifer;* next to whom the earhest possessor on record was Gilbert Peche in 1274, c H A F. 
and a second Gilbert Peche in 1322, held this manor of Adomar de Valence, earl of ^^^^' 
Pembroke, by the service of a fourth part of a knight's fee ; as did also Gilbert, his 
son and heir. In 1360, it had become the property of John Malewayn; soon after 
which it again went to the Peche family, and was conveyed by Katharine, daughter 
and heiress of sir Geofrey Peche?, to her husband, Thomas Notbend.f She died in 
1405, holding this estate of Ralph Neville, earl of Westmoreland, as of his honour of 
Clavering. Mirabel, wife of Robert Geddying, and Margaret, wife of John Hinkley, 
were her daughters and co-heiresses. Afterwards the whole estate became vested in 
Margaret Hinkley, who died possessed of it in 1442, leaving her daughters, Alice, 
wife of John Marshall, and Cicely, wife of Henry Caldebeck, her co-heiresses. The 
last of these became ultimately possessed of this estate, leaving two daughters co- 
heiresses, Thomasine, married to John Turnor, of Haverhill, ancestor of the Tumors 
of Hallingbury, and Margaret, married to Geofrey Bloodwell, of Thurlow. Henry 
Turnor, son of John and Thomasine, married Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Brooksby, 
by whom he had Henry, who held this estate in 1520 and 1528: in 1613, it was 
holden by William Watts, esq. of sir Francis Barrington, as of his manor and half 
hundred of Clavering ; with a portion of the tithes out of Plechedon Hall. Afterwards 
it passed to the Crewe family, and Nathaniel, lord Crewe, bishop of Durham, on his 
decease, in 1721, left it to Thomas Cartwright, esq., of Aynho, in Northamptonshire, 
who had married Armine, one of his brother's daughters : afterwards it belonged to 
William Cartwright, esq. 

The mansion belonging to the manor of the Broom, is a mile and a half south-west The 
from the church. Of the proprietors of this estate there is no account from the first 
owner, Geofrey de Mandeville, to the reign of king James the first. In 1616, sir 
John Watts died, holding this possession, whose heir was his son John; and early in 
the succeeding century it belonged to sir Philip Parker, hart., of Arwerton, who sold 
it to sir John Blount, of the South- Sea Company, and it was afterwards purchased by 
Mr. John Fell, wine merchant, from whom it passed to Joseph Fell, esq. of Saifron 
Walden. 

Little Henhara is a hamlet, consisting of a few houses, about a mile north from Little 
^, , , Henhara. 

the church. 

The church has north and south aisles, the nave is separated from the chancel by a Church. 

* In Domesday, it is placed under the hundred of Clavering; and is stated to be a hamlet in Henham 
parish, belonging to the leet of Clavering hundred. Many instances occur in other counties of lands 
exempt from the jurisdiction under which they are situated, and annexed to distant lordships. Suene 
having been lord of Clavering, may have had extensive authority here, and the hundred may have had its 
dependants, as the castle of Stortford had, from vi^hence the country had its protection from inroads, in 
return for which, some estate had to pay towards their support. 

f Arms of Peche : Argent, a fesse gules, between two chevronels of the second. 



148 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. screen, and the Gothic arches of the aisles supported by massive clustered pillars ; the 

building is large for a country village. A massive tower at the west end, above which 

a lofty spire rises, contains a good ring of five bells. 
Plechedon Robert, son of Richard Fitz-Gislebert, gave two parts of his lordship of Henham to 
Canons. ^^^ priory and canons of Little Dunmow; and his son Walter gave this church of 
Henham to the same appropriation : this gift was called a manor, and named Plechedon 
Canons: afterwards the rectorial, or great tithes, being retained by the priory, a 
vicarage was instituted and endowed in the reign of king Henry the third, which con- 
tinued in the patronage of the convent till its dissolution; and in 1536, the rectory 
and advowson of the vicarage were granted to Robert Ratcliffe, earl of Sussex, from 
whom they passed to the successive owners of Henham Hall. 

Anne, daughter of John, lord Crewe, married to sir Henry Wright, hart., gave a 
farm at Little Henham, of about forty pounds a year, for the augmentation of 
this vicarage. 
Obit. A tenement, called Sammons, was given for a yearly obit.* 

In 1821, this parish, with the hamlet of Plechedon, contained eight hundred and four,, 
and in 1831, eight hundred and sixty-three inhabitants. 



ELSENHAM. 

Elsenham This parish is surrounded by Henham, Stansted Montfichet, Ugley, and Broxted. 
A small stream, that puts a corn-mill in motion, separates it from Stansted Montfichet. 
It is calculated to be two miles across either way : distant from Saffron Walden eight, 
and from London forty-six miles. 

In records the name is written, Alsenham, Elsingham, Elsinham, and Elsynham ; 
the derivation unknown. In the time of the Confessor, these lands were in the divided 
possession of Lestan, and of Meruena, a free-woman ; and at the survey belonged to 
John, nephew or grandson of Waleram, and to Robert Gernon ; the former had no 
other possessions in Essex, and his part of this was much the largest; what belonged 
to Robert lying contiguous to his seat of Stansted, had been exchanged for another 
possession less conveniently situated. 

* Monumental inscriptions, and recorded interments : Walter, lord Fitzvvalter, who died in 1408, by his 
will, ordered his body to be buried in this church. A grave- stone in the chancel, inlaid with the effigy of 
a man in white marble, bears a Latin inscription, which informs us that beneath is interred the body 
of Thomas Kirbie, gent., who died the 26th of October, 1603, leaving Bridget, Robert, and Sussex, his 
children ; and Anne his wife, only daughter of William Brewster, late of Castle Hedingham, gent., and 
Mirabella his wife, daughter of John Foley, of Badley. 

Charities. Henry .Smyth, alderman of London, erroneously and unjustly called Dog Smith, left a good 
sum of money to purchase lands for the use of the poor of Henham, and other parishes in Essex. There 
are some alms-houses near the church, the gift of John Measont, of Debden. 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 149 

The ancient habitation of Elsenham Hall is near the church : it was named New chap. 

VII. 
Hall, to distinguish it from the more ancient manor-house, the site of which is not - 

known ; the name of Nether Hall was also applied to the old mansion. Soon after the |\';Y."'''"" 

Conquest, a noble family named de Abrinci, barons of Folkstone, in Kent, had this 

manor, of which they retained possession till the decease of William de Abrinci, in 

1230, whose son William died young, and Maud, his only sister, a rich heiress, was 

married to Hamo de Crevecoeur, who died in 1262, holding this manor of the earl of 

Hereford : he left four daughters his co-heiresses, of whom Isabel, married to Henry 

de Gant, had this estate : he died in 1271, and his wife in 1283, leaving no issue. The 

manor afterwards passed to the families of Rochford, Walden, and Barley. 

Katharine, the sister and co-heiress of John de Walden (who died in 1419, holding Barley 
this estate), was married to John Barley, junior, of Barley, in Hertfordshire, from 
whence their name was derived : they were afterwards seated at Albury, in the same 
county. In 1445, John Barley dying, left his son Henry, who, in 1467, was sheriff 
of Essex and Hertfordshire, and died in 1475, in possession of the manor of Wicken, 
and holding jointly with his wife, relict of sir John Colville, all or part of this manor, 
of sir John Say; which his son William forfeited with his other extensive possessions, 
for supporting the party of Perkin Warbeck; but he was pardoned by king Henry 
the seventh; had his estate restored in 1500, and died in 1520, holding this manor of 
sir William Say, as of his manor of Saysbury: he was succeeded by his son Henry, 
who died in 1529: having married Anne, relict of lord Grey, he left by her, William, 
Antony, and three daughters : William married Joyce, daughter of John Perjent, of 
Digs well, in Hertfordshire, by whom he had two daughters his co-heiresses; Dorothy, 
married first to Clopton, of Suffolk, afterwards to Thomas, second son of Ed- 
ward Leventhorpe, esq., of Shingey Hall, in Sawbridgeworth ; and Anne, married to 
Richard Barley, son of Francis Barley, esq., of Great Waltham, a distant branch of 
the same family. The Hertford estate was inherited by Dorothy; and Anne con- 
veyed this to her husband, Avho died here in 1594:* Thomas their son and heir, left 

an only daughter, married to Pine, esq., whose father was of Lincoln' s-inn. 

This gentleman, in 1607, held the manor of Elsenham, the advowson of Springfield 
church, and the manor of Bibbesworth, in Hertfordshire; but being lunatic, was put 
under the guardianship of Henry Wiseman, esq., who had married his sister Mary, 
and they came and lived here : she died in 1635. Sir Thomas Adams, hart, purchased 
this estate of the heirs of Barley, and dying in 1668, left his son, sir William Adams, 
who died in 1688, and whose lady, named Jane, died in 1727, at an advanced age. Sir 
William was succeeded by his second son, sir Thomas, who, dying in 1690, was fol- 
lowed by sir Charles, the sixth son, on whose decease, in 1726, the title and estate 
descended to sir Robert, the eighth son; who sold this manor to William Dawkins, 
* Arms of Barley : Barrj- wavy of six, ermine and sable. 

VOL. II. X 



150 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



Klsenh.'iin 
Cross. 

Church. 



liOOK [1. esq., and he gave it to Bayley Heath, eldest son of Thomas Heath, esq., of Stansted 
Montfiehet. 

A manor, or estate, called Elsenham Cross, with a farm belonging to it, were granted, 
by king Edward the sixth, to Richard Chamond, and others, in 1553, to hold in socage. 

The church is a short distance from the village, on an eminence ; an embattled 
square tower, with a slender spire, contains four bells. The entrance to this ancient 
edifice is under a semi-circular arch, with plain and reticulated Saxon mouldings, and 
supported by massive pillars, covered with indented moulding, and having capitals 
rudely formed and of very antique appearance. The whole, as we may reasonably 
believe, either Saxon, or very early Norman workmanship. 

This church in 1070 was given to the abbey of St. Stephen, at Caen, in Normandy, 
by John, nephew of Waleram; and in the reign of king Richard the first, it was the 
gift of Beatrix, sister of Geofrey de Mandeville, to the monastery at Walden, founded 
by that earl, though it is not known whether this possession came to that lady, by ex- 
change or purchase. The abbey ordained a vicarage, and retained possession till its 
dissolution; Avhen the rectory, which is a manor, was granted by king Henry the 
eighth to Thomas, lord Audley; who bequeathed it to his lady, afterwards married to 
sir George Norton; from whose daughter and heiress, Margaret, it passed by mar- 
riage to Thomas, duke of Norfolk, and to their son, lord Thomas Howard; Avho sold 
it to John Weever; about the time of the restoration, it was purchased by William 
Canning, esq,, whose family retained possession till a late period.*' 

In 1821, this parish contained four hundred and thirty-four, and in 1831, four hun- 
dred and eighty-four inhabitants. 



* Arms of Canning : Argent, three negroes' heads couped, proper, escarsioned sable and argent. 

Inscriptions : — On a grave stone in the chancel : " Here lieth the body of Thomas, the son of William 
Adams, esq., grandson to sir Thomas Adams, of Elsenham, bart. He died Jan. 17, 1660." On a brass 
plate in the chancel : " Here lieth the body of Alice Tuer, who died the wyfe of Doc. Tuer, vicar of this 
church, with whom she lived twenty-two yeres within two nionets and four days, without any of the least 
household breaches, either in deede or worde between them, .such was her goodnesse. The widowe (first 
of Robert Claydon, of Ashdon, in Essex), by whom she had three children, Anne, who died before her 
mother, leaving behind her a young suckling daughter, called Mary, yet surviving, as also Thomas and John 
Claydon, who waited bothe at her funerall. Her humble soul God delivered from the downe- pressing 
birthen of this flesh, Oct. 7, 1619, in the year of her age, as her friends accounted, 72." — A similar inscrip- 
tion records the decease and burial of " Anne, wyfe of Thomas Fielde, only daughter of Alice (at the time 
of the decease and burial of the said Anne) tlie wife of John Tuer, doctor of lawe, then vicar of Elsnham. 
By her said sadd mother Alice (the daughter of Maister Richard Fitz-Hugh, of Eaton, in Bedfordshire, 
esq.), descended of the ancient and sometimes noble family, whose virtuous soul God took to him.self the 
9th of September, 1615, and of her age the 26th, leaving behind her one only image of herself, a young 
suckling daughter." There are also buried here, sir William Say, with his lady, in 1520. Richard Barley, 
with his wife, in 1594; and Anne his daughter, and wife of Henry Wiseman, who died in 1635. 

Charities:— John Wells, fanwright, gave two cottages, of the yearly rent of three pounds ten shillings, 
to purchase clothing for the poor, at the discretion of the minister and trustees. There is also an endow- 
ment to teach two poor children. 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 151 



C H A F. 
VII. 

TAKELEY. 



From Elsenham the parish of Takeley extends southward to the extremity of the Takeley, 
hmidred of Uttlesford, and north-westward to Birchanger and Stansted Montfiohet. 
It is in length three, and in width about two miles; in the village there is a place of 
worship for Independents: it is distant from Bishop Stortford five, and from London 
thirty-five miles. The lands are well adapted to the growth of oak, and other valuable 
timber.* The name in records is Tacheleia, Tachel, Takelee, Takelegh, Takkeleye, 
Tliacelee; its derivation unknown. 

Ulmar, Turchill, and two other freemen held these lands in the time of the Saxons- 
and, at the survey, they were in possession of Robert Gernon, Eudo Dapifer, and the 
priory of St. Valery, in Picardy: there are four manors. 

A farm-house has been erected on the site of the chief manor-house at Green End, ^''''^''''"' 
where the courts are kept. It was named the manor of Takeley, and also Waltham 
manor, from its appropriation to that religious house: it is not certainly known, but, 
from presumptive evidence, believed to have been given by king Henry the second : 
Henry the third granted them a market and a fair; and they had a grant of free- warren 
by king Edward the third. On the dissolution of the abbey, it was granted to Richard ~~ — 
Heigham, and in 1554, had passed to Thomas Miller; on Avhose decease it became 
the joint property of Thomas his son, and Francis Salperwig, who, in 1574, united in 
conveying it to Robert Petre, esq. on whose decease, in 1593, he Avas succeeded by 
John, his eldest brother's son, afterwards created lord Petre; and, after remaining 
several years in possession of that noble family, it became the property of sir Isaac 
Shaard, knt. whose heir was his son Abraham. 

Colchester Hall is nearly two miles from the church, north-eastward; this manor Coldies- 
belonged to the abbey of St. John, at Colchester, having been in the possession of 
Eudo Dapifer at the time of the general survey, who was the founder of that 
monastery; yet, according to the record, he is only said to have endowed his foun- 
dation with two parts of the tithes of Takeley; other portions of this estate were given 
to them by other benefactors, and part of it was holden of the Playz family, of Stansted. 
The abbey retained this possession till their dissolution; and, in 1538, it was granted '""'' 
to Robert Foster, from whom it was conveyed to Robert Heigham, esq. whose 
brother William was his heir ; and his widow Mary, married to John Colt, esq. left -+' 
her son Thomas heir to this estate, which, in 1553, he conveyed to Thomas Thorpe, 

* Takeley forest, Mr. A. Young observes, " is about one half covered with wood, among which, with a 
great deal of other very valuable timber, is an oak that measures, at five feet from the ground, fourteen 
feet in circumference, and is thought will cut to timber at the height of ninety feet." 



152 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. from whom It passed to Thomas Wyberd, in 1557; it afterwards passed through the 

families of Russell, Wiseman, Crackbone, and Plumme; and to Russell, esq. of 

North Ockingdon. 

S'. The manor of St. Valery's, vulgarly called Warish Hall, was given, by William the 

■ ' conqueror, to the abbey of St. Valery, in Picardy, which had a small priory here as a 

cell to their house; it was founded in the reign of king Henry the first, and the prior 

who resided in it was procurator-general of St, Valery's abbey, and collector of all the 

lands they had in England. The revenues of the alien priories were repeatedly seized 

by English monarchs, and this is said to have been obtained of king Edward the third 

by William of Wickham, bishop of Winchester, for the endowment of his munificent 

foundation of New College, Oxford, to which it now belongs; and there is an ancient 

house about three quarters of a mile from the church, eastward, where the abbey was 

situated, and where the court meets: in the rolls it is called Takeley St. Walerici. 

iia>sinK- The larffe and eleafant modern mansion of Bassingbourne Hall is on an eminence 

bourne " ® . . , i- 

Hall. which commands an extensive view over the surrounding country: it was erected 

by Francis Bernard, esq. who purchased the estate in 1745. It afterwards became the 

seat of the late sir Peter Parker; afterwards of Laurence, esq. 

The ancient estate of Bassingbourne is part of what belonged to Robert Gernon, 
whose family was succeeded by that of Bassingbourne, from whom it derives its name. 
Warine de Bassingbourne was sheriff of Cambridge and Huntingdon in 1170, and 
some of the family were settled here in the reign of king Henry the third; Alexander 
Bassingbourne, in 1239, and Stephen his brother, and John de Bassingbourne, are 
recorded occupiers under Giles de Playz, who died in 1303, and under Richard de 
Playz, who died in 1327; and from Nicholas Bassingbourne, who lived here in 1360, 
this family continued to hold this possession till the reign of king Henry the sixth. 
In 1437, sir John Howard, in right of Margaret his lady, heiress of the Playz family, 
held this estate and Chaldwell Hall: their only daughter and heiress Elizabeth, con- 
veyed it, in marriage, to John, son and heir of Richard de Vere, earl of Oxford, who 
was beheaded in 1461: sir Giles Poulet, at the time of his decease in 1579, held it 
under Edward, earl of Oxford, as of his honour of Stansted .Montfichet; his son 
William was his heir. In 1634, William Towse, esq.* serjeant-at-law, town-clerk of 
Colchester, and member of parliament for that borough, died in possession of this 
manor, which was purchased of his heiress, in 1663, by John Kendal, esq. who, on 
his decease in 1679, left his son William his heir; he was of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, and a barrister of the Middle Temple, a gentleman highly esteemed: he 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Beckford, merchant, of London, by whom he 

* He re-edified, or greatly improved the manor-house, which was also further improved and embellished 
by John Kendal, esq. 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 153 

had seven sons and three daughters. John Kendal, esq. the eldest surviving- son, was ^ H A p. 
of Bennet College, Cambridge, and a barrister of the Middle Temple; he died unmar- "' 

tied in 1T45,* and the estate being sold in chancery, was purchased by Francis Ber- 
nard, esq. son of Francis Bernard, esq. one of the judges of the court of common 
pleas in Ireland. 

An estate named Tipswaynes in this parish formerly belonged to William Banne- '^'P- 
bury, who was outlawed at Hertford for treason and felony in 1473, but its situation ''^^^^"^*' 
is not known. 

The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is of stone, and has a nave and chancel, with a CJhurcli. 
south aisle, to which there is an apartment named Bassingbourne's chapel; and opposite 
to it a strong room, formerly used as a depository for images of saints and relics. 

William, son of Ralph de Hanville, gave the advowson of this church to St. John's 
abbey, in Colchester; but, in 1237, the abbot and convent gave up the whole pa- 
tronage of it to the cathedral of St. Paul, and to Roger Niger, bishop of London, and 
his successors, for ever. 

The parsonage, which is a manor, is leased out by the bishop of London ; and when 

bishop Compton granted a new lease to William Kendal, esq. in 1680, he charged 

the estate with forty pounds a year, payable quarterly to the vicar, in augmentation of 

the vicarage. 

A brass plate in the church bears the following inscription: — Inscrip- 

tion. 

" Hannah Kuollys gave to God, June 27, 1689, in augmentation of the vicarage, seven pounds per 
annum, for the due payment of which a house and freehold lands are tied; she likewise settled a house 
and orchard on the parish clerk for ever." 

The tithe of about thirty acres of hay, ten of wheat, and ten of oats, are payable 
to the vicarage, out of the tithes of Warish Hall; and the farm failing, are to be taken 
out of the lordship. 

A chapel was founded by Geofrey, son of William de Hanville, at his own house, 

for his own convenience, on account of the badness of the roads, covenanting that it 

should be no prejudice to the mother church: no traces of this building are now 

discoverable. 

Within the chapel and in the chancel are the following inscriptions: — Inscrip- 

tions. 

" Here lieth buried the body of William Towse, esq. sonn and hcyre of William Towse, serjeant-at-law, 
who departed this life the 29th of May, 1692." 

" Within the chapel belonging to Bassingbourne Hall is interred the body of John Kendal, esq. who 
purchased the said manor of the heiress of serjeant Towse, in the year 1663, and departed this life the 
29th of November, 1679, being the 78th year of his age." 

* Arms of Kendal : Gules, a fesse chequy argent and azure, between three spread eagles, argent, two 
and one. 



154 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. " Stay, -ivhosoe'er thou art, view here this marble which does entombe the body of Hannah, daughter of 
William Collin, of Lincoln's Inn, esq. relict of Francis Knollys, of Nether Winchington, in the county of 
Bucks, esq. She lived long and happily, and died without issue on the 23d of June, 1689 ; her executors 
fixed this stone as a lasting monument of her memory and their gratitude."* 

In the church-yard: — 

" To the memory of Mrs. Ann Nicholls, relict of Mr. John Nicholls, who departed this life the 6th of 
September, 1801, aged 78 years. 

" My weary pilgrimage at length is o'er, 11 I've laid my burden down, and in this cell 

No pains or sickness now can vex me more ; || Bid all the troubles of the world farewell." 

In 1821, this parish contained one thousand one hundred and thirty-four, and, in 
1831, one thousand and ninety-nine inhabitants. 



BIRCHANGER. 



Birch- 
an!{er. 



Birch- 
aneer 
Hall. 

Princes 
Wood. 



Cliurcli. 



This small parish extends westward from Takeley to the borders of Hertfordshire, 
and to Harlow hundred southward: from Bishop Stortford it is -distant two, and from 
London thirty-one miles. 

The name is in records Bilchaungre, Biliclangre, Bylchanger, Byleghengre, of 
uncertain origin. In Edward the confessor's reign, it was in the possession of Turchill, 
and having been given to the abbey of St. Valery at the time of the survey, was 
confii'med to that monastery by king Henry the second; but was seized by Edward 
the third during his wars with France, and remained in possession of the crown till it 
was granted, by Richard the second, to William of Wickham, for the endowment of 
New College, Oxford, who have also the advowson of this rectory. 

The manor-house of Birchanger is an ancient building near the church. 

Princes Wood was formerly called a manor, and holden as such by W^illiam Towse, 
esq. at the time of his decease in 1634. On this manor a lawless court used to be held 
at midnight. Stortford claims a right to this manor, which is believed to have been 
erected before the bishop of London had his lands restored, when they were taken 
away by king John, on account of the bishop's executing the pope's interdict.f 

The church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, is very pleasantly situated on the summit 
of a hill, near the great London road. It is a small ancient building, the nave and 
chancel of one pace, with a round tower and a low shingled spire.:|: The parsonage 
house is a handsome building, not far distant from the church. 

In 1821, this parish contained three hundred and thirty-six, and, in 1831, three 
hundred and sixty inhabitants. 

* There were also buried here, William CoUyn, in 1681 ; Mrs. Mary English in 1695 : and the rev. John 
English, her husband, vicar of this parish, in 1716, in the eighty-third year of his age." 

t This Wood was sometime ago in the possession of W. Ely of Bishop Stortford, and since of John Nicholls. 
: William Parsons, LL.D. who was instituted to this living, June 30th, 1641, read the Common Prayer 



CHAP. 
VII. 



\ 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 155 

STANSTED MONTFICHET. 

The parish of Stansted Montfichet is one of the largest in Essex, in circumference ^!''^"^^*^^ 
computed to be nearly forty miles. From Ugley and Elsenham northward, it extends ticlihet. 
to Birchanger and Takeley; and westward to Bishop Stortford, in Hertfordshire, 
and to Farnham, in Essex: distant from Saffron Walden nine, from Dunmow seven, 
and from London thirty-four miles. There is a fair here on the twelfth of May. 

The town is large and populous, and consists of two streets, one of which, on the 
great road from London to Cambridge and NeAvmarket, contains numerous capital 
houses, and a large meeting-house, belonging to dissenters of the denomination of 
Independents. The other portion of the town is on the road to Elsenham and Takeley. 

The meeting-house of Stansted is of considerable antiquity, and it appears from Stansted 
writings in possession of the minister,-]- that some of the family of Nicholls, formerly iiouse. 
dissenters, were among its earliest benefactors: and a small piece of ground in Farn- 
ham was given by them for the purpose of a burying place.:}: In the indenture of the 
trustees of this meeting-house, made in 1698, tenth of William the third, the names of 
Anthony Nicholls, of Farnham, and John Nicholls of Hatfield Broadoke, occur; 

in this church, during the interdict, in the time of Cromwell, notwithstanding the manifest danger he 
incurred : he was afterwards prebendary of Chester, rector of Lambourn, and vicar of Great Dunmow. 
Inscriptions in this church, within the communion rails : 

" William Reade, of this parish, and Ann his wife, sole daughter and heir of Thoma^ Alcyn, of Branghen, 
in Hertfordshire, gentleman, by Jane his wife, one of the daughters of Tliomas Laventhorp, of Albury 
Hall, in the said county, esquire. She died, Uth Nov. 1639. He, the 3d April, 1659. This monument was 
erected by their only son, Aleyn Reade." Arms : A griffin segreant .... a canton .... impaling per bend 
rompu .... six martlets. 

On the south wall: Charles Hippuff, esquire, late of Sion House, in this parish, and Birchin-lane, 
London; died 28th November, 1815, aged 68. Catherine, his wife, died 30th July, 1808, aged 37. 

J. M. Bingham, late rector of Runwell, in this county; formerly minister of Gosport chapel, Hants, 
prebendary of the cathedral church of Chichester, and 4S years rector of this parish, died 30th January, 

1807, aged 73. Catharine, his wife, died 3d July, 1799, aged 65. Arms : a bend cotised between 

six .... impaling indistinct. 

John Micklethwait, esquire, of Beeston St. Andrew, in the county of Norfolk, died 27th February, 1799, 
aged 79. He was descended from the ancient family of Micklethwait, of Swine, in the county of York. 
Also, ^Elizabeth his wife, youngest daughter of William Peckham, esquire, of Iridge Place, in the county 
of Suffolk : she died 1806, aged 78 years. Arms : Chequy argent and gules a chief indented azure. Over 
all, on an escutcheon of pretence. Ermine : a chief quarterly or and gules. Crest : On a wreath, or and 
gules, a griffin's head. 

On the floor : Michael Thompson, merchant, of London ; died Oct. 20th, 1705, aged 57. 

Alexander Watson, of Billiter-square ; died 29th of March, 1789, aged bb. 

f The rev. Mr. May, minister here, has compiled a short history of the meeting-house, for the use of 
the trustees. 

X In this burial ground are the following inscriptions ; " Elizabeth, late wife of Zachariah Nicholls, of 
Barrington Hall, died 6 April 1787, aged 36. Zachariah Nicholls, late of Harrington Hall, died fourth of 
February, 1793, aged 63. 



156 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK n. and also, in the successive renewals of the said deed, are found, in 1717, the names of 
John Nicholls, of Hatfield Broadoke, Zaehariah Nicholls, of Farnham, and Thomas 
Nicholls of Little Hadham. A deed, bearing date 1724, tenth of George the first, 
authorises the. grant, from Thomas Nicholls of Farnham, of a piece of ground at 
Hazel End, in that parish, part of the orchard of the said Thomas Nicholls, and of Wil- 
liam Nicholls his brother. A deed renewing the trust, in 1751, contains the name of 
John Nicholls, of Little Hadham,* eldest son and heir of Thomas Nicholls of that 
place ; and also the name of John and Zaehariah Nicholls, of Farnham : and in the j 

next renewal of the trust, in 1772, the investment was in John Nicholls, of Farnham, ■ 

Zaehariah Nicholls, of Barrington-hall, John Nicholls, of Takeley, and others. In 
1813, the consignment was from John Nicholls, of Thaxted, son and heir of Zaehariah 
Nicholls, late of Dunmow, who was the only son and heir of John Nicholls, late of 
Farnham. 

The lands of this extensive parish are considerably diversified, some of them lying 
very low, and others exceedingly high. The name is Saxon, compounded of Stan, a 
stone, and j-teb, a place, derived from a visinal way, branching off from the great 
Roman road between Bishop Stortford and Colchester, in the direction of Stansted- 
street, toward Great Chesterford ; the appellation of Montfichet is understood to have 
been given to this place in contradistinction to Stansted, in Hertfordshire ; and pro- 

* John Nicholls, of Hadham (great grandfather of John NichoUsi, esq. of Islington), died in 1756, 
leaving John, Joseph, and William : John Nicholls was of Takeley, in Essex, died without issue, and 
was buried at Hadham, in 1775. 

William, the third .son, was married, and had John, and Ann. John, the son of William Nicholls, had 
by his wife , John, Anne, Jind Sarah. 

Joseph, the second son of John Nicholls, of Hadham, married Susan, daughter of Baker, of 

Matching, by whom he had John, and Zaehariah; this last was of Hadham, and by his wife Mary, had 
William, who died without issue, and Ann and Sarah. 

Jolm, the eldest son of Jo.scph Nicholls, born in 1763, died in 1790, and was buried at Hadham: he 
married Mary, daughter of Mathias Miller, by whom he had his only son, John Nicholls, esq. of Islington, 
born in 17S»0: he married Elizabeth Sarah, daughter of John Rahn, of Enfield, esq., by whom he has 
Elizabeth, born at Islington in 1S25, baptised at Theydon Gernon. Edward Hadham Nicholls, born at 
Islington, 1829, baptised at Theydon Gernon. John, born in 1 832, at Islington, baptised at Theydon Gernon. 

The family of Nicholls is of very considerable antiquity in the county of Essex. John, son of John 
Nicholls of Walden, is mentioned in a grant of land, dated 31st Edward I., and frequent mention is made 
of tliem in various parts of tiie county ; a considerable branch of this family were long situated at Walden. 
The ancestors of the NichoUses, benefactors of Stansted meeting-house, were principally settled at Hadham, 
where they regularly appear for the last three centuries. 

Arms of Nicholls of Essex : Sable, a pheon argent ; on a canton of the second, an owl proper. — Another 
coat : Argent, on a chevron azure, between three wolves' heads erased, sable, as many crescents ermine ; 
on a canton of the third, a pheon of the field. Crest : a squirrel, sable, holding a pheon, argent. 

Arms of Rahn • A dexter arm issuing out of the sinister side of the escutcheon embowed and holding in 
the hand a sprig of three acorns. Crest : a sprig of three acorns. The family of Rahn (then called Von 
Rahn), came into England with George the first. 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 157 

bably arose from a large artificial mount of earth* remaining here, on which the keep c H a F 
of a castle stood, erected by William Gernon, surnamed Montfichet. Some remains ^"' 
of the castle are yet perceptible about a quarter of a mile from the church. 

This possession in the time of the Saxons Avas an inconsiderable estate holden by 
only one freeman : but, being given to Robert Gernon, and made the chief seat of 
the family, and the head of their extensive barony, it on that account rose to import- 
ance. The male line of this family continued five descents; first, Robert; second, 
William, who took the surname of Montfichet; third, Gilbert; fourth, Richard; fifth, 
Richard. The whole of this parish, divided into two manors, was in their possession. 

Stansted Hall was a large and handsome ancient mansion, not far from the church, Stansted 
on the summit of a lofty hill, with an extensive prospect into Elsenham, Henham, and ^ ' 
other neighbouring parishes. This venerable and stately fabric has been pulled down, 

except what has been converted into a farm-house. The estate belongs to 

Maitland, esq. 

The time of Robert Gernon's decease is not known ; his son William, succeeding Gernon 
to the extensive family possessions, exchanged the former surname of the family for ^^^^^' 
that of Montfichet, afterwards used by his descendants. He was the founder of the 
abbey of Stratford Langford, in West Ham. His son, Gilbert de Montfichet, is 
mentioned in the assessment of the aid for marrying the daughter of king Henry the 
second to the duke of Saxony. Richard, his son, was keeper of the forest of Essex 
with the keeper of the king's house at Havering, and all the other houses of the king 
in that forest, and this office was confirmed by Henry the second. In 1194, he 
attended king Richard the first on his expedition into Normandy; and, in 1200, gave 
one hundred marks for a confirmation of his forestership of Essex, with the custody of 
the castle of Hertford ; and Avas made sheriff" of both these counties. On his decease, 
in 1203, he left, by Melicent his wife, his son Richard, who being under age, Roger 
de Lacy, constable of Chester, gave one thousand marks for his wardship, and his 
mother Melicent, in 1210, gave one thousand one hundred marks for the same ward- 
ship. Joining the discontented barons against king John, he was one of the twenty- 
five appointed to govern the realm; and in 1217, was taken prisoner at the battle of 
Lincoln: but regaining the king's favour in 1236, he was made justice of the royal 
forests in this and other counties: and also, in 1242, sheriff" of Essex and Hertford- 
shire, and governor of Hertford castle. He died witho\it issue, in I258f, leaving 
three sisters his co-heiresses : Margery, married to Hugh de Bolebec, of Northumber- 
land ; Aveline, married to William de Fortz, earl of Albemarle ; and Philippa, mar- 
ried to Hugh de Playz. On the division of this noble inheritance, Bolebec had 
Stansted Hall; and De Playz had Bendfield-bury; Walter, son and heir of Hugh, 

* A fixed, or firm mount. 

t Arms of Montfichet : Gules, three chevronels, with a label of three points, azare. 
VOL. II. Y 



158 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. was father of Walter Bolebec, who dying without issue, it remained in the several 
branches of the family, till John de Lancaster, with his wife Annora, sold the 
reversion of it to Thomas de Vere, one of the sons of Robert, third earl of Oxford, 
to whose family the other parts of this manor, which had been detached from it, were 
restored, and enjoyed by them through several generations. 

Buinels. The manor-house of Burnels is on the side of the road from Stansted-bury to 
Stansted town, and the manor is what was conveyed by Alice and Maud*, the two 
youngest daughters of Hugh de Bolebec, to Robert Burnel, whose surname has been 
retained by the estate. He was bishop of Bath and Wells, and died in 1292,f leaving 
Philip Burnel, son of his brother Hugh, his heir, from whom it passed by several 
female collateral heirships, to sir Edmund Hungerford, who held under Francis, lord 
Lovel, Thomas being his son and heir ; after whom it became vested in the family 
of de Vere. 

Biii-y The manor-house of Bury Lodge is by the road from Stansted Hall to Takeley 

Lodge. 

common. 

Bcndfield- The other most considerable manor in this parish is Benfield-bury, and the mansion 
belonging to it is about two miles north-westward from the church, near the river 
Stort. It is a hamlet to the parish of Stansted; yet the inhabitants elect a constable 
of their own, and formerly did homage or service at the court-leet of the half hundred 
of Clavering. This has descended with the other manors, from Robert Gernon to 
the Montfichet family, from whom it was conveyed by marriage to the family of de 
Playz ; one of whose female descendants marrying sir John Howard, carried with 
her this estate, to which their grand-daughter succeeded ; and was married to John de 
Vere, son and heir of Richard, the eleventh earl of Oxford, who, with his father, was 
beheaded for adhering to the house of Lancaster. Of their estates, forfeited to the 
crown, this of Bendfield-bury was, in 1498, given by the trustees of Richard, duke of 
Gloucester, brother of king Edward the fourth, for the erection of a chantry in the 
chapel of St. George, at Windsor. But this intention was prevented on the coming 
of Henry the seventh to the throne, who restored the De Veres to their honours and 
estates ; and Bendfield-bury continued in that noble family, till Edward, the seven- 
teenth earl, sold it to John Southall, who, in 1584, conveyed it to Edward Hubert, 
esq.,:]: from whose family it passed, in 1615, to sir Thomas Middleton, knt. Timothy, 
his second son, had his residence here, whose son Thomas succeeded him, and erected 
the modern part of Stansted Hall, improved the grounds, and made it a convenient 

• She had four daughters, all of whom died before her ; and her husband, Hugh de la Vail, was a man 
who rose to eminence, and acquired fame. — Dugdale's Baronage, vol. i. p. 626. 

t He was afterwards lord chancellor ; and in 1274 appointed keeper of the great seal ; which high office 
he retained till 1292. — Dugdale, Chronica Series. 

X His son, Edward Hubert, esq. married Elizabeth, daughter of John Ashenhurst, esq. of Great Baddow. 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 159 

and elegant seat. Thomas, his son and heir, was many years burgess for Harwich, C H a i\ 
and left his son, Thomas Middleton, esq., his successor. This gentleman was mem- ^'"" 
ber of four successive parliaments in the commencement of the reign of queen Anne. 
On his decease he left five daughters ; and by his last will vested his estate in trustees, 
for providing portions for them, and to pay his debts, having no male heirs. After- 
wards an act of parliament passed, authorising the sale of this estate, and it was pur- 
chased by Thomas Heath, esq., of Mile End, in Middlesex. On his decease he was 
succeeded by his eldest son, Bayley Heath, esq., sheriff of Essex in 1747. He died 
in 1760, and left his son and heir, William Heath, esq.* 

The priory of Thremhall was within the bounds of this parish, about two miles Priory of 
south-east from the church, on the border of Hatfield forest : it was founded by hali^"^" 
Richard de Montfichet, for black canons of the order of St. Augustine, and dedicated 
to St. James; but the chief endowment of this house was by the noble family of De 
Vere, earls of Oxford, into whose patronage it passed in 1289. 

The site and manor of this priory, with that of Derbitots, Avas granted to sir John Ray 
Carey, and Joyse Walsingham, a widow, whom he afterwards married. Wymond ^^"''y- 
Carey, their son, sold this estate, in 1566, to William Glascock and John Pavyott; 
and on the decease of the former of these, in 1578, his son, Richard Glascock, suc- 
ceeded to this estate, whose son George was his heir; and in 1583 this and other 
possessions here became the property of the Ray family, the sole heir of which, in 
1608, was John Ray, attorney-at-law, who died in 1638; his son and heir, Thomas, 
married Dorothy, daughter of Henry Glascock, esq., of Fernham, and had by her six 
sons, and five daughters : he was succeeded on his decease, in 1692, by his son George, 
educated at Christ's College, Cambridge : his son, the rev. Thomas Ray, erected a 
handsome house near the site of the priory. On his decease, he left two daughters, his 

co-heiresses ; one of whom was married to Dr. Robinson, the other to Wyatt, 

esq. of Canfield ; and the former of these having purchased her sister's moiety of the 
estate, came and resided here. 

Several individuals of the families of Montfichet, of De Vere, and of Barrington, 
were interred in the priory church. 

Stansted church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, is a small ancient edifice, which yet Church, 
retains some interesting remains of its former appearance ; particularly some part of 
the carved seats belonging to the chantry priests. The tower, which is of brick, and 
contains five bells, bears the following inscription: — 

"This steeple was rebuilt and the foundation new laid at the sole charge of sir Stephen Langham, of Inscrip- 
Quinton, in Northamptonshire, knt., whose only daughter was married to sir James Middleton, knight, *'*'"• 

* Arms of Heath : Parti per chevron, embattled, sable and argent. In chief two mullets of six points, 
or, pierced gules : in base, a heathcock of the first, combed and wattled, proper. 



tions. 



160 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II ^"^'^ ^^ *^^ manor and patron of this church : as also the church was hy him ceiled, repaired, and whited, 
and the porch rebuilt; all finished anno 1692."* 

Advow- This church was given to the priory of Thremhall, but at what time is not known. 

son. 'p'ljg u advowson of this vill," as it is named in the record, was the gift of John de 

Lancaster. The first vicar was Robert de Bokkyngg, who died in 1361 ; but no 
certain endownment was assigned to it till 1441. John Carey and Joyse Walsingham, 
after the dissolution of the monastery, obtained a grant of the rectory and advowson of 
this vicarage ; these were afterwards sold by their son, Wymond Carey. 

Vicarage- The ancient vicarage-house, in Bradford-street, having fallen down, a piece of 
ground was given by sir Thomas Middleton to Mr. Reynolds, for himself and suc- 
cessors, where he, assisted by his patron and others, erected a convenient and hand- 
some mansion, with outhouses, and garden ; and as a reward for having effected this 
great and important improvement. Dr. Compton, bishop of London, gave him the 
rectory of Thorley, in Hertfordshire. 

Font. The font of Stansted church is ornamented with rudely-formed sculptures, and bears 

undoubted marks of great antiquity. 

Monu- On the north side of the chancel, the figure of a knight cross-legged, has been 

inscrip- described by Mr. Gough, in his Sepulchral Monuments; as also by Weever;f it yet 
remains, but more mutilated than in his time.:}: 

On the floor of the chancel, on a small brass plate, in the cover of a stone coffin of a 
pyramidal form, is an inscription, in characters partly Saxon and partly Gothic, to the 
memory of the first vicar.§ Another brass plate bears an inscription. |1 Also, against 
the south wall of the chancel, there is a handsome marble monument, to the memory of 
sir Thomas Middleton, who is represented in a recumbent posture, in a suit of plate 
armour with gilt studs, and a robe coloured gules and trimmed with fur, under a 
highly decorated arch : the inscription nearly illegible.^ 

• Edward Huberd, esq. in 1582, gave a yearly rent-charge of twenty shillings, out of Crouch meadow, in 
Birchanger, and also a rent of forty shillings yearly out of Moorfield, and Little Burgatefield, for the use 
of the church. 

t Cough's Sep. Mon. vol. i. p. 21 1. Weever's Sep. Obit. p. 654. 

X Cough's description is as follows : " Under a large pointed arch, in the north side of the chancel at 
Stansted Montfichet, a stone knight cross-legged in mail, round helmet, lion at feet, two angels at head. 
Q. If a Montfichet from Tremhall Priory in this parish .' Perhaps Richard, the founder, t. Henry I. or the 
founder of the church, as tradition says." 

§ "Hie jacet Robert de Bokkyngg, prim, vicar, ecclie parochial. Stansted Mechet, qui ob. 22 kal. Sept. 
anno Dni. 1361." " Here lies Robert de Bokkyngg, the first vicar of the parish church of Stansted Mechet, 
who died on the -^ d day of September, in the year of our Lord 1361." 

II Ann. Dni. I6U9, Ceorgium Ray, generosum virum Dei immortalis colentissimum, mortaliuraque 
omnium amantissimum, hoc marmor occulit." 

" In the year of our Lord 1609 ; this marble covers Ceorge Ray, gent., a very devout worshipper of the 
immortal God, and a friend to all mankind." 

f " Deo opt. Sacra. Repositum hie est depositum Thomse Middletonii, militis ex antiqua Middletonorum, 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 161 

This church has been supplied with two hundred free sittings, toward the expense ^ ^ '^ P- 
of which, the society for enlarging churches and chapels contributed two hundred ' 

pounds. 

ordovicensium familia oriundi, qui ab Ephoebis Londinum receptus, hinc. Negotiandi causa in exteras Re- 
giones Missus. Locoruni, Linguarum, Meicium Morum, pertissimus explorator: privata professionis suae 
(mercatura) mysteria, turn publica Regni Negotia, sub auspitiisWalsingami, (cui intenotus) sumraa integri- 
tate et singular! prudentia peragebat. Demum regressus Domum maximus urbis honoribus : Vicecomes et 
Praetor Londini : laudatissime perfunctus supremi Purpuratorum ordinis Aldermanis in senatus facile 
princeps ad mortem usq ; permansit. Nee immemor qualem sibi et Reipub : apud exteros navasset operam 
gloriosissi ma Elizabethae prsecipuum in Monitis locum illius fidei demandavit. Vir fuit omne virtutem 
laude cumulatissimus : Devotus in Deum ; fidus in principem ; pius in patriam, morigerus in amicos, 
officiosus in omnes, viduarum vero et orphanorum propugnator acerrimus, et quale suis columen et asy- 
lum, alios ad dignitatem, omnes ad divitias promovebat. Quatuor sibi uxores desponsavit, duabus 
prioribus ex prima, Thomam Equitem auratum filium et haeredem ; et secunda Timotheum et duas filias, 
Hesteram, Henrico Salisbury, militis et baronetta, nuptam (fato functam) et Mariam J. Mainard Nobilis 
Balnei ordinis Equiti sociatam, postremo cunctis usq ; quo optari potuit successu coronatis ; pie et 
placide Animam ccelo, corpus, humo, naturae vitam (anhelans meliorum) reddidit. At memoriam Amicia, 
maerorem civibus, dolorum suis, desiderium sui bonis omnibus reliquit, die Aug. 12, An. Sal. 1631, aet. 
suae 81 (aut eo circiter) mortuus et in hoc sacrario (sibi et suis condito) sepultus." 

" Sacred to God all gracious. Here lie the remains of sir Thomas Middleton, knight, descended from 
the ancient family of the Middletons, of North Wales ; who went in his early youth to London, from 
whence he was sent as a merchant into foreign parts. He made himself well acquainted with countries 
and their languages, merchandise and manners : he performed the private mysteries of his profession 
(that of a merchant) as well as the public business of the kingdom, under the auspices of lord Walsingham 
(to whom he was intimately known), with the greatest integrity, and an uncommon prudence. At length, 
having returned home, he had the greatest honours of the city conferred upon him, those of sheriff and lord 
mayor of London. Having with the greatest applause discharged these highest offices, he continued, to 
the time of his death, chief of the court of aldermen. Nor was the most glorious Elizabeth unmindful of 
the services he had done her and the state in foreign countries ; for she made him chief of her council. 
He was a man of the greatest virtue; devout to his God, faithful to his prince, true to his country, 
courteous to his friends, respectful to all, the strictest defender of widows and orphans. But what a sup- 
port and refuge to his own relations ! Some he advanced to honour ; all to riches. He espoused four 
wives; by the first of whom he had Thomas, knt., a son and heir; by the second, Timothy ; and two 
daughters, Esther (deceased), who married sir Henry Salisbury, knight and baronet ; and Mary, who 
married sir J. Mainard, knight of the noble order of the Bath. At last, all his affairs having been con- 
tinually crowned with the desired success, he piously resigned his soul to heaven, his body to the ground, 
in earnest expectation of a better life than this. But he left to his friends, the remembrance of himself ; 
to his fellow- citizens, sorrow ; to his relations, grief; to all good men, a sense of their loss. He died on 
the fourteenth day of August, in the year of his salvation, 1631 ; of his age 81, and is buried in this tomb' 
erected for himself and his family. 



" Occubuit virtus, et in hoc inclusa sepulchro 
Middletonorum gloria magna jacet. 
Deditus esse Deo, patriae pius, omnibus aequus 
Londini celebras laude subire vices. 



Indulgere bonis miseris solamen asylum 
Orphanis viduis, et Deus esse suis . 
Nil opus est saxis : hoc pectora fida loquuntur, 
Illius illustrant hae monumenta rogum." 



Translation. "Virtue hath perished; and in this tomb lies the great glory of the Middletons. Having 
been devout to his God, true to his country, just to all men; having discharged, with applause, the highest 
offices of the city of London ; having afforded relief and protection to good men in distress, to orphans 



162 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



IJOOK II. The parish of Stansted Montfichet, with the hamlet of Benfield, in 1821, contained 
~ one thousand five hundred and eighteen, and, in 1831, one thousand five hundred and 
sixty inhabitants.* 



QUENDON. 

Quendon. Quendon is a small parish, intersected by the great road from London to Newmarket 
and Cambridge. The lands here are of various descriptions, the appearance agreeably 

and widows, and having been (as it were) a divinity to his relations -. there is no need of stones, faithful 
breasts declare these things : these monumental erections adorn his grave." 

Principal shield of arms, quarterly of nine; 1, on a bend three wolves' heads erased ; in the sinister chief 
point a mullet : 2, a chevron between three wolves' heads erased : 3, a lion passant -. 4, on a bend three 
lions passant: 6, two birds in pale: 6, per pale a lion rampant counterchauged : 7, three cocks: 
8, between a chevron three owls : 9, two serpents entwined. Crest : on a wreath a dexter hand. There 
are six other escutcheons on the monument. 

Within the coniniunion rails a marble altar-tomb, of excellent workmanship, bears a female figure in 
a reclining posture, habited in a close-bodied sable dress and a high-crowned hat; the mural compart- 
ments of the tomb are ornamented with devices emblematical of mortality ; on the west end the following 
inscription, on the south side two shields of arms : 

" Justorum memoria sempiterna." 
Here lyith the body of Hester Salvsbvrye, late wyf to Henry Salvsbvrye, of Lleweunye, in the county of 
Denbighc, esquier, eldest davghter of sir Thomas Middleton, knight, alderman of the City of London, and 
lord of this manor ; who had yssve John, Mort, Thomas, Vrsvla, and Elizabeth, and deceased ye 26 day 
of January, 1614. Dexter shield quarterly of IG; impaling 6 quarters, the paternal coat of Salusburye, 
a lion rampant between three crescents. Sinister shield .same as the impalement of the dexter : the arms 
and quarterings of Middleton. 

On the ground : Thomas Day, gent, an ancient inhabitant of this parish, and Dorothy his wife, daughter 
of Henry Glascock, his wife, of Fafnham (should] be Fatnham) ; he died May 4, 1692, aged 76, and she 
May 15, 1701, aged 82, having lived together 32 years. 

The burying place of sir Stephen Langham and his lady. Sir Stephen died Sept. 1, 1709, aged 81 ; 
his lady, March 3, 1721, aged 84. 

* Charities. — In 1604, Elizabeth Cook (otherwise Chapman) gave an acre of arable land in Stansted 
Stoneyfield, in Birchanger, the rent to be given by the churchwardens to ten poor widows of Stansted, 
yearly : in 1609, the same lady gave a field called Bull's Croft, in Great Hallingbury, and five shillings 
per annum for the use of the poor of Stansted. In 1612, Mr. Parnel Brown gave an annuity of twenty 
shillings to the poor, out of lands called Revels, payable on Christmas Day. In 1615, Mr. Dionysius 
Palmer gave an annuity of fifty-two shillings, to be given in bread to the poor, two shillings to the vicar, 
and one shilling to the churchwardens. In 1620, Mr. Robert Buck, of Ugley, by will, gave every third 
year, to three poor men, each a suit of clothes, and three suits to three poor women with hats, and three 
jiounds in money for making. In 1705,Gertrude,oneof the daughters of William Peck, esq. of Little Samford 
Hall, left, by will, sixty-six pounds, six shillings and eight pence, the interest of which to be given in bread 
to the poor every Sunday fortnight. Grace Judson, widow of the late rev. Jonathan Judson, vicar of this 
parish, beijueathed five pounds a year for ten years after his decease, to the poor widows of this parish, 
under the direction of Bailey Heath, esq. her executor. One hundred pounds was bequeathed by Mrs. 
Kitty Rush, sister of the late Bailey Heatli, esq. to the poor of this parish, the principal of which is vested 
in the names of William Paris and Matthew Woodly, jun., and the interest, at five per cent, per annum, 
applied to the benefit of the Sunday-school, instituted in the year 1812. 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 163 

diversified, in some parts hilly, in others flat and low. The village on the road-side C H a p. 

is small, but has some good houses: the name fi'om the Saxon Cpen, a queen, and ' 

bon, a hill, Queen's Hill. The distance from Saffron Walden is six, and from London 

thirty-six miles. 

Aldred was the name of the possessor of the lands of this parish in the time of Manor, 

Edward the confessor, which, at the survey of Domesday, belonged to Eudo Dapifer; 

and descended from him to the noble families of Mandeville and Bohun : of which last 

family, Humphrey, earl of Hereford, Essex and Northampton, in 1372, had two 

daughters, co-heiresses; Eleanor, in 1372, married to Thomas, of Woodstock, duke 

of Gloucester; and Mary, married to Henry, earl of Derby, who afterwards became 

king Henry the fourth. When the duke of Gloucester was murdered at Calais, he 

was succeeded in his estates by his daughter Anne, married to Edmund, earl of 

Stafford; and by a partition of the estates in 1421, between the said Anne and king 

Henry the fifth, the son of her aunt, this manor fell to the king's share, Avho settled 

it upon Katharine his queen; who was succeeded in this possession by Margaret, 

queen of king Henry the sixth, and afterwards by Elizabeth, queen of Edward the 

fourth; it remained in the crown till the year 1530: in 1533, it had become the 

property of Thomas Newman, esq. of Wethersfield, who was also possessed of a 

moiety of the manor of Rickling Hall, and the Avhole of the manor of Fange. He 

pulled down the ancient manor-house near the church, and erected a capital mansion, 

from him named Newman Hall; it is about three quarters of a mile northward from Newman 

. . Hall 

the church. Mr. Newman married Anne, daughter of Rooke Green, esq. of Little 

Samford, and had by her Anne, his only daughter and heiress, who conveyed this 

estate to her husband, James Wilford, esq. son of Thomas Wilford, esq. of Hartridge, 

in Kent, by Mary, daughter of sir Humphrey Browne, and grandson of sir James 

Wilford, who married Joyse, daughter of John Barrett, esq. of Aveley. James 

Wilford had by Anne Newman, Henry, his eldest son and heir, Anne, and several 

other sons and daughters. Anne was married to Edward Stafford, father of Henry 

lord StaflFord, descended from Edward Stafford, duke of Buckingham. Henry 

Wilford, esq. succeeded his father; and either he, or one of his descendants, wasin 

possession of this estate in 1635, which, in 1645, he sold to John Benson,of London. 

It next belonged to Samuel Gibbs, esq. alderman of London, whose wife Anne, 

daughter of Francil Ashe, esq. dying young, left him no children, and he sold Newman 

Hall to Thomas Turner, esq. of Widdington, whose son, John Turner, esq. rebuilt 

the hall, and inclosed it in a park: it has since been named Quendon Hall. In 1717 Quendon 

Hall 

it was sold by his son, John Turner, esq. to John Maurice,* esq. of Walthamstow, 
whose widow sold it to Henry Cranmer, esq. of the six clerks' office in chancery, 

* He was the second son of sir William Maurice, knt. secretary of state to king Charles the second 
Arms of Maurice : Gules, a lion rampant regardant, or. 



164 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. who was succeeded by his son Henry: it is now the seat of James Powel 
Cranmer, esq. 

The church is small, having a nave, south aisle, and chancel.* 

In 1821, this parish contained one hundred and fifty-six, and, in 1831, two hundred 
and eleven inhabitants. 

RICKLING. 

Rickling. The parish of Rickling is separated from Quendon by the high road, from which it 
extends westward; houses belonging to these parishes are on either side of this road: 
in length, Rickling is about two miles, and in breadth one and a half: distant from 
Saffron Walden four, and from London thirty-eight miles. 

This parish is stated to have been originally in possession of Rickel, a Saxon, from 
whom its name appears to have been derived. Earl Harold had possession of it in 
the time of the Confessor, and, at the survey, it was retained among the crown lands 
of the Conqueror. 

Kickling 'pj^g ancient manor-house of Rickling Hall is about three quarters of a mile from 
the church, most pleasantly situated among the southern hills, upon which are the most 
delightful fields in the county. The house long retained some portion of its ancient 
grandeur; the walls of brick, of great thickness, surrounding a quadrangular court, 
the windows originally long and narrow, quoined with stone: the entrance-gate also 
arched with free stone, the walls of the gate-house of the same material, and having 
much the appearance of a chapel, or oratory, was embattled, and encircled by a moat, 
with an artificial mount, and a keep on the south-western side, where there was sup- 
posed to have been a dungeon. One of the apartments bore the name of the king's 
parlour, probably having, at a remote period, been honoured by the presence of a 
royal guest. The earliest recorded possessor of this estate was Beatrix de Saye, sister 
of Geofrey and William de Magnaville, earls of Essex, who, on the failure of heirs 
male, inherited the great estates of that family. She died here in 1207. In 1331, 
Humphrey de Walden died in possession of this manor, and was succeeded by Andrew, 
the son of his brother Roger, who, on his decease in 1352, left, by his wife Joan, 
Thomas, his son and heir. In 1419, after having been alienated from this family, it 
was in the possession of John Walden, f who held it of sir John Heron, as of his 
manors of Sabrichford, Pouncyns, and Thurrocks, in Clavering. His sisters 

* Inscription : — On a neat mural monument in the chancel : " Thomas Turner, of Newman Hall, in thi? 
parish, esq. son and heir of Thomas Turner, late of Wcstlcy Hall, in Cambridgeshire, esq. His first wife 
was Jemima, daughter of Thomas VValdegrave, of Smallbridge, in Suffolk, esq. ; his second and last wife 
was Katharine, daughter of Robert Cheke, of Pirgo, in this county, esq. ; he died Feb. 2i, 1681, aged 39. 
His wife Katharine died June 13, 1685, aged 38." 

t Arms of Walden : Barry of four, argent and sable ; on a chief of the second, three cinquefoil.s of the 
first. 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 165 

Katharine, wife of John Barley, jun., and Margaret, married to Henry Langley, were C H A p. 
co-heiresses of the estate of the Walden family ; and this being the portion belonging ' 

to Mai'garet, was named, from her husband, Langley Wildbores. Thomas was his 
son, whose son Henry died in 1488,* as did his wife in 1511, possessed of all the 
family estates, which she left to their only daughter Katharine, married to John 
Marshall, esq.; and she, on her decease in 1519, left her two daughters co-heiresses; 
Elianor, married to Henry, son of sir John Cutts ; and Mary, married to John, son 
of Richard Cutts. In 1547, Peter Cutts died in possession of this estate, succeeded 
by Richard, his son, who held a moiety of the estate, the other being in possessionof 
sii' Henry, the son of Henry Cutts. In 1626, it was sold by John, son and heir of 
Richard Cutts, to Thomas Mitchel, of Codicote, in Hertfordshire. The other part 
of the manor became successively the property of Turnor, Wilford, and Newman, 
lords of Quendon, each portion of the manor retaining both a court leet and a court 
baron. 

The church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, or to All Saints, is built of stone: Church, 
having belonged to the manor, it passed along with it to Geofrey de Say, who gave it 
to the abbey of Walden ; and that house appropriated the great tithes to itself, and, in 
1237, ordained a vicarage, the collation of which, reserved to the bishop of London, 
has remained in that see to the present time.f In 1729, Mr. Henry Rix left two 
hundred and two pounds to the vicarage of this church, to which queen Anne's bounty 
of the same amount was also added. 

In 1821, the parish contained four hundred and nineteen, and, in 1831, four 
hundred and forty-seven inhabitants. 

NEWPORT. 

This parish is surrounded by Wickham Bonhunt, Walden, Debden, Widdington, Newport. 
Quendon, and Rickling; and is intersected by the high road from London to Cam- 
bridge: it is one mile and a half in breadth, and in length three miles. 

The village, formerly a market-town, occupies both sides of the road, forming a 
considerably extensive street; from Walden distant three, and from London thirty- 
nine miles. It has a fair annually on the 17th of November, and on Thursday, in 
Easter Aveek. There are many good houses and shops, and a place of worship belong- 

* Anns of Langley : Paly of six, argent and vert. 

t Sir Henry Langley, esq. died in 1458, and Margaret his wife, in 1453; they lie under a tomb by the 
south wall of the chancel. 

On a mural monument in the church : " Near this place lieth interred the body of Robert Turner, 
gent, third son of Edmund Turner, of Walden, gent, (and Elizabeth his wife) lord of one part of the 
manor of Rickling. He died Feb. 2, 1657. This monument was erected by his brother and sole executor." 

Charity:— Two acres of land were bequeathed to the poor of this parish, the annual rent of which i.s 
given in bread, by the overseers. 

VOL. II. Z 



166 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

IK){)K II. ing to dissenters, of the denomination of Independents, which was erected above fifty 
years ago. 

The ancient name of Newport-ponds, applied to this place, was derived from a pond 

of considerable extent, on its southern extremity.* There was also an ancient cross, 

the remains of which were some time ago to be seen here, and which is mentioned 

in records. 

iiiich- Houses extending northward beyond the toll-bridge form a hamlet to Newport, 

'^^^^"' named Birchanger; in the time of Edward the confessor, it belonged to Harolf; and, 

in the record of Domesday, is said to have been in the possession of Tascelin, a priest. 

St. Leo- An hospital, dedicated to St. Leonard, was in this hamlet, toward Shortgrove, near 

Hosphai. the river, where there is a good house, the residence of Ward, esq. supposed, 

in its present state, to contain a large portion of the original building: it bears on the 
front the date 1692, fourth of William and Mary, with the figure of a royal crown, 
and other ornamental carvings.f This hospital was founded in the reign of king John, 
by Richard, son of Serlo, of Newport; it had a master and two chaplains, who were 
under the jurisdiction of the dean of St. Martin's, in London, and had large endo%v- 
ments in W^iddington, Great Wendon, Arkesden, Elmdon, and many other parishes; 
in 1345, John Flamberd gave lands and tenements to the master and brethren of this 
hospital, to find a priest to sing mass for his soul, in the chapel of St. Elene, within his 
manor of Bonhunt; John Quyntyn, of Newport, also, in 1346, gave to this house one 
and a half acres of meadow land, and nine of arable. The fair kept here on St. 
Leonard's day, was granted, by king Henry the third, for their benefit. On the 
suppression of this house, it passed with the hamlet, through successive proprietors, to 
the earls of Suffolk, Bristol, and Thomond ; and to the present lord of the manor. 

In ancient records a castle is mentioned as belonging to Newport, but nothing further 
respecting it is known. 

The prison is a large and strong building fronting the street, in the northern part 
of the village. It is calculated to contain a great number of prisoners, and has a 
Bridewell ; but, having no tread-mill, sends some of its convicts to Halstead, where a 
machine of that kind has been lately erected. 

• The Nightingale family had their residence at Pond Cross : particularly William Nightingale, who 
married Gonora, daughter of Geofrey Thurgood, of Ugley ; and whose son Geofrey, esq. of the Inner 
Temple, marrying Catharine, daughter and heiress of John Clamp, had by her seven children. He died 
in 1608, and his eldest son Thomas was sheriff of Essex in 1627, and created a baronet in 1628. 

t This building is traditionally said to have been the market-house ; and as the market and fairs were 
originally for the benefit of the hospital, they were undoubtedly holden before the house, which, as long 
as the market continued, might have some connexion with it. There is a house, apparently ancient, not 
far distant from the church, which bears on the front toward the street well-executed old carvings, 
representing a king, with an infant in his arms ; on his right hand, a performer on an organ, and on the 
opposite left-hand side, a person playing on a harp : the proper application of these symbols is not at 
present known. 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 



167 



•In the time of Edward the confessor, this town and manor belonged to earl Harold; C H A f. 
and afterwards, forming part of the royal demesnes of the Conqueror, continued in ^"' 
possession of the crown till the reign of Edward the sixth, and under the early ^'''*"o' of 
monarchs enjoyed ample privileges, with a market, fairs, and freedom from toll. 
The empress Maud gave it to Geofrey de Mandeville, with licence to remove the 
market to his castle of Walden; and afterwards, in 1203, king John granted a fair 
here to Gerard de Furnival, who, in 1207, surrendered the town and castle* of 
Newport to the same king; of whom Baldwin de Haverkert obtained a grant of this 
manor. Richard, earl of Cornwall, and king of the Romans, the second son of king 
John, held this possession at the time of his decease in 1271, and was succeeded by his 
son Edmund. In 1307, it was granted to Piers de Gaveston, by king Edward the 
second; and John Revell held it in 1311, and during the king's pleasure; as did also 
Hugh de Audele, earl of Gloucester, with Margaret his wife, whose first husband 
was Piers de Gaveston. Henry de Ferrers held it under Edward the third, by the 
service of a knight's fee, till his decease in 1343; and king Richard the second gave it 
to Edmund Langley, duke of York, fifth son of king Edward the third. Newport, 
with the hamlet of Birchanger, was granted to William Lynde, for the term of forty 
years: and, in 1550, in the reign of Edward the sixth, this manor, with appertenances, 
was granted, as parcel of the dutchy of Cornwall, to Richard Fermor, esq. : it belonged 
to sir Ralph Warren at the time of his decease in 1553 ; and to his son, Richard 
Warren, esq. who died in 1597, and whose heir was his nephew, Oliver Cromwell, 
esq. of Hinchingbrook, the son of his sister Joanna. Afterwards it passed, by pur- 
chase, to the noble family of Suftblk, and, on the partition of their estates, Avas allotted 
to George William Harvey, earl of Bristol, together with the hospital of St. Leonard, 
and the hamlet of Birchanger. 

The lands of the manor of Shortgrove belonged to Ulwin and Grichel, two freemen. Short- 
in the time of the Confessor; and, at the survey, were holden under Eustace, earl of 
Boulogne, his under-tenant, Adelolf de Merc, and Robert Gernon, who also had 
Widdington. This estate is not entered with the village, in Domesday, and is, in the 
Red Book of the Exchequer, said to be near Newport; and, in a charter of Henry 
the third, is named the v ill of Shortgrove; yet, in a rental in the reign of Edward 
the first, it is expressly stated to be in the parish of Newport. In the reign of Henry 
the second, the prior and convent of St. Bartholomew, near Smithfield, in London, 
held this estate, under the family of Merk, and under William de Verdun: they also 
held lands and tenements included in the same manor, in Widdington, under Robert 

* Ft is stated, that a market was continued at Chesterford, which Rohcrt Bisjot, earl of Norfolk, had 
procured to he holdeu there, to the great injury of the market of Richard, earl of Cornwall, at Newport : 
from which it appears, that if the market had been previously removed, it was brouijht back again. — 
Picas be/ore the queen and king's council, 37 Ed. the third. 



168 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK 11. Lenveyse; and in Debden under sir Reginald de Grey. In 1515, sir William Fin- 

' derne died in possession of this estate, as did also his grandson, Thomas Finderne, in 

1523: in 1558, Edward Elrington, esq. left it to his son Edward, whose son of the 

same name was his successor, and died in 1578, leaving a son named Edward, his 

successor. Giles Dent, esq. citizen and alderman of London, who died in 1670, was 

the next purchaser of this estate, which descended to his son of the same name, AA^ho, 

in 1675, married Grace, daughter of sir John HeAvet, hart, and AA'idoAv of sir Thomas 

Brograve, hart, of Hamels, in Hertfordshire. Afterwards the estate A\^as sold to the 

right hon. Henry O'Brien, earl of Thomond, in Ireland, and Adscoimt Tadcaster, in 

England: he married the lady Elizabeth Seymour, daughter of Charles, duke of 

Somerset, but had no issue; and, on his decease in 1741, left this estate, by will, to 

his nephcAv, Percy Windham, esq. second son of sir William Wyndham, bart. by the 

ladA^ Katharine Seymour, sister to his lady. Sir William took the name of O'Brien, 

and Avas created earl of Thomond in 1756. This estate l)elongs at present to William 

Charles Pitt Smith, esq. whose father Avas secretary to the right hon. William Pitt. 

It is the seat of sir John St. Au])yn, bart.* F.R.A. and L.S. 

Spanow SparroAV End is a hamlet, or small collection of houses, a mile and a half northward 

End. 

from the church, on the road to Saftron Walden. 

Church. Xhe church, dedicated to St. Mary, has been formerly named the Queen's Free 

Chapel: it is on the highest part of the tOAA'n, having a spacious nave, side and cross 
aisles, and a chancel; and a lofty toAver Avith embattled turrets. A handsome carved 
wooden screen separates the chancel from the cross aisle, and behind tltis, under what 
Avas formerly the rood-loft, there are six stalls ornamented with curious carved work ; 
and near the altar, the piscina,f and three stone seats have been alloAved to remain in 
the wall. The font is large, and of an ancient form. There are two tine old paint- 
ings of Moses and Aaron. 

Previous to the year 1353, the church of Newport belonged to the college of 
St. Martin-le-Grand, in London, Avith Avhicli it Avas given, by Henry the seventh, to 
the abbey of St. Peter of Westminster; Avhere it remained till the dissolution and 
conversion of that abbey to a bishopric by Henry the eighth ; and on the abolition 
of the bishopric under EdAvard the sixth, in 1550, this church was annexed to the 
diocese of London ; the advoAvson of the vicarage remaining in the crown. 

Obits. There were twelve obits founded in this church.J 

* Sir John is of Clowance, in Cornwall. Creation 1671, born 175S, succeeded to the title 1772, married 
in 1822, Mrs. Juliana Vinicome. Brother, rev. Richard Thomas. Arms of St. Aubyn : Ermine, on a 
cross gules, five bezants. 

t These vessels are commonly found in ancient churches, as there was generally one attached to every 
altar, in which the priest washed his hands whilst performing the sacred rites, in allusion to the text, 
" I will wash my hands in innocency." — Ps. xxvi. 0. 

X Inscriptions -.—In the south aisle a slab of marble, with the engraved eifigies in brass of a man and his 



I 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 169 

The vicarage received an addition of five pounds per annum, from Geofrey.How- C H A c. 
land, esq. Giles Dent, esq. g-ave lands in Widdington, and one hundred pounds; and ' 

it was further augmented by Mrs. Rebecca Dent's bequest of two hundred pounds, 
to which was added a benefaction of the same amount from queen Anne's bounty.* 

In 1821, this parish contained eight hundred and fifty-two, and in 1831, nine hun- 
dred and fourteen inhabitants. 

wife, with two children on each side of them, is inscribed, " Here lieth Thomas Brond, whos soulc God 
pardon." Round tlie whole is the following inscription, with the emblems of the Evangelists at the 
corners : " Pray for the soulis of Thomas Brond, and Mgery his wyf, whiche Thomas deceasyd the xxi day 
of Septembr. the yere of our Lord God M°- ccccc°-xv. On whose souJis Jhu have mcy. Amen." 

Within the rails surrounding the communion table : " Here lyeth buryed ye body of William Night- 
ingale, citizen and merchant of London (yongest sonne of Gefferye Nightingale, esquire, and Katherine 
his wife), who after three jornyes out of Turkey from Egipte and Sidon, departed this life ye 19 of July, 
1609, Ano. iEtatis suae xxx." Sutton, the founder of the Charter-house in London, appointed the 
before-named Gefferye Nightingale one of the sixteen governors of his institution, and at his decease 
left him a legacy of forty pounds. 

On a large slab close to this, are the portraits in brass of a man in a gown, and his wife ; above their 
heads are the arms of Nightingale. The inscription is as follows : " Here lyeth buryed ye body of Katherine 
Nightingale, wife to Gefferye Nightingale, esquire, who had issue between them 7 children— Thomas, 
Henry, William, Marye, Anne, Jhone, and Elizabeth. She departed this life the 9 November, in the 
54 yeare of her age, and in the yeare of our Lord 16U8. A grave and modest matron shee was, loveing 
and faithful! to her husbande, carefuU and tender over her children, kinde to her freendes, curteous to all, 
helpefull to ye poor, hurtfuU to none : her sorrowfuU surviving husbande hath caused to be made this 
durable monument as a sadd memorial of his greate losse and her worthe." 

Against the north wall of the chancel is a handsome mural monument, adorned with shields of arms 
&c. The inscription is as follows : *' In a v^ult underneath lies interred ye body of Dame Grace Brograve, 
youngest daughter of sir John Hewett, late of Waresley, in the county of Huntingdon, bart. InFebr. 1602 
she was married to sir Thomas Brograve, of Hamells, in the county of Hertford, bart., who dying in ye 
yeare 1670, she, on ye 27 of July, 1675, was married to Giles Dent, of this parish, esq., son and heir of 
Giles Dent, late citizen and alderman of London, and depaited this life the 20 of Sept. 1704, in ye 68 year 
of her age. Here also lies interred the body of ye said Giles Dent, her husband, who departed this life ye 
9 of Febr. 1711, in the 73 year of his age. He built Shortgrove-hall, in this parish, and by his will 
directed this monument to be erected." 

There are also inscriptions to the memory of other individuals of the Nightingale and Dent families, and 
of Margaret Firrain, widow of Thomas Firmin, and daughter of Giles Dent, esq.: she died in 1719, aged 
78. 'I'here is also buried here Giles Firmin, son of Thomas and Margaret Firmin; he died at Oporto, in 
Portugal, from whence he was brought here and interred. 

•In the church-yard, an altar-tomb bears the following inscription : "Sacred to the memory of Chris- 
topher Verlet, a native of Switzerland, who, in the year of our Lord 1777, entered into the service of sir 
John St. Aubyn, of Clowance, in the county of Cornwall, bart., in whose service he continued till the 
time of hia death, which took place on the 9th of August, in the year of our Lord 1827, at Shortgrove, in 
the county of Essex, in the 80th year of his age. Sir John St. Aubyn, as a token of respect for a faithful 
servant, ordered this memorial to be erected." 

* Charitable gifts : — The free grammar-school was founded in 1588, by Joyse Frankland, widow, and 
William Saxie, her son ; and endowed with a portion of the great tithes of Banstead, in Surrey ; two 
houses in Little Distaff-lane, London; and a tenement at Hoddesdon, in the county of Hertford; then of 



no HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



liOOK II. 



Hall 



WICKHAM BONHUNT. 

This parish lies between Newport and the half hundred of Clavering, from which 
it is separated by the stream called Bonhunt Water: it is about a mile square, occu- 
pies low ground, and is thinly inhabited : distant from Walden five, and from London 
forty miles. It is distinguished from two other parishes in Essex, bearing the Saxon 
name of Vickham, by its secondary appellation of Bonhunt : the name in records is 
Wicken, Wiken, Wickin, Wykyn, Wylden ; with Bonant, and Bonnet. The name 
in Domesday is Wicam, and Banhunt ; which two manors became united about the 
time of queen Elizabeth. Sexi, a freeman, held Wickham in the time of the Con- 
fessor ; and Banhunt, at that time, belonged to Aluric, also a freeman : at the survey, 
the first was in the possession of Gislebert, son of Turold, and the latter belonged to 
Saisselin. Wickham Hall is a short distance north-westward from the church ; and 
the nianor-house of Bonhunt lies half a mile distant from it, in a north-easterly direction. 
Wickham The family of Barlee, or Barley, for several generations held the manor of Wick- 
ham of the king, as of his dutchy of Lancaster. John Barley died in possession of it in 
1445, as did also his son Henry in 1475, followed by William Barley his son, who 
held this manor of Wylden (as it is named in the inquisition) with the advowson of 
the chui'ch: he was succeeded by his son Henry, who died in 1529, and in 1557 this 
estate was sold by his son William to Robert Chatterton, of whom it was purchased 
by Matthew Bradbury;* who was succeeded by his eldest son William, followed 
successively by Matthew, a second Matthew, and Francis, who marrying Anne, 
daughter of George James, esq. of Manuden, had by her his son and successor John, 
who died without issue ; Francis, of Clifford' s-inn, who died a bachelor ; William, a 

the annual value of twenty-three pounds, ten shillings, but now amounting to about two hundred and 
seventy-five pounds, and the master's salary being two hundred and five pounds. 

The master of Gonvil and Caius College, Cambridge, was appointed the governor of this school, which 
is open to the boys of the parish free of expense, except that of books ; and if the number of fifty boys are 
not sent by the parishioners, that number may be supplied from any other place ; but no other scholars 
are educated here : they are admitted at the age of seven, and remain five or six years. During the last 
twenty-five years, only reading, writing, and arithmetic have been taught, though the rules direct the 
Greek and Latin languages, with algebra and trigonometry to be jncluded, if required by the parents ; and 
at the annual visitations, scholars may be examined, and if three or four be found qualified, they may be 
admitted, according to their " anncyenterye," to vacant scholarships of the foundation of Mrs. Frankland 
and her son, in the said college. 

A farm called Gaces, formerly twenty pounds a year, was given by John Covill, and Agnes his wife, to 
help poor people who receive no collection. — An annuity of thirteen shillings was left for the poor of thi.s 
parish, by Mrs. Ma.-tin, of Crishall. — An annuity of five ^hiUings was left for them by Mr. Stratton. — Mr. 
Richard Coleman, of Duxford, in Cambridgeshire, left six shillings a year to be given to six poor widows. 

* He was the second son of Robert, and nephew of Thomas Bradbury, sheriff of London in 1498, and 
in L509 lord mayor. 



HUNDRED OF UTTLES FORD. 171 

captain in the guards, killed in a duel ; James, of Magdalen college, Cambridge, a c H A P 
chaplain in the army, Avho adventuring farther than the duty of his office required, was ' 

slain in the Spanish \a ar ; and Thomas, who died an infant : be had also two daughters, 
who died Avithout issue ; and his successor was therefore his brother Matthew, Avhose 
only daughter Dorinda, conveyed this estate to her husband, Joseph Sharp» who sold 
it to Joseph Hetherington, esq., on whose decease, in 1745, he was succeeded by his 
brother, Henry Hetherington, esq., and in 1T65 it belonged to Martin, esq. 

The first mention of the manor of Bonhunt is in 1340, when John Flambard had Boninmt. 
licence to endow the hospital of St. Leonard, at Newport, that the brethren might 
find a chaplain to celebrate mass for his soul within his manor of Bonhunt, in the 
chapel of St. Elena there. In 1436, and afterwards for several generations, it was in 
the family of Green, from whom it passed to those of Bradbury, and Nightingale, and 
to Henry Cranmer, esq. cf Quendon. 

The church, dedicated to St. Margaret, is a small building of stone, with a low Chmch. 
wooden steeple, containing three bel!s. 

This parish, in 1821, contained one hundred and twenty-two, and in 1831, one 
hundred and thirty-four inhabitants. 

ARKESDEN. 

The Saxon name of this parish is Apceben, "a chest or coffer in a valley," but its Arkesden. 
significant application cannot be understood. The rivulet that flows through Wickharn 
Bonhunt to Newport has its origin here, and waters the grounds as it passes : the soil 
is in some instances light and sandy, in others wet and heavy ; and the face of the 
country of varied appearance. It extends from Wickham Bonhunt to the Wendons, 
and to the half hundred of Clavering, being in length about three miles, and in breadth 
of nearly the same extent. From Saffron Walden distant five, and from London 
forty-two miles. 

At the close of the Saxon era, this parish was in the possession of various proprietors, 
but the names of the manors can only in a few instances be now identified with the 
lands to which they belonged. Aleric Wants was the owner of Archesdana; Boso, 
and a freeman, had Wiggepet and Coggeshalls; Ulmar, had Einesnurda; Lewin, 
was in possession of Peverels ; Godwin Sech, of Bledstowes ; and Grinchel, of 
Mynchins. At the time of the survey of Domesday, these lands belonged to Eudo 
Dapifer, Geofrey de Magnaville, William de Warren, Roger de Otburville, and 
Robert Gernon. 

Woodhall, the mansion-house belonging to the capital manor of Arkesden, also ^Voodhall 
named Chawdwells, is on a gentle ascent, distant from the church about half a mile, 
southward. It belonged to Eudo Dapifer at the time of the survey ; and passed, in 
marriage, with his daughter and heiress Margaret, to William de Mandeville. Some- 



172 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. time previous to the year 1165, king Henry the second had given the honour of Eudo 
to Henry his chamberlain, son of Gerold, whom he succeeded in that office ; and 
under whom JorcUni and William de Arkesdeu held four knights' fees, wanting a quar- 
ter- Henry, the chamberlain, married Ermentruda, daughter and heiress of Robert 
Talebot of Gainsborough, in Lincolnshire, and left his daughter Alice his sole heiress, 
married to Robert de Insula, or de Lisle, from whom the family of that name, lords of 
Rugemont, in Bedfordshire, are descended; and of whom this estate was afterwards 
holden, receiving the name of Lisle's fee : it descended with the chamberlainship of 
the excliequer, from Margaret, the daughter of Warine Fitz-Gerald, to Isabel her 
grand-dau"hter, whose father was Baldwin de Rivers: this lady was married to Wil- 
liam de Fortz, earl of Albemarle. Adam de Stratton was appointed her deputy in the 
office of chamberlain;* from which he was removed, in 1302, for having acted 
feloniously in that office. The family of Bayeux afterwards held this estate ; sir 
Richard and sir Robert, in 1357, sir Ralph, in 1362, and others of the same family, 
till sir Richard de Bayeux, in 1369, granted ail his right in this manor to sir William 
de Burton; who at the time of his decease, in 1375, jointly with his lady Alianore, 
held itf of the duke of Lancaster; Thomas was his son and heir. In 1445, Joan, 
wife of John Hotoft, died possessed of this manor, holden of the king, as of hlsdutchy 
of Lancaster. Thomas Langley of Rickliug, held it with those of Peverells, and 
W^iggepet and Coksales, with a tenement named Coshe, and possessions in other 
parishes; on his decease, in 1471, he left Henry Langley his son and heir; who died 
in 1483, and his wife Katharine had all these estates in jointure in 1511 ; which their 
only daughter and heiress Katharine conveyed to her husband, John Marshall, esq., 
to whom she bore Elianor, married to Henry Cutts, son of sir John Cutts, of Hore- 
ham-hall, in Thaxted ; and Mar}', married to John, son of Richard Cutts. Eleanor 
died in 1537, and her husband enjoyed these estates till his decease in 1573, his suc- 
cessor behig their son, sir Henry Cutts. Peter Cutts, the son of John and Mary, is 
also recorded at the time of his decease, in 1547, to have held, as joint-tenant, the 
manors of Woodhall, Wiggepet, Coggeshalls, Peverels, and a moiety of some others: 
Richard Cutts was his son, between whom and sir Henry a partition being made, each 
of them had a moiety of these estates, which remained in the family till baron Cutts, of 
Gowran,:}: sold this estate, in 1721, to Thomas Maynard, esq. of Bury St. Edmunds; 

* At the Pleas at Chelmsford in 1285, the jurors present : Item, as for what concerneth serjeancies, 
they say that Arkesden is a member of the serjeancie of the chamberlainship of the exchequer of our lord 
the king, which serjeancie Adam de Stratton has of the gift of the countess of Albemarle, by the king's 
consent. — Placita apud Chelmsford, 13 Ed. I. 

f Then first named in the iccord, Woodhall. 

X Richard died in 1592, and Mary his wife, daughter of Edward Elrington, esq. of Theydon-Bols, in 
1594. Their son Uichard, on the decease of sir Henry Cutts, in 1603, without issue, came to his share of 
the estate, but dying in 1607, also without issue, was succeeded by his brother, afterwards sir William 






HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 173 

of whom it was afterwards purchased by Richard Cheeke, esq. apothecary, in Wych- C H A P. 

street, London, treasurer of Christ's Hospital, who on his decease, in IT^O, was sue- 

ceeded by his son, Robert Cheeke, esq. 

The manor of Mynchens, or the Parsonage, also named Beckets, belonged to Mynchens 

1 T» 1 /-^ 1 • r 1 orthePar- 

Grinchell, in Edward the confessor s time, and to Robert (jernon, at the time ot the sonage. 

survey. In 1327, it had become part of the endowment of the nunnery of Campsey, 

in SuflPolk, but by whom given cannot be discovered: the prioress and convent 

demised it to the abbot and monastery of Walden for a term of years; and afterwards, 

in 1364, by licence granted from king Edward the third, released to the said abbot 

and monastery, and their successors, all their right to this manor ; which was retained 

by them till their dissolution, when it was granted, with the advowson of the vicarage, 

to lord Audley, whose only daughter Margaret conveyed it, with the manor and 

rectory, in marriage to Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk; who, in 1562, sold 

Mynchens, the rectory of Arkesden, and a tenement called Sherperers, to Richard 

Cutts, esq., from whom they have passed with the other estates of the family in this 

parish. 

Bokeles is a manor belonging anciently to an owner of that name : it was in pos- Bokeles. 
session of sir Thomas Meade, and on his decease in 1584, it descended to his son John 
Meade, esq., from whom it passed through the families of Smith, Hanchet, and others, 
to Alexander Forbes, esq. 

The church is a large handsome building on the side of a hill, with a nave, north and Church. 
south aisles, and chancel, and a square tower containing six bells. It is of stone, and de- 
dicated to St. Mary. The north aisle was built about the time of king Henry the seventh, 
by Thomas Alderton, stock-fishmonger, of London, who also founded a chantry here.* 

In 1821, this parish contained four hundred and fifteen, and in 1831, four hundred 
and ninety inhabitants. 

Cutts, who dying in 1G09, left his son Richard his successor, whose son John, being, on his father's 
decease, in 1626, only six years of age, was left in the wardship of king Charles the first. He married a 
daughter of sir Richard Everard, bart. of Much Waltham, by whom he had his son and heir Richard, who 
removed to Childerley, in Cambridgeshire, where he had an estate left by a distant relation of the same 
family name. His children were Richard, John, and three daughters ; of these, John became heir of the 
family. He was educated at Catharine Hall, Cambridge ; and going a volunteer to the siege of Buda, was 
made adjutant-general to the duke of Lorrain. At the revolution he came home as a lieutenant-colonel of 
a Dutch regiment : served in Ireland, had a regiment given him, and in 1690 was created baron Cutts, of 
Gowram : in 1693 was governor of the Isle of Wight, on which he had made a descent with the former 
governor, lieutenant-general Talmash, who there received his death- wound. In 1694, he was made 
colonel of the Coldstream regiment of guards : was wounded at the battle of Steinkirk ; in 1702, com- 
manded at tlie siege and storming of Venloe : made all the campaigns in the first and second war in 
Flanders ; and signalized himself at the attack on the town of Blenheim. But not being sufficiently 
obsequious to the duke of Marlborough, he was sent into Ireland, as one of the lords-justices, and died 
there in 1706 : he was three times married, but left no issue. 
* A large altar-tomb in the chancel bears the effigies of the two persons whom it commemorates ; 
VOL. II. 2 A 



174 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. 



Great 
Wendon. 



GREAT WENDON. 

Three parishes, distmgnished by the names of Great and Little Wendon, and 
Wendon Loughts, are entered in Domesday as one lordship. The Saxon name 
UJanbon, a compound of UJan, white, and bon, a hill, may have been with propriety 
applicable ; but the first syllable has several meanings. 

Great Wendon is situated on the west side of the Newmarket road, and lies 
between Arkesden and Littlebury: it is distant from Stortford ten, from London 
forty-one miles ; and in circumference is computed to be about seven. 

Great Wendon, at the close of the Saxon era, was one possession, holden by a free- 
man; and at the survey belonged to Robert Gernon, whose successors were the 
families of Montfichet and De Playz. In 1165 it was holden as two knights' fees 
under William de Montfichet by John de Wendene ; and Alexander Bayloll held it 
under Giles de Playz, who died in 1303. Richard de Playz died in 1327, and it was 
holden under him by Thomas de Berkeley; whose son sir Maurice succeeded to the 
same possession under sir John de Playz by the service of one knight's fee : his widow 
Elizabeth had it as part of her jointure, till her decease in 1389, it being at that time 
holden of sir John Howard and Margery his wife, daughter and heiress of John de 
Playz : Thomas, lord Berkeley, was their eldest son and heir, and seems the last of 
the family who retained this possession. The names of Edrike and Loveney after- 
wards occur in records as holding this estate ; and in 1442, John Loveney, esq. held 
it of John, earl of Oxford : his heir was Thomas Cavendish, esq. Sir John Fray, 
chief baron of the exchequer, was possessed of this estate at the time of his decease in 
1461; his daughter Elizabeth, by marriage, conveyed it to sir Thomas Waldegrave; 
and in 1571 it was sold by William Waldegrave, esq. to John Barker, esq., from 



above which, six pillars support a canopy, on which are sculptured coats of arms, and the following 
inscription : — " Heare lieth Richard Cutte, esquier, sonne and heire to Peter Cutte, esquier, sonne and 
heire to John Cutte, esquier, sonne and heire to Richard Cutte, esquier, which Richard was brother to sir 
John Cutte, of Horam Hall, in Thaxtcd, treasurer of the most honourable household of the mighty king 
Henry VIII. This Richard died 16 Aug. 1592.— Heare lyeth also Mary Cutte, late wife of this Richard, 
and daughter of Edward Elrington, of Theydon Boys, in Essex, esq., chief butler of England to the most 
renouned king Edward VI., queen Mary, and queen Elizabeth. This Mary died 20 Jan. 1594." — There 
are also figures of their four sons and two daughters : Richard Cutte, eldest sou of this Richard and Mary 
Cutte, who caused this monument to be erected : William, their second ; Francis, their third; and John, 
their youngest son : also, Barbara, their eldest, and Dorothy, their youngest daughter. 

There is also an elegant marble monument, with a Latin inscription, of which the following is a trans- 
lation : " Sacred to the memory of John Withers, of the Middle Temple, who lies under this marble, 
together with his dearly beloved wife, Ann, daughter of Richard Cutts, esq., formerly of this parish : he, 
after having lived 73 years, died on the 28th of November, in the year of our Lord 1692; but she in the 
bloom of youth. 

" William Withers, nephew and heir, erected this monument, as a testimony of his gratitude to his very 
dear and worthy uncle." 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 175 

whose family it was purchased by the earl of Suffolk, and on the partition of the ^ ^ '"^ •'• 
Audley End estates, this manor and that of Little Wendon, with the united advowson '. — 



and the rectorial tithes, were allotted to the earl of Bristol, whose descendant alienated 
the whole of his property in both parishes (with the exception of the advowson) to 
the late lord Braybrooke. 

Little Wendon, before the Conquest, was the property of a thane named Ulmer, i^'"^*" 
and at the survey of Domesday, of William de Warren : it afterwards belonged to 
the knightly family of Fitz- Ralph of Pebmarsh, surnaraed Pebeners, from that place. 
William de Pebeners, also named Fitz-Ralph, had free warren here in 1338 ; and 
John Fitz-Ralph, knt. was his successor in 1399. It afterwards passed through the 
families of Cavendish, Fray, and Waldegrave, to the noble families of Suffolk and 
Bristol. 

Clanmer, or Clanfield-end, is a hamlet in this parish. 

The rectory of Little Wendon and the vicarage of Great Wendon, were consoli- 
dated in 1662 by bishop Sheldon, at the request of the inhabitants, with the consent 
of the earl of Suffolk, the patron ; and the rates are assessed in the proportion of two 
parts to Great and one to Little Wendon. The church of Little Wendon, which 
was on the northern side of the road from Wendon Loughts to Great Wendon, as 
also the vicarage-house of Great Wendon, both being ruinous, were destroyed ; 
but the parsonage-house of Little Wendon has been repaired and appropriated to the 
Vicar of Wendons Ambo, as he is styled in the act of Union. 

The church of Great Wendon, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, is a small ancient ciimch. 
building, with north and south aisles, a nave and chancel, separated by a carved 
wooden screen ; and between the aisles and nave, by heavy pillars, supporting Gothic 
arches. A square low tower, with a spire, contains five bells. 

The united parishes contained, in 1821, three hundred and thirty-six, and, in 1831, 
three hundred and thirty-three inhabitants. 

WENDON LOFTS, Or LOUGHTS. 

This parish northward is bounded by Elmdon ; extends westward to Crishall and Wendon 

^ •' Lotts, or 

Great Chishull, and to Littlebury on the east. It is approached through a fine open Louslits. 
country, in every direction presenting extensive prospects, is thinly inhabited, and 
contains few houses. The name Lofts, or Loughts, is also in records written Lout, 
Loutes, Louth, Lowtes, Lendon, and was probably derived from Henry Lo Hout, 
who possessed the manor in the time of Henry the third. 

This parish belonged to Alwin Stille, a Saxon freeman, in the time of Edward the 
confessor, and at the survey was in the possession of Ralph Baignard and his under- 
tenant Amelfrid. On the forfeiture of William, the son of Ralph Baignard, this 
estate appears to have been granted to the Fitzwalter family ; and about the time of 



ne 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



Manor of 
Lofts. 



BOOK II. king John, or Henry the third, two knights' fees, at Wendon, in Essex, of the barony 

' of Baignard, then vested in the Fitzwalter family, were holden of them by Robert 

Lanhot. 

The two knights' fees in this parish which were holden under Robert Fitzwalter 
by Maud Lawney and Alice le Bottiler, in 1328, and on his decease, under Walter 
Fitzwalter, who died in 1386, formed what is now the chief manor. Thomas Lawney 
and his partners afterwards held it as one fee. In 1406 it is said to have belonged to 
sir Walter Fitzwalter, and to have been previously in the possession of Benedict de 
Alders, the abbot of Tiltey, and Robert Rokele. It belonged to Richard Knes- 
worth, who conveyed it to John Shelley in 1476; and in 1559, Thomas Crawley, 
esq. held it under Henry, earl of Sussex, as of his manor of Wimbish ; Anne, daughter 
of John, his grandson, was his heiress on his decease in 1559. 

The Meade family were a considerable time in possession of this estate, which was 
purchased by Thomas Meade,* serjeant-at-law, in 1567, and in 1578 one of the 
judges of the King's Bench ; in his family it continued several generations, till it 
was sold by the co-heiresses of John Meade, esq. to Richard Chamberlain, esq. of 
London, sheriff of Essex in 1722 : he married Sarah, daughter of Geofrey Stane, esq. 
of Hatfield Broadoak, by whom he had Stane Chamberlain, his son and heir. After- 
wards this estate was sold under a decree of chancery to Nathaniel Wilkes, esq. from 
whom it descended to John Wilkes, esq. the present possessor. 

The manor-house is a fine old building, pleasantly situated on rising ground, and 
commanding agreeable prospects of wide extent, in various directions. It is inclosed 
in a park, with gardens and plantations, and at a convenient distance, on the southern 
front, is an ornamental stream of water. It is the seat of John Wilkes, esq. 

Dodenhall Grange manor-house is on the extreme boundary of the parish, and the 



Meade 
family. 



Manor- 
house. 



Dodenhall 
Grange. 



* His father, Thomas Meade, esq. was the first of the family who came into this county: he settled at 
Elmdon, where he was succeeded by his son Thomas : he had also Reginald, settled at Elmdon ; a second 
Thomas seated at Crishall ; and two daughters. Thomas Meade of Wendon Lofts, married Joan Clamp 
of Huntingdon, a widow, by whom he had Thomas, Robert, and Matthew, of whom the two last were 
never married : the father died in 1585, but this estate does not appear in the inquisition taken on that 
occasion ; but it was in the possession of sir Thomas Meade, his son, at the time of his decease in 1617 ; 
who had holden it under Robert, earl of Sussex, as of his manor of Wimbish Hall ; secondly, under John 
Pearndon, as of his manor of Crishall-bury ; and thirdly, under the lord of Cheswick Hall, in the same 
parish. He had also large estates in Arkesden and Elmdon. He married Bridget, daughter of sir John 
Brograve, knt. of Hertfordshire, by whom he had Thomas, who died before him, John, Charles, George, 
Robert, and five daughters. He was succeeded, on his decease, by his eldest surviving son, sir John 
Meade, knt., vvho by Katharine, his lady, had Thomas, his successor, and two daughters. Thomas Meade, 

esq. married Margaret, only daughter and heiress of Debney, of Norfolk, by whom he had nine 

children : his successor was John, his eldest son, who by his wife Jane, daughter of William Wardour, 
esq. had John, who died an infant ; Jane, married to John Whaley, merchant, of London ; and Margaret, 
the wife of William Pytches, of Crishall. 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 177 

houses are in Elmclon. It was given to Tiltey abbey in 1406 ; and on the dissolution CHAP, 
of that house was granted to Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk ; sir Giles Paulet was 



the proprietor of this estate in 1565; succeeded by his son William Paulet, esq. in 
1580. It afterwards passed to Hugh Bonfoy, esq. ; to Robert King, by marriage; to 
Hugh King his son ; of whom it was purchased by John Hatchet, esq., succeeded by 
his grandson of the same name, and by Forbes, esq. 

The church, dedicated to St. Dunstan, is a low ancient building, in good repair, Church. 
very near the manor-house.* 

The rectory belonged to the abbey of Lesnes in Kent, till the dissolution; it has 
since been in the possession of Thomas Crawley, esq. of the Meade family; and suc- 
cessively of the proprietors of the hall estate. 

In 1821, this parish contained sixty-seven, and in 1831, fifty-four inhabitants. 

LITTLEBURY. 

Littlebury is surrounded by Strethall, Saffron Walden, and the Wendons. The Littlebury 
village is on the Newmarket road : it is pleasantly situated, and distant from London 
forty-two miles. 

In the ninth century, during the reign of king Edgar, this parish belonged 
to a religious house in the isle of Ely, which contained eight priests, with their 
wives and children : but in 970, Ethelwold, bishop of Winchester, having purchased 
the island of king Edgar, turned out the priests and their wives and children, 
and put in an abbot and monks ; and Leofwin, the fifth abbot, with the consent of 
king Canute, conditioned with the holders of the estates and lordships belonging to 
the monastery, that they should supply maintenance to the household for the whole 
year, toward which Littlebury had to find provisions for two weeks. Edward the 
confessor, grandson to Edgar, confirmed to them this possession, with several other 
estates, which they retained till the dissolution of the house in 1539. There are 
three manors in this parish. 

In the reign of Henry the second the manor of Littlebury was holden under Nigel, 
bishop of Ely, by Ralph de Berners; and also by another of the same name in 1210, 
when it was said to be in Strethall, because that was anciently a berewick or hamlet 
to this parish. This manor remained in possession of the ecclesiastical establishment 
of Ely till the dissolution, and afterwards was retained by the crown, till it was 
granted, in 1600, by queen Elizabeth, together with the manor of Hadstock, to 
Thomas Sutton, esq. the munificent founder of the charter-house; who bequeathed 

* In the chancel there are several inscriptions to the memory of individuals of the Meade family, and 
on a tombstone in the church, a figure of a man cut in brass has on a label, "Jesus, son of God, have 
mercy upon me !" and by his side the figure of a woman with a label, on which is inscribed, " St. Mary, 
pray for us !" 



Manor of 
Littlebury 



178 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. them by will, in 1611, to Thomas, earl of Suffolk, on condition that ten thousand 
pounds should be paid within one year after his decease to his executors. After 
the death of the tenth earl, in 1745, Littlebury was apportioned to the earl of Bristol, 
under the partition deed of the estates of James the third earl of Suffolk; and was 
sold by his descendant, the present marquis of Bristol, to the late lord Braybrooke. 

Bouideux The manor of Bourdeux is not mentioned in records before the year 1541, when 
it was g-ranted, with a portion of the tithes of Littlebury, to the dean and chapter of 
the cathedral of Ely, under whom it is held by lord Braybrooke. 

Catmere Catmere Hall, formerly called Gatemere, was near Catmere End and Littlebury 
Green : it Avas a large ancient building, surrounded by a double moat, the site of which 
is yet evidently distinguishable, in a field about two miles distant from Littlebury 
Street: it once formed part of the chief manor, and is supposed to have been what in 
Domesday was entered as a berewic, and named Haidene, as lying towards Heydon, 
or considered to have belonged to that parish: in the time of king Henry the second, 
it was holden under Nigel, bishop of Ely, as one knight's fee, by William Peregrina : 
in 1210, by Henry Pelevino: by sir John de Neville, of Raby, in 1388: the lady 
Elizabeth, daughter of William lord Latimer, re-married to sir Robert de Willoughby, 
held it in dower till her decease in 1395; and her son John Neville, lord Latimer, 
dying without issue, this estate descended to Ralph Neville, earl of Westmoreland, 
the son of her first husband, by his first lady: on his decease in 1425, it passed to 
Ralph, his grandson, to whom the earldom of Westmoreland also descended. The 
Neville family having strongly supported the Lancastrian interest,* renders the con- 
jecture probable, that on the accession of Edward the fourth to the crown, this estate 
was forfeited. It was granted, by king Henry the eighth, to John Gate, esq. in 1543, 
with a water-mill, a messuage, and the rectory of Littlebury. 

Littlebury Littlebury Green, a straggling hamlet, rather more than a mile west-south-west 

Chapel from the church, is sometimes named Stretley Green, in old deeds ; from which may 
be inferred the existence of a Roman road passing this place, and of which traces 
remain; and about half a mile farther, the site of an ancient chapel is still known by 
the name of Chapel Green. 

Cluucli. The church (which is within the area of a Roman encampment) is a plain building, 

of considerable antiquity, dedicated to the Holy Trinity : it has side aisles, a nave and 
chancel, with a square tower, containing five bells.f The rectory is a sinecure, 

* Sir John Neville was slain at Towton, on the 29th of March 1461, fighting for Henry the sixth ; and 
Richard Neville, earl of Warwick, was killed at Barnet Field, on the 14th of April, 1471, fighting against 
Edward the fourth. 

t The following inscription was formerly in the south aisle of Littlebury church : — " Hie jacet Jacobus 
Edwards, quondam satelles de Hadstock et Hadham, tunc hujus villae, qui omni morum probitate hoc 
munus gessit et candidissimo favore domini Redman, Eliensis episcopi, qui hoc sumptus est officio, 
tandem fatali ipeste pie expirans vii calendas Octobris, anno gra. 1522." English : " Here lies James 



I 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 179 

in the gift of the bishop of Ely; the vicarage in the gift of the rector. Bishop Wren CHAP. 

left thirty pounds a year, payable out of the impropriate tithes for the augmentation of ' 

the vicarage.* The great and small tithes were commuted for land when the parish 

was enclosed, and the rectorial or parsonage farm is held under a lease for lives by lord 

Braybrooke. 

Mr. Henry Winstanley, the architect, was a resident at Littlebury, where he Mr. Win- 
• I 1 • 1 1 /> 1 . • Stanley. 

erected a curious house, long snice pulled down: he was " clerk of his majesty's works 

at Newmarket, and at Audley End," under Charles the second and his successors: 
he published twenty-one plans, views, and elevations of Audley End, now become 
rare, and affording a curious and interesting representation of a magnificent mansion, 
whose character and extent would otherwise have been forgotten. On the large and 
dangerous rock near the entrance of Hamoaze Bay, called the Eddystone, Mr. Win- 
stanley undertook to build a light-house, for the guidance of mariners, which he 
finished with great art, and much to the satisfaction of his employers. Mr. Winstanley 
frequently visited and strengthened his work, and was so confident of its firmness 
and stability, that he had been heard to express a wish to be within it whenever an 
extraordinary storm should happen; and, in the dreadful tempest of November 27, 
1703, his wish was unfortunately gratified, when he would gladly have been on shore, 
making signals for assistance, but no boat durst go off" to him; and, in the morning, 
when the storm had ceased, nothing appeared but the bare rock, the light-house 
having been carried away, with the architect, and all who were with him. Previous to 
this melancholy event, Mr. Winstanley being a prisoner in France, was offered a 

Edwards, formerly bailiff of Hadstock and Hadham, then of this village, who filled this oflBce with the 
greatest integrity, and fullest esteem of his lord, Redman bishop of Ely, who had procured it for him: 
a fatal plague put an end to his life on the seventh day of October, in the year of grace 1522." And on 
a brass plate in the chancel was the following: "Here lieth the body of Jane, the wyfe of Henrye 
Bradburye, gent, daughter of one Eyles Poultoun, of Dashboroughe, in the countie of Northampton, gent, 
who in her lyfe not onlye lyved vertuouslye, but finished her dales with faith in Christ. She died in 
August 157S." There are also inscriptions to the memory of Thomas Byrd, gent, of Littlebury, who died 
in 1630; William Byrd, LL.D. of London, in 1639; Thomas Byrd, of Littlebury, in 1640; Ann, wife of 
Thomas Byrd, in 1624; John Wale, in 1631, and Mary his wife, in 1635; and Mary, her daughter, in 1759. 

Charities : — There is an almshouse in the street near the church, without endowment, and a room over 
it, used for a free-school, with sixty pounds a year endowment, from lands and tenements in and near 
the town ; there is also a good house for the master. There is no record of the institution of this charity, 
but it is supposed to have been founded by Thomas Sutton, Lord Braybrooke, as lord of the manor, 
appoints the schoolmaster, and is visitor of the school. 

In 1584, Henry Hervey, LL.D. gave an annuity of six pounds, to be divided equally between the poor of 
Littlebury and Bishops Stortford, payable by the master and fellows of Trinity Hall, in Cambridge. 
Twenty shillings yearly, called clerk's gift, payable out of a farm near Littlebury Green, is distributed in 
money to the poor. There also belongs to the poor, an annual gift of three pounds, left by Dr. Covel, late 
rector of this parish ; and the interest of fifty pounds, the remaining part of one hundred pounds, 
given by Thomas Sutton, esq. 

* Bishop Rennet's Case of Impropriations, &c. p. 257. 



180 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. liberal salary by the French king to remain in that country, which he refused. He 
invented the celebrated water-works in Hyde-park. 

Littlebury parish, in 1821, contained seven hundred and sixty-six, and, in 1831, 
eight hundred and seventy-five inhabitants. 



Strethall . 



Manor of 
Strethall. 



STRETHALL. 

This small parish in length is two, and in breadth not quite one mile; extending 
from Littlebury to Elnidon north-westward, and northward to the extremity of the 
hundred, occupying a pleasant part of the country, on high ground: the village is small, 
distant from Saffron Walden four, and from London forty-sLx miles. In records and 
deeds the name is Strahall, Strathala, Strattehalle, Stratlait, and Strethall. 

At the general siu'vey, and previous to that period, Strethall was a hamlet or 
berewick to Littlebury, and holden of the monastery of Ely, by William and Elwin, 
two freemen;* and afterwards by Hugh, supposed to be Hugh de Berners, who came 
into England at the time of the conquest. Ralph de Berners was his successor in 
1210, and held two knights' fees here of the bishop of Ely; of this family there suc- 
ceeded here John in 1252, and Ralph in 1262. 

There is only one manor; the mansion-house is near the church, from which the 
prospect over the country is of the computed extent of thirty miles, comprehending 
within the range of its wide perspective the cities of Cambridge and Ely, and the town 
of S waff ham. 

In 1298, Ralph le Tibetott held this manor of the bishop of Ely, by the service of 
two knights' fees, and was succeeded by his son Papie: in 1362, John Oxney and 
others, trustees, released the manor and advowson of the church to John, son of John 
de Bayley, for his life, with appurtenances in Elmdon and Walden; except two natives 
of the said manor, John, son of William, and John, son of Henry in the Hale, with 
their children born or to be hereafter born. Adam Peche was lord of this manor in 
1383 and 1392; John Broke in 1398, and till 1400; and, in 1433, it was granted, by 
sir John Kyghley and others, to William Bredwardyn and Margaret his wife, for 
their lives; the reversion being in Thomas Cawndishe, son and heir of John Cawn- 
dishe, citizen of London: William Cawndishe was his successor, as was afterwards 
Augustine; George, brother of Thomas, being the next heir. In the registry the 
family name is written Cavendish, in 1460. In 1467 to 1486, the inanor was in the 
possession of John Leventhorp, esq. and of John Gardyner in 1504, who died here in 
1508; Henry was his son. 

Thomas Crawley, esq. of Wendon Loughts, held Strethall and other large pos- 
sessions in the Chesterfords and in Littlebury, of the bishop of Ely : Anne, his great 

* Littlebury Green is in old deeds called Stretley Green, from the street or military way which passes 
here toward the Roman camp; both Streethall and Littlebury belonged to the monastery of Ely, and were 
called the lands of St. Etheldred, or Audry. 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 181 

grand-daughter, was his heiress; and it was in the possession of Thomas Crawley chap. 
in 1573. ^^'• 



Robert, son of Edward Newport, of the ancient family of the Newports, of Newpoi t 
Pelham Brent, and Pelham Furneux, in Hertfordshire, had this estate in 1635, '*'"*■" 
Robert Newport, of Arcole, in Shropshire, was the first that settled here : he married 

Green, of Sandonbury, in Hertfordshire, and had by her John and George. 

John Newport, by his wife Margery, daughter of Robert Newport, esq. of Pelham 

Furneux, widow of Hanchet, had Robert, and three other sons, and a daughter. 

Robert Newport succeeded his father on his decease in 1553, and marrying Jane, 

daughter of sir Barrington, knt. widow of Lucy, had Edward, John, and 

three daughters. Edward Newport, son and heir of Robert, was of Pelham Brent, 
and Sandon; and dying in 1624, left seven sons and six daughters: of the sons, four 
went out in the service of king Charles the first, and kept the field to the last; and 
the consequent plundering and confiscations reduced this estate, and caused it to be 
sold in successive portions. Robert Newport had possession in 1669, and his suc- 
cessor, Leonard Newport, esq. sold Strethall to the munificent Edward Colston, esq. 
of Bristol, who, having a mortgage upon it, foreclosed the equity of redemption. 
Mr. Colston died in 1721. The manor afterwards became the property of Robert 
Carr, esq. of Isleworth, in Middlesex, who, on his decease, left several children and a 
widow. The parish is divided into about four farms. 

The church is of stone, dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Cluucli. 

In 1515, a quit-rent of five pounds six shillings and eight pence, payable out of 
tenements in Bucklersbury and Budge-row, was given to the living of this church, 
which, in 1723, was augmented by the donation of two hundred pounds from Edward 
Colston and Robert Carr, esqs. to which was added the sum of two hundred pounds 
from queen Anne's bounty.* 

In 1821, this parish contained fifty-four, and, in 1831, forty-one inhabitants. 

* Inscriptions : — In the chancel, on a brass plate : " Pray for the soiiles of John Gardyner, gentilman, Inscrip- 
heir buried, sometime lord of this maniir and patron of this churche ; and of Johane, sometime his wife, tions. 
daughter of Henry Wodecock, of London, gentilman, and Henry their son; which John lieth buried in 
the church of St. Mary Wolnoth. Lombard-street, London; and the said Henry their son lieth buried in 
the church of Sevenoke, in Kent ; and the said John died at this manor at midnight, between the xxxth 
and thexxxist day of August, in the year of our Lord God 1508: to all which souls Jesu be merciful. Amen." 
There are other ancient inscriptions, among which is the following : " Here lieth maister Thomas 
Abbot, late pson here, whiche decessed viii October, 1539, on whose soule Jesu have mercy." 
The opposite side of the same plate bears the following : — 

" Orate IVLirgaretam Sidey, raodo vermibus escam. 
Quondam formosam muliercm religiosam. 
Hie contemplantes, quales eritis memorantes. 
Posuite solio deum; coelis jacet mihi mansio." 
" Pray for Margaret Sidey, now the food for worms, formerly a beautiful and religious woman. Ye 
who behold this, think what ye shall be. God sits upon his throne. My abode is in heaven." 
VOL, II. ^ B 



182 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



IJOOK 11. 



Elindon. 



Kliudon- 

luiryHall, 

Dag- 

wnith.s, 

and 

Moun- 

teneys. 



ELMDON. 

This parish lies westward from Strethall, and extends to Heydon, on the borders 
of Cambridgeshire: in circumference it is about nine miles; it occupies a portion of 
the chalk district; and the village, which is small, is on the sides of two of the 
numerous hills by which this part of the country is distinguished: from Saffron Walden 
it is distant four, and from London forty-two miles. 

Two freemen, named Almar and Brictulf, held part of this parish in the time of 
Edward the confessor, and were succeeded by Ingelric. Eustace, earl of Boulogne, 
was the possessor at the time of the survey, and his under tenant was Roger de 
Suraeri; it consequently formed part of the honour of Boulogne, belonging to which, 
in 1210, there were holden here by Milo de Sumeri, the grandson of Roger, Roger 
de Neville, and Serlo de Mercy, each one knight's fee; and Leticia de Pinkeni half a 
fee. In the records, six or more manors are mentioned; Ehndon, Dagworths, 
Mounteneys, Pigots, Leebury, Cocksales, which has some lands here, but more in 
Arkesden, and Crawleybury, more properly placed in Christhall; the rectory or par- 
sonao-e was likewise a manor : but the courts having been discontinued, none of these 
have retained their manorial characters, except Elmdon and Leebur)^, of which the 
lirst has absorbed the distinctions of Dagworths, Mounteneys, and Pigots, taken 
from different owners. 

Elmdonbury, the chief manor-house, is a good old building, near the church. This 
manor is what in records has been named Dagworth and Mounteneys, being what 
Roger de Sumeri, and Milo his grandson, held: they were a branch of the noble 
family of this name, barons of the realm in the reign of king Stephen. 

John de Dagworth, who died in 1332, had possessions here, as had Nicholas his 
son; and Thomasine, wife of sir John de Dagworth, knt., in 1362. Mounteneys 
was undoubtedly what Robert de Mounteney held here in 1286 ; Ernulph was his 
son and heir ; and the same possession was holden by Ranulph de Montchensy in 1310, 
as the eighth part of the manor of Elmdon ; John de Montchensy was his son. In 
1321, Nicholas de Segrave died in possession of this estate, leaving Maud his daughter 
his heiress, who was married to Edmund de Bohun. By the marriage of Thomasine, 
daughter and heiress of sir John de Dagworth, to William de Furnival, most of these 
manors were conveyed to that noble family ; he died in 1383, leaving Joane his heiress, 
married to Thomas de Neville, brother of Ralph, lord NeviUe, first earl of Westmore- 
land ; who on that account was summoned to parliament by the title of lord Furnival. 
The offspring from this marriage was Maud, married to John Talbot, the renowned 
earl of Shrewsbury : and Joane, married to Hamo Belknap. The name of Thomas 
Knivet, esq. of Stanway, occurs in a deed of the date of 1430, for the conveyance of 
this manor to Richard Fox, esq. and others ; afterwards these manors were in the 
families of Langley, Marshall, Cutts, and Meade: and being sold by the co-heiresses 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 183 

of sir Thomas Meade, after his decease in 1678, were purchased by John Wilkes, escj. C H a p. 
and belong to his descendant John Wilkes, esq. of Wendon Loughts. 



The mansion-house of the manor of Leebury is rather more than a mile dis- Leebmy. 
tant from the church, on an eminence, by the road from this parish to Littlebury- 
green : it was named a Lea in the time of Edward the confessor, being at that time in 
possession of a freeman named Brictulf ; and with the rest of the parish passed to Eustace, 
earl of Boulogne, after the conquest. It has successively passed to the families of 

Philip, Baldock, Belknap, Green, Meade, Hanchet, Fuller, and Forbes, esq. of 

Christhall Grange. 

The church, which has a nave, side aisles, and chancel, with a tower, containing Church. 
four bells, is dedicated to St. Nicholas. It belonged to the monastery of St. Thomas 
the martyr, at Lesnes, in Kent, to which it was given by Robert de Lucy, chief 
justice of England; and that house, in 1424, appropriating the rectorial tithes to 
itself, ordained and endowed a vicarage here, of which it continued patron till 
the dissolution in 1525, when it was granted to cardinal Wolsey; on whose fall it 
passed to the crown, and was given by Henry the eighth to the convent of Sheen, in 
Surrey, of which it was holden, under a lease, by Thomas Crawley, esq., who also 
retained this possession under Edward the sixth. In 1588, it belonged to Thomas 
Meade, sergeant-at-law ; from whom it passed to the family of Bendish ; and by pur- 
chase to Nicholas Penning, merchant; and, successively became the property of John 
Hanchet, esq. of Christhall Grange, of Richard Chamberlain, esq., and, in 1739, was 
purchased by Nathaniel Wilkes, esq.* 

In 1821, the parish of Elmdon contained six hundred and one, and in 1831, six 
hundred and ninety-seven inhabitants. 

* Inscriptions : — An ancient and magnificent monument in the chancel for Thomas Meade, esq. justice of 
the King's Bench, raised to his memory by his most faithful wife Joan, informs us that he died in May 1585. tions 
A decayed monument, in the south chancel, bears the following, in old English characters : 

" Justarum memoriae in manu Dei sunt ; non tangent eos tormentum melitae. 

Dilexit patriam, patrii quis testis amoris, 

Haec scholae permagnis sumptibus orta suis, 
Vera precor memoras verissimo pro quibus ecce 

Impressum a;terno marmore nome habet." 

English: "The memory of the just is in the hand of God ; malice shall never torment them. The 
name of him whom this stone covers was Crawley ; in war he bore arms ; in peace he was a lawyer : he 
left many monuments of his holy life ; and, what even his tomb can relate, he loved his country : that he 
did so this school, which was built at his very great expense, is witness. In memory of these things, 
behold ! his name is inscribed in everlasting marble. Thomas Crawley, esquyer, deceased the xxx daye 
of September, An. 1559." Other plates bear effigies of four boys and eight girls : and the arms of Crawley. 

Charities : — In 1559 a school was founded here by Thomas Crawley, esq., which he endowed with four- Charities 
teen pounds per annum. The master to be a priest, and to teach, gratis, grammar and good manners. 

An annuity of twenty shillings, the gift of Mrs. Martin of Christhall, is distributed to the poor at Easter. 



Quem premit iste lapis Crawleum, quis fuit ille, 
Armiger in bello, pace togatus erat, 

Ux vixit sancte vitae moiiuraenta reliquit 
Multa, quid et multis (tumba) referre potes. 



184 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK n. 



HEYDON, or HAYDON. 

Heydon. From Elmdon, the parish of Heydon extends to the borders of the counties of 
Cambridge and Hertford, forming the north-western extremity of Essex. It is com- 
puted to be in length a mile and a half, and in breadth three quarters of a mile : distant 
from Saffron M-'alden five, and from London forty-three miles. 

The lands of this parish are among the most uneven and highest in the county : 
the soil in some places thin on chalk, but at the Grange a stratum of sand and gravel 
commences. The name, from the Saxon Heah, high, and bun, a hill, is in records 
written Haidon, Heidone, Haidena, and Eydone. In the Saxon times this parish be- 
longed to Alwin, and at the survey was in possession of Robert, the son of Roscelin. 
Heydon- The chief manor-house is on an eminence, not far distant north-westward from the 
'^""^' church : the wide extended prospect from this station includes the minster, or cathe- 

dral church of Ely, distant about thirty miles. Heydonbury was originally holden 
by the grand sergeancy of attendance on the kings of England at their coronation, 
with a bason and towel, to wash the king's hands before dinner, and to have the 
bason for their fee. The manor was anciently in two portions ; one of the lords 
holding the bason, the other the towel. 
Fic(;t The Picot family were possessed of this estate from the time of king Henry the 

second, to that of the second Edward ; they were originally of Ratclitfe, in Notting- 
hamshire, which lordship, and that of Kingston, adjoining to it, they held, in the time 
of king Henry the first, by the sergeancy of keeping hawks for him. In the reign of 
king John, Thomas, son and heir of Peter Picot, was commonly styled Thomas de 
Hedon, from having his residence occasionally at Heydon ; sir Peter Picot, his son, 
died in 1286, holding this manor, in the record named Eyden: John, his son and 
heir, was also of Heydon, holding by sergeancy : his two sons were John and Peter, 
who both died without issue; the last of these died in 1313, leaving his two sisters 

his heiresses. Margery, married to Senevil, by whom she had a son, named 

Simon de Senevil ; and Isabella Touke. 

This estate passed successively from the Senevil family, to those of Seagrove, De 
Lisle, Wiltshire, Asplond, and Ayleworth; after whom the next succeeding possessor 
was sir Stephen Soame, knt., citizen and grocer, of London; his ancestor was Thomas 
family. Soame, es(j. of Beetley, in Norfolk, who marrying Anne, only daughter and heiress 
of Thomas Knighton, esq. and widow of Richard le Hunt, of Hunt's-hall, in Bradley, 
had by her fourteen children; of these, Thomas, the eldest son, Avas of Beetley and 
Little Bradley; and Stephen, the second son, Avas the purchaser of this estate; sir 
Stephen was alderman of London and sheriff in 1589, and lord mayor in 1598. He 
purchased this and other considerable estates; and on his decease, in 1619, left sir 
William, his eldest son, who was of Little Thurlow, and whose second son William, 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 185 

was created a baronet In 1684, with remainder to the heirs male of his uncle Stephen, c H \ i> 
Sir Stephen Soarae, second son of Stephen, uncle of sir William Soame, was seated ^ "• 
at Heydonbury, created a knig-ht and made sheriff of Essex in 1621. He married 
Elizabeth, daughter of sir Thomas Playte, knt., of Soterley, in Suffolk, by whom he 
had Peter, John, Martha, Mary, married to Edward Fettiplace, esq., and Jane, 
married to sir Edward Flaxton, of Northamptonshire. Peter, the eldest son and 
heir, succeeded to the title of baronet, on the decease of his kinsman, sir William 
Soame, without issue, at Malta, on his embassy to Constantinople. At the coronation 
of king- James the second, he preferred his claim to hold the bason and ewer for one 
moiety of the manor of Heydon, and for the other moiety to hold the towel, when the 
king washed his hands before dinner ; petitioning either to perform those services in 
person, or by a convenient deputy; receiving all the fees, profits, and emoluments to 
the said service belonging. The part of holding the towel was allowed by the com- 
missioners of claims ; but that of appointing a deputy, to the king's pleasure, who 
appointed Anthony, earl of Kent, to perform that office in right of the said Peter : 
the rest of the claim was not allowed. Sir Peter married Susan, daughter of Ralph 
Freeman, esq., by whom he had Peter, Freeman, Susan, married to sir Cane James, 
bart. of Christhall, but who died in 1680, only seventeen years of age; and Elizabeth. 
Sir Peter Soame, the eldest son and heir, married Jane, daughter and heiress of 
George Chute, esq. of Stockwell, in Surrey, and had by her his only son, sir Peter 
Soame, bart., who married one of the daughters of colonel Richard Philips, of Stan- 
well, in Middlesex, by whom he had his son Peter. The claim at the coronation of 
king George the second and third was allowed as to the towel only; and the lord of 
the manor of Heydon attended with the towel, and performed his service at the 
coronation of George the fourth, July 19, 1821. 

The old manor-house was some time ago pulled down, and a capital mansion 
erected.* 

An estate is mentioned in the records, in 1526, as the manor in Heydon, with i^'i'^king- 
appertenances called Buckingham's lands, at that time granted by king Henry the 
eighth to Thomas Wolfe: it was also granted by the same monarch to John Ashton, 
in 1537; and has since been incorporated into other estates. 

Heydon Grange is two miles from the church, extending to the borders of Cam- Heydon 
bridgeshire northward.f ^ 

The church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, has a nave, north and south aisles, and Ciiuidi. 

* Arms of Soame : Gules, a chevron between three mullets, or. They ([uarter the arms of Knighton, 
Underhill, Caldebcck, Hinckley, Notbeam, and Peche. 

t In the street opposite the church there is a building supported by stone pillars: it seems to be very 
ancient, and though apparently intended for a market-house, it is not known to have been appropriated 
to that or any other purpose in particular. 



186 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

liOOKli. chancel, the whole building- in good repair, leaded and embattled: in the chancel, a 
chapel is the burial-place of the Soame family. The steeple contains five bells.* The 
rectory was given to the abbot and convent of Walden, by Thomas Picot, and again 
reverting to that family, in the time of Edward the first, has since continued appendant 
to the manor.f 

This parish, in 1821, contained two hundred and seventy-two, and in 1831, two 
hundred and fifty-nine inhabitants. 



CHRISTHALL, Or CRISHALL. 

Cliiisthali The high lands of this parish are pleasantly situated, but not very productive ; it j| 

extends southward from Heydon ; is in length five, and in breadth, in some places ^ 

one, in others one mile and a half: from Saffron Walden distant three, and from > 

London thirty-six miles. The name, of unknown derivation, is in records written Z 

Christshall, Chrishall, Cristehale, Cristesshale, Christley-hall, and Carshall. 7 

The recorded owners here, in the Saxon times, were Inguar, and LeflS, a freeman : 
and at the survey, they were holden by Eustace, earl of Boulogne, and Ingelric ; by 
Robert de Sumeri, under Eustace ; and by Robert de Todenei, being all that this 
Robert had in Essex. There were then, as at present, three manors. 

Clirist-' The lands named Christhall-bury are what belonged to Eustace and Ingelric; and 

the mansion is not far from the church, in a southerly direction. Maud, gi'and-daughter 
and heiress to Eustace, earl of Boulogne, conveyed this, with other great estates, by 
marriage, to king Stephen; who gave it to his natural son William, by whom it was 
granted to Richard de Lucy, who held it as one of the four knights' fees which he had 
in Essex : and on the death of his two sons, Geofrey and Herbert, without issue, it 
became the inheritance of his eldest daughter Maud, married first to Walter Fitz- 
Robert, father of Robert Fitz- Walter; and secondly, to Richard de Rivers: she died 
in 1242, and the family of Rivers retained possession during several descents, their 
under tenants being successively Leticia, Henry, and Robert de Pinkeney, from 
1253 to 1321, when it was holden under John de Rivers, by Nicholas de Segrave; 
and in 1339, the estate was, by sir John de Rivers, conveyed to sir John de Sutton, 
of Wivenhoe, from whom it passed in 1349, to Ralph, lord Staflford, under whom it 
was holden in 1353 to 1358, by sir William de la Pole, and Margaret liis wife ; 

ln.>cri|)- * Inscriptions : — In the chancel there is an epitaph for John, son of sir Stephen Soame, knt., who died 

*•'"'• March 14, 1658. — Thomas, the son of Thomas and Ann Thackeray, who died in 1734. — Hugh, son of the 

hon. and rev. Dr. Boscawen, who died in 1756. — There are several ancient tombs with effigies, but the 

inscriptions have been taken away. 
Charity. t Charity : — Dr. Davies, rector of this parish, founded a school near the church for the education of 

twenty children, and endowed it with ten pounds for ever; but by some mischance the endowment has 

been reduced to four pounds twelve shillings. 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 187 

whose heirs held it under Thomas, earl of Stafford, in 1392. It remained in this c M a p. 
noble family, successively in the possession of William, brother of Thomas, and ' 

Edmund, earls of Stafford: of Humphrey Stafford, duke of Buckingham; and his 
grandson Henry: after whom sir John Harpenden succeeded to the possession of it; 
from whom it was conveyed to Thomas Brooke: and in 1544 it was conveyed, by 
George Brooke, lord Cobham, and Anne his wife, to Thomas Crawley, esq., who, on 
his decease in 1558, left Anne, his only daughter, his heiress. Christhall belonged to 
sir Edward Penruddock, at the time of his decease, in 1612, succeeded by John, sir 
Thomas, and John Penruddock, esq. of Compton Chamberlain, in Wiltshire, who 
sold it to John James, esq., knighted in 1655. Sir John James built the family 
mansion of Christhall. 

The park, containing more than three hundred acres, was afterwards converted Ja'"es 
into a wood. Sir John James* of Christhall, dying unmarried, in 1672, left this 
estate to his nephew, Mr. James Cane, son of his sister Emlin,f who, in 1680, was 
created a baronet, and took the name of sir Cane James. He married, first, Susan, 
daughter of sir Peter Soame, hart, of Heydon, who dying five months after her mar- 
riage, sir Cane married, secondly, Anne, daughter of Francis Phillips, esq. of the 
Inner Temple, and had by her several sons, most of whom died young ; and two 
daughters. He died at St. Edmondsbury in 1736: sir John James, his son and suc- 
cessor, died in 1741. The estate afterwards became the property of the Brand 
family, of Hide-hall. 

Toward the close of the Saxon era, a proprietor, named Lefii, had the estate Crawiey- 
of Crawleybury, which, at the survey, was holden by Roger de Sumeri, under 
Eustace, earl of Boulogne, at that time named Crawelsea. The manor-house was 
at a place named Crowley-end. It was in the possession of Robert Pynkeny in 
1295, whose heir was his brother Henry. Sir William Furnival, at the time 
of his decease, in 1382, held this manor of John Audin, lord of Radv/inter, by 
the service of one pair of gilt spurs, of the value of twelve pence. It was after- 
wards given to St. George the martyr, in the cathedral of Hereford: and in 1548 
was granted by Edward the sixth, to Thomas Crawley, esq., who, on his decease 
in 1559, left his only daughter, Anne, his heiress, at that time only six years of age. 
In 1585, John Bendish, esq. of Steeple Bumsted, died in possession of this estate; in 
which family it remained, till on the decease of sir Henry Bendish, in 1717, it passed 

* The family of James was formerly surnamed Hsestrecht, from a place near Geuda, in Holland; and tlie 
ancestor of those of Christhall, was James von Hawstert, who coming into England about the time of 
king Henry the eighth, omitted his foreign surname ; Roger James was his second son, and was of London : 
his son and heir of the same name possessed Upminster-hall ; whose brothers were of Farnham, and 
another at Manuden. Arms of James : Argent, a chevron, sable, between three fers de moulins trans- 
verse, of the second. 

t She was married to James Cane, son of James Cane, citizen and vintner, of London. 



188 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. to sir Adam Brown, who sold it to James Walsingham, esq. of Little Chesterford, 
whose co-heirs were the right hon. lord Montacute, with the lady Osborn, and Mrs. 
Villiers, his nieces ; and lady Osborn gave her part to the hon. Mr. Boyle, speaker of 
the Irish house of Commons. 

Cheswick- The ancient manor-house of Cheswick Hall, also named Flanders, is on an emi- 
nence, three quarters of a mile from the church. A freeman held this estate in the 
time of Edward the confessor ; and at the survey it was in the possession of Robert 
de Todenei, whose estates in other counties, together Avith this one in Essex, 
amounted to eighty lordships. He built Belvoir castle, in Lincolnshire; and 
Robert Roos, lord of Hamlake, marrying Isabella, daughter and heiress of William 
de Albini, lord of that castle, in the time of Henry the third, had with her this manor, 
which was afterwards holden of Belvoir castle. Richard de Kelsal, in 1359, died 
holding this manor of lord de Roos, as of his castle of Belvoir, by the service of three 
arrows of the price of sixpence yearly. Sir John Helyon, of Bumsted Helyon, who 
held this estate in 1449, had two daughters, his co-heiresses: Philippa, married to 
sir Thomas Montgomery, of Faulkbourn-hall ; and Isabel, married to Humphrey 
Tyrell, esq, of Warley, son of sir John Tyrell, of Herons. Tlieir only daughter and 
heiress, by marriage, conveyed this with other estates to sir Roger Wentworth, of 
Codham-hall, in Wethersfield ; whose second son, Henry, succeeded to this estate in 
1529 ; which, in 1558, belonged to John Wentworth, esq. and to George Nicholls, 
and Joan his wife, in 1586. It was in the possession of Robert Bradley, esq. in 1611 ; 
and in 1635 had become the property of John Rowley, of Saffron Walden; Michael 
and John Rowley were his sons, the former of whom was father of John Rowley, 
who married Margaret, daughter of William W^illymot, of Leebury, in Elmdon, by 
whom he had his son and heir, John Rowley, attorney-at-law, of Walden : who mar- 
ried Alice, daughter of Mr. Thomas Arnold, by whom he had his son John Rowley, 
esq. principal of Bemard's-iim, in London, in 1T34; and he sold this estate to 
Nathaniel W^ilkes, esq., in whose family it has continued to the present time. 

Christhall The manor of Christhall Grange is two miles and a half from the churcb, and the 
|an^c. niansion-house is in a low situation, on the northern extremity of the county, joining 
to Cambridgeshire. It belonged to Tiltey abbey, under whom it was farmed by 
John Thake, at the time of the suppression. In 1554 it was granted by king Henry 
the eighth to Edward Elrington and Humphrey Metcalf, who, in 1546, conveyed it to 
Edward Meade, esq., on whose decease, in 1577, he was succeeded by his son John, and 
bv Sir Thomas Meade, knt., who died in 1617, leaving his son and heir John Meade. 
It afterwards belonged to John Smith, esq. of L'pton, who sold it to John Hanchet, 
esq. of Heydon.* The estate afterwards became the property of Forbes, esq., 

* Of an ancient family in Hertfordshire : William Hanchet, esq. purchased Letchw orth, the faniil) 
residence ; and his son Thomas was one of the eighty gentlemen of that county, in the time of Henry tlie 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 189 

and passed to the noble family of Brand, lord Dacre. This estate contains about nine chap. 
hundred acres. 



The church has a nave, aisles, and chancel, with a square stone tower, containing Church. 
four bells, the whole embattled, and having a handsome spire above the tower. It is 
dedicated to the Virgin Mary. This church having from a remote period belonged to 
the abbey of Westminster, was also retained by it when it was made a bishopric ; but 
afterwards its jurisdiction, as to matters ecclesiastical, was given by Edward the 
sixth to Ridley, bishop of London in 1550; and the patronage and advowson of the 
vicarage was granted to the bishftp of London, by queen Marj'^, in 1553; but the rec- 
torial, or great tithes, were granted to the dean and chapter of Westminster, by queen " 
Elizabeth, in 1558.* 

Li 1720, the vicarage was augmented by bishop Robinson with the gift of two 
hundred pounds, to which was added the same sum from queen Anne's bounty. 

In 1821, this parish contained four hundred and eleven, and in 1831, four hundred 
and eighty-seven inhabitants. 

CHISHALL. 

A district at the extremity of the hundred and county, divided into two parishes, Chishall. 
bears the names of Chishall, Great and Little; in Domesday, written Cishel. A 
watercourse, named Cumberton, divides these parishes from Barley, in Hertfordshire; 
and the division between Mercia and the kingdom of the East Saxons, is supposed to 

sixth, who could support an annual expenditure of ten pounds, equal to above as many hundred at the 
present time. Samuel Hanchet of Arkesden, married Joan, daughter of Mr. Creed of Icaldon, in Cam- 
bridgeshire ; his son and heir was John Hanchet, esq., who married Mary, daughter of Mr. John Pauley, 
of St. Malyn, in Cornwall ; he died in 1724, leaving John his son, the father of John, the purchaser 
of this estate. 

Arms of Hanchet : Sable, three dexter hands erect, couped at the wrist, argent, two and one. 

* Morant, vol. ii. p. 605. 

Inscriptions : — An elegant monument in the chancel bears a Latin inscription, of which the following is Inscrip- 
a translation : " Near this marble rests, waiting for a happy resurrection, sir John James, knt. descended ^^°'^^- 
from an ancient family of that name, in the county of Kent : to his God he was a devout servant ; to his 
king, even in adversity, a truly faithful subject ; to his relatives very beneficent ; a true friend to his 
friends ; to all men courteous, and strictly just ; and a man of singular dexterity in the dispatch of busi- 
ness. He was divested of mortality on the 17th of February, in the year of our Lord 1676, of his age 72- 
Cane James, whom he left heir of his whole estate, in memory of his beloved uncle, and as a testimony of 
his own gratitude, caused this monument to be erected." 

On the north wall, on a plain marble, is a Latin inscription, to the memory of Cane James, and Anne 
his wife; their son caused this monument to be erected, 1739. 

There are some remains of two very ancient monuments in the south aisle, but no inscription: on one 
of them, an effigy of a woman in brass is said to represent Mrs. Lettice Martin, to whom the poor are 
indebted for numerous charities, of which was a benefaction o^ various sums of money from lands in 
Christhall, left in trustees, to be given annually to various parishes, of which the poor of Christhall was 
to receive twenty shillings ; and Christhall with Wendon to receive the profits of the fall of trees. 
VOL. II. 2 c 



190 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. have been by an embankment, part of which yet remains near Shaftnoe-bridge, and 

which is understood to have passed through Hertfordshire to Middlesex : the memory 

of this mound is traditionally preserved at Cheshunt, though no vestige of it remains 
for many miles : the land above the bank in the same fields is inherited by the eldest 
brother; that below the bank descends by borough-English to the youngest. This 
custom is frequent on the east side in Hertfordshire, not on the opposite or Mercian 
side.* The village is small, on a high hill, with an open country toward the north 
and north-west ; the prospect extending above thirty miles : the country southward 
is in a good state of cultivation, and distinguished by woodland scenery. Distant 
about forty-two miles from London. 

In the reign of Edward the confessor, the lands of Great Chishall belonged to six 
freemen, one of whom was named Ulfith ; and to Edric, and Lewin ; at the survey 
they had been granted by the Conqueror to Geofrey de Magnaville, and Roger 
Otburville. There have been five manors, or reputed manors, in this parish. 
Cardons, -pj^g families of Cardon and Basset gave occasion for the names applied to a manor 
Hall. in this parish, which was also named Wandens; it was holden in 1372 by William 

Cardon, under Geofrey de Magnaville; and under Humphrey de Bohun, earl of 
Hereford and Essex, by the heirs of John Depham, John Outlaw, Nicholas Jobyn, 
with several others ; and also the abbots of Walden and Tiltey : it consisted of two 
knights' fees. Toward the close of the reign of king Henry the seventh, it belonged 
to John Basset ; Gregory, his son and heir, married Margaret, daughter of Robert 
Forster, esq. of Birch, by whom he had Dorothy, his only daughter and heiress, 
whose wardship, after his decease, was procured by Thomas Bonham, esq. of Kent, 
who by artifice had her married to his son Robert Bonham, esq., who had by her 
Jerome and Charles, and two daughters, and dying before his wife, she was married 
to Anthony Maxey, esq. of Great Saling Hall, by whom she had several sons and 
daughters : on her decease, she settled her estate on the eldest of these sons, disin- 
heriting her son Jerome Bonham, who died in 1621. In 1615, John Bownest died 

in possession of this estate, and his son Thomas sold it to Allen, of Great Had- 

ham, and from his son William it was conveyed to John Hanchet, esq. of Christhall 
Grange. 
Belknaps. A manor named Belknaps was also part of the Magnaville lordship, in the possession 

of Milo de Somery, in the reign of king John ; it afterwards was holden by 

Belknap ; and in the time of Edward the third, by John de Benington, and afterwards 
by his heirs ; from whom it passed to Thomas Pakeman. 
Tewes, or A manor named Tewes and Lisles, formerly belonging to John de Lisle, was 
holden of the honour of Lisle, by John Tawe, esq. of Coln-Engaine : it was after- 
wards purchased by Richard Fox, and George Langham. 

* Salmon's History of Essex, p. 137 ; and the Saxon Chronicle. 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 191 

A manor, extending into Great and Little Chishall, belonging to Tiltey abbey, was chap. 
named Friers, and also Chishall Grange. It was granted to Edward Elrington, esq. 



by king Henry the eighth; and sold in 1546 to Thomas Crawley, esq.: it after- Friers. 
wards belonged to sir Cane James ; and to Thomas Brand, esq. of the Hyde, near ■ - ^-j " 
Ingatestone. 

The mansion-house of the manor of Chishall is near the road that passes from Chishall 
Chishall to Arkesden. This estate is what at the survey belonged to Roger de "^^'^^'" 
Otburville. It was sold by Martha Higham, widow, to Thomas Cooke, esq. who 
died in 1584. William Cooke was his son, after whose decease, in 1597, it was sold 
by his son Thomas, to John Rowley, of Barkway, in Hertfordshire, who held this 
possession in 1635; which his daughter Mary conveyed, by marriage, to James 
Goulston, esq. of Widihall, in Hertfordshire : his son and heir Richard, married 
Margaret, daughter of the right rev. Francis Turner, lord bishop of Ely, by the lady 
Anne, descended by the father from the family of Horton, by the mother from the 
Ferrars. His son Francis was his successor. The estate was afterwards purchased 
by Thomas Brand, esq.* 

The church, dedicated to St. Swithin, has a nave, north and south aisles, and a church, 
chancel ; above the tower, which contains five bells, there is a small spire.f This 
church, with its appurtenances, was given to the monastery of Walden, by Geofrey 
de Mandeville, in 1136; and in 1239, the rectory and manor being appropriated to 
that house, a vicarage was ordained, the diminutive endowment of which was aug- 
mented in 1441. It was granted, after the dissolution, to sir Thomas Audley, who 
bequeathed it, by will, to Elizabeth, his lady ; her second husband was sir George 
Norton : after her decease it became the property of Thomas, duke of Norfolk, who 
married lord Audley's daughter and heiress; and Thomas lord Howard, of Walden, 
and Katharine, his lady, sold this possession to William Cooke, son of Thomas Cooke, 
of Osborns in this parish ; whose son Thomas was his successor ; followed by John 
Cooke, esq., who married Jane, daughter of colonel Richard Goulston, of Widihall, 
who had four sons and three daughters: he died in 1701; and after the decease of 

*0n a farm, called Osborns, in this parish, there is an ancient well, ninety-two yards and a half in depth. 

f A mural monument in the chancel bears the following inscription : " Near this place, under the Inscrip- 
communion table, lieth the body of the honourable John Cooke, esq., who departed this life the 27th of ^i*^"*- 
January, 1701. He served as high sheriff of this county of Essex, by the special appointment of king 
William, of ever-blessed memory, and commanded as colonel of the green regiment of militia, and wag 
also a deputy lieutenant, justice of the peace, and one of the quorum of the said county ; who for his 
integrity, love of justice, and usefulness in every station, lived beloved and died lamented. He left behind 
him, by his surviving lady, Jane, daughter of colonel Richard Goulston, four sons and three daughters, 
who, out of gratitude and honour to his dear memory, have erected this monument, though too mean and 
unworthy of him. His age was 67." 

Chaiities : — The rent of five acres of land was left to be distributed to the poor yearly at Christmas, by Charities, 
the churchwardens and overseers. — An annuity of three shillings and four-pence was left to the poor by 
Mrs. Martin. 



192 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. John Cooke, esq. his third son, the title to the estate was for some time disputed, but 
ultimately decided in favour of Mr. Richard Cooke, of Chelmsford, a relation of the 
family; and in 1739, it was sold to Nathaniel Wilkes, esq. 

In 1821, this parish contained three hundred and fifty-three, and in 1831, three 
hundred and seventy-one inhabitants. 

LITTLE CH16HALL. 

Little The lands of this parish lie low, on the border of Hertfordshire, and it contains only 

'* * * a small number of inhabitants: it is distant from Saffron Walden five, and from 
London forty-two miles. 

In the time of Edward the confessor, it belonged to Sired and Godric, two freemen; 
and after the Conquest, the whole estate was given to Eustace, earl of Boulogne, whose 
under tenant Wido, son of Toce, left two daughters, Ellen and Alia, his co-heiresses: 
Ellen had a son named Reginald de Argentine, Avho in the time of king Stephen, had 
half of this estate, as had also his son of the same name, in the time of Richard the 
first; whose son Richard, and Giles his grandson, were his successors. 

Alia had the other half of this manor, which she held as the gift of king Henry the 
second; and it descended to her son Roger, and to Nicholas, son of Roger, her grandson. 

The entire manor ultimately belonged to the Argentine family, and was all or part 
of it holden by John de Swineford, of John Argentine, in 1318, and of his widow in 
1332: John was his son and heir. Sh* John de Argentine, and John Bataile, held 
lands here in 1361, supposed to include the whole of the manor; in which year he 
presented to this church; and the moiety to which the presentation belonged was that 
which was holden of Giles de Argentine by knights' service; but the result of a trial 
at laAv was, that the presentation should belong alternately to each moiety. It cannot 
be ascertained at what time the undivided possession of this manor became vested in 
the Uff"ord family, nor why Edmund de UflFord, who was lord of it in 1375, is named 
Le Cosvne, unless it Avere because he was cousin to Robert de Ufford, earl of Suffolk: 
in 1382, it was determined by a trial at law, that this manor was not to be holden of 
the Argentine family, but of the king, as of his honour of Hagenet. From the year 
1406, when William Effield, by fine, conveyed this manor to sir John Hende, and 
his lady Elizabeth, in tail, the estate appears to have remained undi^nded. Sir John 
died in 1418, John, his son, in 1641, and his mother Elizabeth in 1462, having 
been married to Ralph Boteler, lord Sudley:* Joan, her grand-daughter, by her son 

* This nobleman was actively engaged in affairs of great importance under Henry the sixth ; and in the 
wars in France acquired fame, and riches to a considerable amount ; with part of which he built Sudley 
castle. But, by his attachment to king Henr)-, incurring the hatred and suspicion of Edward the fourth, 
that monarch caused him to be arrested and conveyed to London ; on which occasion, looking back 
toward his castle, from one of the hills in its vicinity, he exclaimed, " Sudley castle, thou art the traitor, 
not l."-^Dugdales Baronage, vol. i. p. 596. 



HUNDRED OF UTTLESFORD. 



193 



John, held this manor at the time of his decease in 1507. Sir William Ayliff held t^ H a P. 

this manor in 1517, followed by his son William: by Thomas Ayliff, esq. who died in — — 

1553, and whose son and successor, William Ayliff, died in 1614, leaving- his son of 
the same name: he was made king's serjeant in 1627. Lucj^, countess of Huntingdon, 
held this possession in 1662; and in 1684, it had become the property of Peter Soame, 
esq. from whom it has descended to the Soame family, of Heydon. The mansion is a 
short distance southward from the church, and named Nether or Lower Hall. 

The church, dedicated to St. Nicholas, is a small edifice, rising high, in proportion Church. 
to its other dimensions; the porch is of free stone; the tower of wood, rising from a 
foundation of stone. 

A very ancient family took their surname from this, or the other parish of Chishall; 
a distinguished individual of which was John de Chishull, dean of St. Paul's, arch- , 

deacon of London, lord treasurer, keeper of the great seal, lord chancellor, and bishop 
of London: he died in 1279. A branch of this family was formerly seated at Little 
Bardfield. 

In 1821, this parish contained seventy-one, and, in 1831, one hundred and six 
inhabitants. 



ECCLESIASTICAL BENEFICES IN UTTLESFORD HUNDRED, 

R. Rectory. V. Vicarage. 

+ Discharged from payment of First Fruits. D. Donative. 



Parish, 


Archdeaconry. 


Incumbent- 


Insti- 
tuted. 


Value ir 
Reg 


1 Liber 

is. 


Patron. 


Arkesden, V 

Birchanger, R 

Chesterford,Grt.V. ) 
Chesterford,Lit.R, J 
Chishall, Great, V.. 
Chi-shall, Little, R. . 

Christhall,V 

Debden, R 


Colchester. 


J. S. Griffinhoofe .. 

J. C. H. Stokes 

Hon. J. H. King.. ) 

Ditto S 

Robert Fiske 

John Horseman . . . 

Butler Berry 

W. J.Totton 

Robert Fiske 

Thomas Canning . . 
Rector of L. Chishall 
George H. Glyn. . . . 

J. Sparke 

Henry Bull 

Ed. G. Monk 

Jolin Collin 

T. G. W. Walker , . . 

J. Torriano 

W. F.Raymond 

Ed. Harbin 

Nich. Bull 

i Edward Rider . . . 

Vicar of Elmdon. .. 
Charles George .... 

C. A. Campbell 

John Dolingnon . .. 
John Raymond 


1812 
1808 

1824 

1822 
1810 
1787 
1796 
1814 
1818 
1810 
1826 
1818 
1813 
1828 

1810 
1828 
1820 
1804 
1804 

1814 

1814 
1814 
1820 
1816 

1786 


d£l3 
9 

tio 

11 

flO 

14 

13 

34 

19 

11 

IS 

17 

26 

flO 

t 9 

t 9 

tio 
tl3 
fiS 
11 
fSS 

tl7 

t 9 

11 

2.5 

12 

8 


6 

13 




10 




10 



13 
2 

10 


6 


6 



10 






8 
4 










4 
1 



3 


8 



10 






John Wolfe, Esq. 
New Col. Oxon. 
5 King and Marq. of 
( Bristol alternately. 
J. Wilkes, Esq. 
Sir P. Soame, bart. 
Bishop of London. 
R.M.F.Chiswell,Esq. 
J._ Wilkes, Esq. 
Bishop of London. 
W.Lit.Chishall,Rect. 
J. S. Feake & others. 
Bishop of Ely. 
Rector of Littlebury. 
Lord Chancellor. 
H. Cranmer, Es<i. 
Bishop of London. 
E. F. Maitland, Esq. 
Lieut. -gen. Raymond. 
Bishop of London 
Lord Braybrooke. 

Marquis of Bristol. 

W. Elmdon, Vic. 
Auir. George, Esq. 
W. Campbell, Esq. 
R. John Dolingnon. 
Rect. of Wimbish. 








Essex .... 

Colchester. 


Elmdon.V 

Elsenham, V 

Haydon, R 

Henham,V 

Littlebury, R 

Littlebury, V 

Newport, V 

Quendon, R 

Rickling, V 

Stansted Montf. V.. 

Strethall, R 

Takeley, R 

Walden, S.V 

Wendon, Great, V. } 
Wendon, Little, R. S 
Wendon Loughts, D. 
Wickham Bonh. R. . 

Widdington, R 

Wimbish, R 

Wimbish, V 
















Middlesex. 
Colchester. 




Middlesex. 
Middlesex. 



194 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. 



CHAPTER Vni. 



THE HALF HUNDRED OF CLAVERING. 



Clavcring This half hundred forms the north-western extremity of the county, being a narrow 
ilred "" tract of land, bounded on the north and east by Uttlesford hundred, and on the south 
and west by Hertfordshire. It measures in length eight miles and a half, and in 
breadth five and a half; in some places only half a mile; its name is from the chief 
town, and it is within the archdeaconry of Colchester. At the survey, this lordship 
belonged to Suene, of Essex; and in the time of Edward the first, both the lordship 
and the manor were holden by Robert Fitz- Roger, from whom ,it has passed to the 
Claverings, Nevilles, and to the family of Barrington, of Hatfield Regis. A con- 
siderable part of this district was originally covered with wood, forming part of the 
extensive woodlands belonging to Hardwin de Scalaris, or Scales, and the name of 
Scales Park is yet retained by part of this estate. These lands are of various kinds, 
some of which are described as consisting of rough and unimproved pasture lands, 
which have, however, where hollow draining and judicious management has been 
adopted, amply repaid the labours of the agriculturist. There are five parishes: 
Clavering, with Langley; Berden, Ugley, Manuden, and Farnham. 



CLAVERING, WITH LANGLEY. 

Clavering. This parish, in length four and in breadth three miles, is the largest in this half 
hundred; eastward it extends to Arkesden, Wickham Bonhunt, and Rickling; on the 
west to Hertfordshire, southward to Berden, and northward to Little Chishall: it is 
distant from Bishop Stortford seven, and from London thirty-seven miles. The 
village is small, and irregularly built, containing a few shops, and some good houses. 
The surrounding country is remarkably pleasant in appearance, the roads good, and 
the hedge-rows well timbered. A small stream rising in Arkesden, uniting with a 
rivulet from Langley, takes its course through this parish to Manuden, and to the 
river Stort. The name is apparently from the Saxon rrla3j:jia, violets, and inj, a 
meadow or pasture : it is sometimes in records written Claveling. 

Robert, son of Wimarc, was in possession of Clavering in the time of Edward the 
confessor, and, at the survey, it formed part of the extensive possessions of Suene, of 
Essex, whose under tenants were Ansgot, Wicard, Robert, and Ralph. 



HALF HUNDRED OF CLAVERING. 195 

Hugh de Essex, the grandson of Suene, hereditary standard bearer and constable to chap. 
the king, by cowardice in the wars in Wales, forfeited his offices and estates, which ^"^' 
the king distributed among his favourites. He married Alice, sister of Alberic de 
Vere, first earl of Oxford, by whom he had Henry, and Hugh, from whom the 
Essexes of Berkshire descended. After the decease of her first husband, the lady 
Alice was married to Roger Fitz- Richard, lord of Warkworth, in Northumberland, 
and of Clavering in Essex; who had by her Robert Fitz-Roger, and a daughter, 
married to John Constable, of Chester. There are two subordinate manors, which 
have been detached from the capital manor of Clavering. 

The castle of Claveringbury, the residence of the ancient lords, was near the church : Clavering. 
the extensive area which it occupied may yet be perceived, and some time ago the 
moat and part of the walls were to be seen. 

After the forfeiture of Hugh de Essex, this lordship remained in possession of the 
crown, till it was granted, by Henry the second, to Robert Fitz-Roger, whose family 
retained possession for several generations, and took from it their surname of De 
Clavering. John Fitz-Robert, son and heir of Robert, died in 1240, and left by his 
wife Ada de Baliol, his son Roger, who held this manor of the king, by one fee of the 
honour of Rayleigh: he died in 1249, and was succeeded by his son Robert, who 
held this manor and the half hundred, and died in 1309, leaving by his lady, Margery 
de Zouch, his son and heir John, who died in 1332. He married Ha wise, daughter 
of Robert de Tibetot, by whom he had his daughter and heiress Eve, first married to 
Ralph de Ufford, and afterwards to Thomas de Audley, and by each of these had 
sons and daughters. Yet her father, the said John de Clavering, believing he should 
have no male issue, settled the reversion of this and his other manors on king Edward 
the first ; in return for which the king granted him an annuity of four hundred pounds, 
or an estate of that value.* 

Toward the close of the reign of Edward the third, this lordship came into the 
family of Neville, lords of Raby, and eai'ls of Westmoreland : sir John de Neville, of 
Raby, in 1338, held this manor, with the half hundred of Clavering, of the king, by 
the service of one knight's fee : his lady died in 1395, also holding this estate ; which 
descended to their son, sir Ralph de Neville, the first earl of Westmoreland, who had 
also the advowson of a chantry in the chapel of Clavering; he died in 1425 :f Joan, 
his second lady, was sister of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster; she died in 1440, 
holding this estate, her eldest son, Richard Neville, earl of Salisbury, being her heir. 
His grandson, Richard Neville, third earl of Salisbury, having married Anne, daugh- 
ter of Richard Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, in whose right he was also earl of War- 
wick, had by her Isabel, and Anne, first married to Edward prince of Wales, son of 

* Arms of Clavering : Quarterly, or and gules, on a bend, sable, three mullets argent, 
t Ralph, his grandson, by his deceased son John, was at that time his heir. 



196 HISTORY OF ESSEX, 

BOOK II. king- Henry the sixth ; and secondly, was married to Richard duke of York, after- 
wards king Richard the third. Isabel, the elder daughter, was married to George 
Plantagenet, duke of Clarence, brother to Edward the fourth, who had by her 
Edward, born in 1575, and who took the title of earl of Warwick, but was beheaded 
in 1598, for pretended treason, being the last of the lineage of Plantagenet. This 
estate was in consequence forfeited to the crown. The lady Isabel also bore to the 
duke of Clarence, her husband, a daughter named Margaret, married to sir Richard 
de la Pole, knight of the garter, and had by him Henry, Geofrey, Arthur, and Regi- 
nald; and Ursula, married to Henry lord Stafford. In 1513, she petitioned king 
Henry the eighth, to be permitted to inherit the state and dignity of her brother, the 
eai'l of Warwick, and be styled countess of Salisbury: which the king granted, and 
the same year restored to her all the castles, manors, and lands of Richard, earl of 
Salisbury, her grandfather, which came to the crown by the attainder of her brother, 
and among the rest the manor of Clavering. But she also had the misfortune to be 
beheaded for pretended treason, and the estates again reverted to the crown ; Henry 
Pole, lord Montague, her eldest son, was also condemned, and sujBTered with his 
mother. He married Jane, daughter of George Neville, lord Bergavenny, by whom 
he had Catharine, married to Francis Huntingdon ; and Winifred, married to Thomas 
Hastings, second son of George, earl of Huntingdon, and, after his death, to sir 
Thomas Barrington : these two ladies, on petitioning parliament in 1553, were re- 
stored in blood ; and queen Mary, in the first year of her reign, granted the manor of 
Clavering to sir Thomas Hastings, and to Winifred and her heirs.* In 1602, the 
lady Winifred Barrington died in possession of this manor and half hundred, and of 
Barrington-hall ; and the same belonged to sir Francis Barrington, bart. at the time 
of his decease, and has descended as the estate of Hatfield Broadoak, to sir Charles 
Barrington, and to the heirs of the Barrington family. 
Thurrocks The subordinate manor of Thurrocks has the mansion-house on Butts Green, 
Pounces, about a mile north-west from the church ; but there are now no remains of Pounces. 
Sir John Walden had these possessions on his decease in 1419; which were after- 
wards, by female heirship, conveyed to the family of Barley, which retained posses- 
sion till William, son of John Barley, esq., who died in 1541, sold Thurrocks and 
Pounces to sir William Petre in 1568.f 

* Queen Elizabeth, in 1578, by mistake, as has been supposed, granted the manor of Clavering, among 
other things, to William lord Burghley, sir Walter Mildmay, and sir Gilbert Gerrard ; but this grant does 
not appear to have taken place. 

t William Barley, of Thurrocks, married Elizabeth, daughter and co-heiress of John Serle, of Barkway, 
by whom he had John, and other sons and daughters. He died in 1610. John, his only surviving son, 
married Mary, daughter of John Haynes, of Old Holt, in Great Birch, by whom he had Haynes, William, 
and Elizabeth. He died in 1633. Haynes, his eldest son, married Margaret, eldest daughter of George 
Oliver, of Great Wilbraham, by wliom he had four sons and nine daughters. He married, secondly. 



HALF HUNDRED OF CLAVERING. 197 

The manor of Curies is named from the family of CruUe, to which it passed, from CHAP, 
the Walden family in 1403. Isabella de Walden, in the same year, released to ^''^' 
Thomas Westle, vicar of Clavering, and John Basset, esq., and his heirs, all her right Curies. 
in lands and tenements here, called Cliamberleyns, which had belonged to sir Thomas 
Chamberleyn, and afterwards to Thomas Grey, of Pelham: from the Waldens it 
passed to Haynes Barley, esq. 

The reputed manor of Geddings is supposed to have been given by Peche, lord of Geddings. 
Plecheden-hall, in Henham, to sir Robert Geddings,* with his lady, Mirabel, daugh- 
ter of Katharine Notbeme, whose mother was the heiress of sir Geofrey Peche. The 
mansion of Geddings is now named Clavering-place. It formerly belonged to Cap- 
tain Hatch of London, and afterwards to Henry Patten, esq., who died in 1707, and 
whose daughter, Anne, conveyed it to her husband, John Stevenson, esq., who died 
in 1741. It was afterwards in possession of successive proprietors of the same 
family. 

Pondes, a capital mansion here, was the property of the Barrington family, and Pondes. 
toward the close of the sixteenth century became the residence of Thomas Welbore, 
esq.,f who married Ursula, daughter of Silvester D'Anvers, esq., by Elizabeth, 
daughter of John lord Mordaunt: she died in 1591. A branch of the Cotton family 
formerly lived here : William, second son of William Cotton, of Cotton-hall, in 
Suffolk, was the first that was of Clavering, and his descendants were Thomas, 
Robert, Edmund, and Roger, a general of the Dutch forces, who died without issue, 
in 1638. 

A messuage, and one hundred and seventeen acres of land, were given, in 1347, 
by John de Bingham, to the hospital of St. John, of Cambridge, now part of St. John's 
college, which yet enjoys this estate. 

An estate named Arnolds, in this parish, in 1445, belonged to Joan, wife of John 
Hotoft; and, in 1548, to Peter Cutt, esq. 

The church is dedicated to St. Mary and St. Clement; it has a spacious nave, side Church. 
aisles, and chancel ; the tower contains six bells : the whole building is of stone, 
embattled, and leaded. 

Mary, daughter of Edmund Turner, esq. of Walden ; and his third and last wife was Mary, daughter of 
William Riddlesdon, son of sir Stephen Riddlesdon, knt.; by her he had William, Charles, and Edward 
Haynes, who died in 1696, aged 90 ; having married Urith, daughter of sir Austin Palgrave, bart. of Norfolk, 
by whom he had Palgrave; William, who married Judith, only daughter of Richard Carr, esq. of Bcrden; 
Haynes, and Katharine, wife of Edward Hobert, esq. of Norfolk. Palgrave Barley, esq. had two third 
parts of Thurrocks and Pounces, which he gave by will to Miss Catharine Buckle; the other third part 
was in possession of Mrs. Jane Allen. On the decease of Palgrave Barley, the male line of this family 
became extinct. Arms of Barley : Barry wavy of six, ermine and sable. 

* Arms of Gedding : A chevron between three eagles' heads erased. 

t Arms of Welbore : Sable, a fesse between three boars, passant, argent. 
VOL. II. 2 D 



198 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. 



Inscrip- 
tions. 



This church was given, by Robert de Essex, to the priory he had founded in Prittle- 
vvell, in the reign of Henry the second ; and that house instituted and endowed a 
vicarage here, which after the dissolution, with the rectory, was granted by Henry the 
eighth to Henry Parker, esq. of Berden, from whose family they passed to sir Thomas 
Ramsey, lord mayor of London, in 1577 ; whose lady, in 1592, gave them to the 
hospitals of Christ Church, Bethlehem, and St. Thomas, in London.* 

In 1821, this parish contained one thousand and eighty-one, and in 1831, one 
thousand one hundred and thirty-four inhabitants. 

* Monumental inscriptions. — On the south wall of the chancel, on a marble monument, is a Latin inscrip- 
tion, of which the following is a translation : " Sacred to the memory of Mr. John Smith, a Warwick- 
shire-man ; sometime fellow of St. John's, Oxford ; then a divine of St. Paul's church ; afterwards rector 
of this parish twenty-five years. He was a most vigilant pastor, and a man greatly esteemed for his real 
piety, wisdom, learning, eloquence, and gravity. He piously slept in the Lord in the fifty-sixth year of 
his age, in the year of our Lord 1616." 

The family vault of the Barleys (anciently Barlee) is entered from-the north aisle, where several monu- 
ments bear the following inscriptions : " Here under lieth buried Mary, fourth daughter of Edmund 
Turner, of Walden, in this county, gentleman, and Elizabeth his wife, second wife of Haynes Barlee, esq., 
by whom he had a very plentiful fortune, but no issue. She died the 5th of March 1658, was a loving and 
obedient wife, in whose memory he erected this monument." 

On a marble monument, under a bust : " In a vault underneath are deposited the remains of Haynes 
Barlee, esq. with those of his three wives : the last was Mary, one of the daughters of William Riddlesdon, 
esq., by whom he left issue four sons; William, Haynes, Charles, and Edward : he died in 1696, she 
in 1714. This monument is gratefully dedicated to their memories by Palgrave Barlee, esq." 

A handsome monument is inscribed to the memory of "Margaret, eldest daughter of George Oliver, 
and wife of Haynes Barlee, of Curies, by whom he had four sons and nine daughters : six of them died 
in infancy, and the last was still-born, and within five days the mother died. She was a good woman, 
and a faithful, loving, and obedient wife sixteen years, and died in December, 1653." 

On the glass of the window there are memorials painted of '\^'illiam Bai-lee, of the Middle Temple, son 
of Haynes Barlee, and Mary his wife: he died in 16S3. Frances Riddlcsdcn, daughter of William 
Riddlesden, esq. son of sir Stephen Riddlesden, knt. and Elizabeth his wife, daughter of John Palgrave, 
esq. She died in 1694". Haynes Barlee, eldest son of Haynes Barlee, esq. born in 1646, and died in 1661. 
Some of these inscriptions have been preserved by Dr. Salmon, but the glass on which they were painted 
has been broken. 

In the nave, on the ground, a Latin inscription informs us that Ursula, wife of Thomas Welbore, of 
Pondes, in Clavcring, and daughter of Sylvester D'Anvers, of Dauntesey, esq. in the county of Wilts, died 
on the 26th day of December, 1591 ; and that Elizabeth, one of the daughters of sir John Mordaunt, knt^ 
lies buried with her. Richard Godfrey of this parish died October 11, IG99 ; and Mary his first wife in 
1683: and Anne his second wife in 1690. Joan Day died on the 3d of February, 1483 : Robert, son of 
George Day, died in 1581. William Barlee, esq. and Elizabeth his wife, daughter and co-heiress of John 
Serle, of Barkway,are buried in the nave ; he died in 1691 : his son, John Barlee, married Mary, daughter 
of John Haynes, esq. of Old Hall, in Essex; he died in 1633,Mary in 1643,and William, their son, in 1635. 
In the north aisle, under an arch in the wall, there is the effigy of a man in armour, lying on his back, 
with a sword in his right hand, resting on his breast, but no inscription states who it represents. A 
mural monument bears a Latin inscription to inform us that, " Here lies John Stephenson, esq. only 
son of William, of Howton, in Cambridgeshire, descended from the family of the Stephensons, of York- 
shire ; and Anne his wife, daughter and one of the co-heiresses of Henry Patten, of this village of Claver- 



HALF HUNDRED OF CLAVERING. 199 



CHAP. 
VIII. 



LANGLEY. 

This hamlet and chapelry were formerly appropriated to the priory of St. Bar- Langiey. 
tholomew, in West Smithtield,* to which it is believed to have been given by Robert 
Fitz-Rog-er, sometime previous to the year 1253.* The first time this place is men- 
tioned in records is in the account of lands taken from the Normans, in the beginning 
of the reign of king John, and there was at that time a park belonging to it. In 1543, 
Langley Hall, after the dissolution of monasteries, was granted, by Henry the eighth. Hall. 
with Langley Hall Grove, to John Gate, esq. who, in 1550, conveyed them to William 
Bradbury, esq. who the same year died possessed of this estate, leaving Robert his 
son and heir; who dying in 1576, was succeeded by his brother Henry, whose son 
William died in 1607, leaving his son and heir, Henry Bradbury, under age: it after- 
wards belonged to the family of Luther. Anthony Luther, esq. of Doddinghurst, 
had possession of this estate sometime previous to the year 1700. His mother was 
Mary, daughter of Edward Meade, of Berden: it was purchased of a succeeding repre- 
sentative of this family by Jacob Houblon, esq. 

The estate of Langley Lawn is about half a mile from the chapel Avestward: it was a Langley 
considerable time in the possession of the Nightingale family, and a handsome house 
named Clavering Park was built by sir Thomas Nightingale, bart. of whom it was pur- 
chased by John Smith, esq. son of sir Thomas Smith, bart. of Theydon Mount, and his 
daughter Anne conveyed it to her husband, Thomas Milner, esq. who died in 1733, 
having pulled down the old house, and in its place erected a larger and more elegant 

ing. He died on the 2d of June, 1741, aged 75 ; she on the 27th of November, in the year 17'i2, aged 49. 
John Stephenson, esq. of Newtown, in Cambridgeshire, erected this monument to the best of parents." 

On the ground : "William Benson, son of William and Elizabeth Benson, of Brent Green, died Jan. 1. 
1677." " William Benson, gent, of Brent Green, and Elizabeth his wife, daughter of John Barley, esq. ; 
he died Aug. 10, 1659; she in 1677. Christopher, their seventh son, died in 1G84." " Henry Patten, 
gent, of The Place, in this parish, died Aug. 6, 1767 ; and had for his wife Elizabeth, daughter of John 
Stock, of Chishall, gent." 

An inscription to the memory of a person named Songar, informs us that he had fourteen sons and nine 
daughters by one wife. 

Charities. — A barrel of white, and a cade of red herrings are left to be given to the poor in Lent ; to be Charities 
paid for out of a farm, lying toward Langley, called Valence. — A noble annually, left by Mrs. Martin. — 
An unknown benefactor left an annuity of three pounds, payable out of the estate of Curies : of this, two 
pounds is to purchase twenty-two loaves, to be given on the first Sunday in every month : the remaining 
pound to be given in groats to poor widows. — John Smith, vicar of this parish, left eighty pounds, his 
widow to enjoy it during her life, and on her decease to make it up one hundred pounds ; with thi.« 
money, land in Langley, named Poor Darnels, was purchased, from which six pounds is yearly distributed 
to poor families. — A farm in Berden, of six pounds yearly rent, was left by Haynes Barley, esq. of Curies, 
to app-rentice poor boys, alternately one from six parishes, of which this is one. 

* In Domesday it is not separately mentioned, being included in Clavering : the name in record.s 
is Langelegh, and Hangeley. 



200 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. building-. His son, Thomas Milner, esq. died in 1742, and was succeeded by his 
cousin, Robert Milner. It afterwards became the property of Robert Cramond, 

esq. who, on his decease, in 1762, left Elizabeth, his only daughter, his heiress. 

It has since passed to several proprietors, and lately was in the possession of 

Clayden, esq. 

Chapel. Xhe chapel, dedicated to St. John the Evangelist, belonged to Clavering church as 

a chapel of ease, from an unknown remote period. It was in being in the time of 

king Henry the second; and a new chancel was built at the charge of the hospitals. 
The hamlet of Langley, in 1821, contained three hundred and twent)'^, and, in 1831, 

three hundred and eighty-four inhabitants, 

BERDEN. 

Berdt-n. From Clavering this parish extends southward to Manuden, and westward joins 

Hertfordshire: the situation is generally pleasant and healthy, and much of the soil light 
and fruitful: in length it is three miles, and in breadth one and a half: distant fi'om 
Bishop Stortford seven, and from London forty-seven miles. It lies about three 
miles westward from the road to Cambridge and Newmarket. The name, in Saxon, 
Bepeben; in records, Berdon, Byerden; in Domesday, Berdane. 

Godman, a sochman, held this lordship under a thane named Robert, previous to 
the Conquest; and at the time of the survey it belonged to Suene, whose under-tenant 
was Alured. 

Beideu The manor-house is near the church, and the manor, in the commencement of the 

reign of Henry the second, was holden by John de Rochford,* under Henry de Essex, 
as of the honour of Rayleigh; in 1247, sir Guy de Rochford had this possession, who 
dying in 1273, was succeeded by his nephew, John de Rochford, son of his sister 
Maud ; and Robert his son, who married Isolda, daughter of William Fitz-Warine, 
held Rochford and Berden. On his decease, in 1337, he left sir Thomas Rochford, 
his son, his heir. In 1340, on the failure of heirs male in the Rocliford family, king- 
Edward the third granted Rochford and Berden to Bohun, earl of Northampton; and 
William de Bohun, after the decease of Christina, wife of Robert de Rochford, gave 
the manor of Berden to the abbey of Walden, which, in 1388, the abbot of that time 
held by the service of one knight's fee. After the dissolution, king Henry, in 1538, 
gave it to lord chancellor Audley; from whom it descended, with the Walden estates, 
to Thomas lord Howard, and Katharine his lady, who, in 1597, sold it to Thomas 
Sutton, esq. from whom it was conveyed to the family of Calvert, of Pelham Furneuse; 
descending from William Calvert, esq. to Felix Calvert, esq. of Pelham Hall, who 
died in 1655, to Nicholson Calvert, esq, of Hunsdon, in Hertfordshire, and to his 
successors. 

* This family derived their .surnaiue from the town of Rochford. 



Hall 



HALF HUNDRED OF CLAVERING. 201 

A small hospital or priory for Augustine canons was founded here, as is probably chap 

conjectured, by some of the Rochfords. The patronage of it was given, in 1343, to 1- 

the abbey of Walden, by William Bohun, earl of Northampton. The prior had ^5'^^" 
licence to hold a fair here, which was granted in 1266, by Henry the third. They 
had also possessions here, in Manuden, Henham, Rickling, and Rochford : the prior 
was also patron of the rectory, which, upon complaints of poverty to Bishop Grey, 
he annexed to their house ; and a vicarage was ordained, endowed with all oblations, 
obventions, and other profits of that kind, and all small tithes of this parish; but 
continued complaints of the house, in 1514, induced bishop Fitz-James to appropriate 
to them the vicarage also, which has since been only a curacy, to which the owner of 
the priory lands nominates, and the bishop gives a licence. After the dissolution of 
the priory, its possessions were granted to Henry Parker, together with the rectory, 
in which possession he was succeeded by Thomas and Margery Avery, and by sir 
Thomas Ramsey; who, in 1583, conveyed to the mayor and commonalty of the city 
of London, governors of the hospitals of Christ, Bridewell, and St. Thomas, this 
manor or priory, with the appertenances, twenty messuages, twenty cottages, twenty 
gardens, twenty orchards, a thousand acres of arable, two hundred of meadow, three 
hundred of pasture and one hundred of wood, and one hundred pounds rent; with the 
rectories of Berden and Clavering, and the advowson of these two churches. 

The church is in a low situation, and dedicated to St. Nicholas:* it has a nave. Church. 
two side aisles, and a chancel ; and the tower, which is built of pebbles, contains five 
belkf 

The learned Joseph Mede, A.M. was born at Berden, in 1586. In 1602, he 
was a student of Christ's College, Cambridge, of which he afterwards became a 
fellow. He was so intent on the ardent pursuit of his studies, that he refused several 
valuable preferments, from an apprehension that the duties of these engagements 
would interrupt his pursuits. Among his learned writings, his Commentary on the 
Apocalypse is esteemed the most valuable: he died in 1638. 

This parish, in 1821, contained three hundred and thirty-eight, and in 1831, three 
hundred and forty-two inhabitants. 

UGLEY. 

The road from London to Cambridge and Newmarket passes through this parish, Ugley. 
which extends from Berden and the north-eastern extremity of the half hundred to 
Manuden: the village is small, and in the whole parish the increase of the population 

* Churclies in low situations, it has been observed, are very commonly dedicated to this .saint ; as 
those on elevated ground were in ancient times usually dedicated to St. Michael. 

t Charity : Between four and five pounds a year, of which fifty shillings arc paid out of Lamberts, arc Cliarity. 
distributed to the poor. 



202 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

^^^^ tt. has not exceeded five per cent, during the last forty years: from Bishop Stortford it 
is distant five, and from London thirty-five miles. 

In Domesday-book it is written Ugghelea, and in other records Uggele, and 
Huggele, believed to be a barbarous perversion of Oakley, from the Norman clerks 
employed by the Conqueror having been ignorant of the true pronunciation of the 
Saxon language. 

Ulwin held this possession previous to the Conquest, and at the survey it was one 
of the fourteen lordships in this county which had been given to Alberic de Vere, 
whose descendants, earls of Oxford, continued lords paramount here till it became 
united to the dutchy of Lancaster. 
Half^ The manor-house is near the church, and the manor was holden of Roger Fitz- 

Roger, lord of Clavering, as half a knight's fee, by Reginald Fitz-Peter, who died in 
1286; John was his son and heir. John de Vinonia held this manor of William 
Tochet, who held it of John de Clavering, as a knight's fee ; he holding it of the earl 
of Oxford by the same service. Thomas Gobion is recorded to have held it in 1360, 
and in 1371, having become vested in the crown, it was given in dower with Blanch, 
daughter and co-heiress of Thomas, duke of Lancaster, on her marriage to John of 
Gaunt, earl of Richmond, fourth son of Edward the third, and who in his lady's right 
became duke of Lancaster. In 1388, it was holden under John de Neville, lord of 
Raby, by Thomas Waterton. 
thorp' ^'^ 1409, this manor was granted, by Henry the fourth, to John Leventhorp and 

family. Katharine his wife, and their heirs male, to hold in socage of the dutchy of Lancaster : 
John, their son, succeeded to this possession in 1432, followed by Thomas in 1484, 
on whose decease in 1492, John, his son, became his heir, who died in 1511: he was 
sheriff of Essex and Hertfordshire in 1509, as was also Thomas his son in 1525, who 
died in 1527. Sir Edward Leventhorp, knt. Avas his son, and died in 1551; whose 
son and heir, Edward, died on his travels, at Rome, leaving by Mary, daughter of Sir 
Edward Parker, son of lord Morley, his son John, knighted in 1603, and created a 
baronet in 1622. He died in 1625, having had by Joan, daughter of sir John 
Brograve, knt. four sons and seven daughters. John died at Tours, in France; sir 
Thomas succeeded to the title and estate, and marrying Elizabeth, daughter of sir 
Giles Allington, knt. of Horseheath, in Cambridgeshire, had by her John, who died 
young, Thomas, Joan, and Dorothy. Sir Thomas Leventhorp,* bart. married Mary, 
daughter of sir Capel Bedel, bart. by whom he had Mary, his only child and heiress, 
married to John Cooke, esq. of Melbourne, in Derbyshire. In 1667, the estate was 
sold to sir Thomas Middleton, knt. of Stansted Hall; his son, Thomas Middleton, esq. 
was his successor, but he dying without male issue, this manor and woodlands in 
Ugley were sold, by trustees, to Thomas Heath, esq. He died in 1741, and was 
Arms of Leventhorp : Argent, a bend componee, gules and sable, cotized of the second. 



HALF HUNDRED OF CLAVERING. 203 

succeeded by his son, Bailey Heath, esq. who, on his decease in 1760, left his widow, chap. 
and his eldest son, at that time under age.* 



Bollington Hall is about half a mile south-west from the church, and the manor to Boliing- 
which it belongs is believed to be what was named Balitun, and Bertun, and holden Manor. 
under earl Harold, in the time of Edward the confessor, by a freeman named Godwin. 
According to the record of Domesday, Suene had a manor here, as had also Robert 
Gernon; the latter was, by the surveyor, allowed to hold his rightfully, but Suene's 
was found to be an encroachment on the royal demesnes. Brend-hall is often men- 
tioned in connexion Avith this manor, as if they were different estates, yet they are 
believed to have been the same; the secondary name having been applied on account 
of the house having been injured or destroyed by fire. 

Fulk de Batonia had this manor in the time of Edward the first, which he sold to 
William de Montchensy. This manor was afterwards parcelled out, and holden by 
various persons ; and in 1502 was given to Westminster abbey, by sir Reginald Bray, 
John Cutte, Edmund Dudley, and others; and that house retained possession till the 
dissolution of monasteries ; after which, in 1542, Henry the eighth granted this with 
various other manors to the dean and chapter of Westminster. But in 1553, the 
manor of Bollington was granted by Edward the sixth to Richard diamond and 
others. In 1562, Thomas Buck died holding this estate, described as parcel of the 
possessions of the cathedral church of St. Peter's, Westminster : John Buck was his 
son and heir ; whose successor was Robert Buck, who dying in 1620, the estate 
passed to Thomas Buck, his cousin and heir. It afterwards belonged to the families 
of Symonds, and of Pepys, of the Pool, in Yeldham, and passing into the possession of 
John Poulter, attorney-at-law, of Clare, he sold it to William Plumer, esq. 

A capital mansion on the right hand side of the road to Cambridge was erected by Oifoi d- 
admiral Russel, afterwards earl of Orford, on which account it was named Orford- 
house : it is rather more than a mile distant from the church, is of brick, and has been 
much enlarged and improved in appearance by Isaac Whittington, esq.f It after- 
wards became the seat of W. Chamberlain, esq. 

The church and chancel are of one pace only ; and a tower, surmounted by a cupola, Clun cli. 
contains three bells : there is a chapel on its southern side, but by whom erected is 
not known : it belongs to Bollington Hall, and is kept in repair by the owner of 
that house. 

* The demesnes of Ugley Hall, and North Hall, from a proprietor named Wentworth, passed by 
marriage to Charles Musters, esq. who gave them to Francis Musters, esq. his nephew, who died in 1741, 
his successor being Robert Musters, esq. of Nottingham, between whom and William Earl Benson, esq. 
a fine passed in 174-5, for lands and tenements, &c. in Ugley, of the yearly rent of two shillings and one 
capon. On Robert Munster's decease in 1760, he left his daughter and heiress Elizabeth, married in 1764i> 
to John Patridge, esq. of Nottingham. 

t Arms of Whittington : Gules, a fesse compon^e, or and azure. 



204. HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. Formerly this church was a rectory, but bemg appropriated to the abbey of St. 
Osyth, that house instituted a vicarage, of which it retained the advowson till the dis- 
solution; and queen Elizabeth, in 1561, granted the advowson of the vicarage to 
Ralph Bosville ; and gave the rectorial tithes to Henry Best and Robert Holland, to 
hold of her manor of Greenwich. They were in the possession of sir Henry Maynard, 
knt. at the time of his decease in 1610 ; and were sold by his son, sir William Maynard, 
bart. to William lord Craven, who gave them to the hospitals of Christ's, and St. 
Thomas, in the year 1619.* 

This parish in 1821 contained three hundred and twenty-nine inhabitants, which, 
in 1831, had diminished to three hundred and eighteen. 

aiANUDEN. 

Manudeii. From Ugley and Berden this parish extends southward to Farnham ; and a large 
proportion of the district it occupies is used for pasturage, which under judicious 
management is found abundantly productive; in other instances, where a lighter, 
sandy, or gravelly soil prevails, the land is of a superior description. The village is 
about a mile and a half distant from the London road, in a pleasant valley on the 
borders of the river Stort : distant from Bishop Stortford four, and from London 
thirty-four miles. A fair is held here for toys and pedlery wares on Easter Monday. 

The name in records is Manuden, Manewden, Manyden, Magghedana, Menghedana, 
Magellana; and is vulgarly named Mallendine. In the time of Edward the confessor 

Inscrip- * Three mural monuments in the chancel are inscribed to the memory of " Martha Hester, who died 

tions. T^i^^y 11^ 1759^ ^ged 17 : Jenny, who died April 29, 1755; Mary, Sarah, Charles ; and Elizabeth, who died 

Jan. 10, 17C1 : the others died young. 

"Mary, the wife of Paul Wright, M.A. vicar of this church, and daughter of Charles Bridgeman, gent, 
alderman and twice mayor of Hertford. She was a dutiful child, an affectionate and prudent wife, a 
tender and indulgent parent, a kind mistress, a true friend, a sincere Christian. These virtues procured 
her love and esteem, and have prepared her for a glorious resurrection. She died Nov. 11, 1760, aged 
forty-nine years. 

" In memory of the rev. Edward Sparkes, M.A. vicar of this parish, and of King's Langley, in Hertford- 
shire, who by a life adorned with Christian virtue, and a sincere unaffected piety, instructed those who 
were committed to his care, no less than by his ministerial labours : humane and benevolent to all : the 
sick and poor found comfort from his attendance, and relief from his charity. He died March 25, 1739, 
aged fifty-six. Mary his wife died Nov. 5, 1762, aged eighty." 

Below the effigies of a man and woman on a brass plate : " Here lyeth buryed the body of Richard Stock, 
who deceased the iij of May, 1558. He had to wife Alice Hobbs, and had issue by her ii sons and iij 
daughters." 
Charities. Charities :— In 1620, Mr. Robert Buck, born in this parish, at Bollington Hall, left an annuity of 
twenty pounds to clothe three poor men and three poor women of the parishes of Ugley, Manuden, and 
Stansted Montfichet ; and these three parishes enjoy this benefaction in their turns. Thomas Buck, of 
the same family, about the year 1670, left to the poor of this pari.sh a tenement and a small piece of land, 
in Rickling, at that time let for five pounds a year. The income of this donation is at the _disposal of 
trustees, who with it purchase coarse cloth for the use of the poor. 



HALF HUNDRED OF CLAVERING. 205 

ten freemen had the divided possession of it ; and at the survey it belonged to Robert CHAP. 
Gernon, Alberic de Vere, Sasselin, William de Warren, and Ralph Baynard. These L 



lands were consequently divided into five manors. 

Manuden Hall was that part which belonged to Robert Gernon, and the manor-house Manuden 
is a short distance north-eastward from the church: the estate descended to the family of 
Playz, and to the De Veres. In 132T it was holden by John de Bassingbourne, under 
Richard de Playz : and sir John Howard held it by the courtesy of England, after the 
death of his wife, daughter and heiress of John de Playz, who died in 1388 : Elizabeth, 
married to Sir John Howard, was their grand-daughter and heiress. John Gardiner 
held this estate of king Henry the seventh by fealty and rent; and dying in 1508, left 
his son Henry his heir, at that time seventeen years of age. In 1509, Thomas Brad- 
bury died, holding Manuden and other estates, in which he was succeeded by his 
nephew William. 

In 1539, Thomas Crawley, esq. of Wendon Loughts, died in possession of this estate, 
Avhich he held of Thomas Barrington, esq. and the lady Winifred Hastings his wife ; 
Anne Crawley, his great grand-daughter, was his next heiress; but Margery, daughter 
of Thomas Crawley the elder, great aunt to the said Anne, by marriage conveyed it 
to John Bendish, of Bower-hall, in Steeple Bumsted; who dying in 1585, was suc- 
ceeded by his son Thomas, the father of sir Thomas Bendish, bart., who sold this 
estate to sir John Meade, knt. of Wendon Loughts; on whose decease, in 1678, his 
successor was his son John Meade, esq., who mortgaged Manuden-hall to ' More; 
and he in 1682 sold it to Felix Calvert, esq. of Stoken Pelham, whose son and heir, 
William Calvert, esq. in 1712, sold it to Thomas Tooke,* D.D. rector of Lambourne, 
and master of Bishop Stortford school, of the family of the Tookes, of Beer, in Kent : 
he married Anne, daughter of Richard Lydial, M.D. warden of Merton college, 
Oxford : to whom he left this estate for her life; he died in 1721. The estate after- 
wards came to his nephews, John Tooke, who died in 1764, and Richard Tooke, 
who died in 1776, having been successively rectors of Lambourne, in this county : on 
the death of the latter of these, it became the inheritance of his sister Susannah, wife 
of Peter Calvert, of Hadham, in Hertfordshire; who left it by will to her only son, 
the rev. William Calvert, rector of Hunsdon and Stoken Pelham, in Hertfordshire. 
He died December 10, 1831, aged eighty-six, and left this estate to his nephews, the 
sons of John Martin Leeke, esq. of Thorpe-hall, by Mary, sister of the said 
William Calvert. 

The Hall is a very ancient building, in various parts of it bearing coats of arms, 
among which are those of the Bendish family. The ancient place for calling the 

* He has a monument in the church of Bishop Stortford, Herts, and the rest of the family are in 
Lambourne church. Arms of Tooke : Per chevron, argent and sable, three griffins' heads erased, 
counterchanged. 

VOL. II. 2 E 



206 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. 



Battails. 



Pachen- 
hou or 
Payton 
Hall. 



court-leet of this manor, is under a tree near the hall, in the street called White 
Asli Court. 

Sir William Waad, knt. erected the manor-house of Battails, which is about a mile 
from the church ; the name is understood to be from a more ancient family, who 
had possessions in Little Chishall and other places in the county, and some of whom 
were formerly resident in this parish. From these the estate passed to the families of 
Findern and Hiron, and to Roger Townshend, esq., of whom it was purchased by 
Owen Waller, of the family of that name, of Parham, in Suffolii; after whose decease, 
in 1574, his daughter and heiress, Anne, was married to sir William W^aad, knt. many 
years clerk of the council to queen Elizabeth, and king James the first.* Sir William 
was succeeded, on his decease in 1623, by James Waad, esq. son of his second 
wife, daughter and co-heiress of sir Humphrey Browne, knt. : and he was followed 
by his son William, commonly called captain Waad, on account of his having 
been a captain of the trained bands. Marrying Anne, daughter of Haynes Barley, 
esq. of Clavering, he had by her William and Anne, who died young. In 1607, 
he was barbarously murdered in a field near his own house, by an assassin of the 
basest character, of the name of Parsons, who had insinuated himself into his com- 
pany, and on whom he had conferred important and undeserved favours.f Anne, his 
widow, survived him many years; and as they had no surviving offspring, Anne, his 
sister, succeeded to this estate : she was married to sir Edward Baesh, knt. of Stansted- 
bury, in Hertfordshire ; and they l:\^ving no children, sold Battails to William Calvert, 
esq. of Furneuse Pelham, who married Honor, daughter of Peter Calvert, esq. of 
Hunsdon : he settled this estate on his eldest son, Felix Calvert, esq., who marrying 
Christina, daughter of Josias Nicholson, esq., had by her Nicholson Calvert, esq. who 
on the death of his father, in 1755, succeeded to this estate. 

The manor of Payton is the part which belonged to William de Warren at the time 
of the survey, and was named Pachenhou: the mansion-house is a mile and a half from 
the church, northward. In 1518, Robert Newport died in possession of this manor of 
Pakenhoo Hall, which he held of lady Bradbury, widow: John, his son and suc- 
cessor, held it under the countess of Salisbury, by the same name, and on his decease 
in 1524, left Grace, his only daughter and heiress, married to Henry Parker, lord 
Morley; in which noble family this estate continued for some time; and afterwards 



* A jiarticular account of sir William is given in the inscription on his monument in Manuden church. 
Armigel Waad, esq. his father, was of an ancient family in Yorkshire, clerk of the council to king Henry 
the eighth, and Edward the sixth. He was reputed the first Englishman who discovered the continent of 
America, and on that account was styled the English Columbus : by his first wife, Anne Marbury.he had 
three, and by Alice Paten, his second wife, he had seventeen children. He died in 1568, and his remains 
lie under a monument in the chancel of Hampstead church. 

t Arms of Waad : Azure, a saltier between four escallops, or. 



HALF HUNDRED OF CLAVERING. 207 

became the property of Amie, daughter of Haynes Barley, esq., married to William C H A p. 

Waad, esq., and on her decease, in 1724, it descended to her nephew, Palgrave _ 

Barley, esq. of Cm-les, in Clavering, who dying without issue, in 1757, left this and 

his other estates to Catharine Buckle, grand-daughter of his sister Hobart. 

The mansion-house of Pinchpoles is nearly a mile north-north-east from the church, Pjijch- 

in a low situation : this manor is what belonged to Sasselin at the survey, at that time 

named Pincepo ; an ancient family took from it the surname of Pinchepoll. In 1502 

it was given by John Cutte to the abbot of Westminster and his successors ; and it 

remained in that house till its dissolution; after which, in 1542, it was granted by 

Henry the eighth to the dean and chapter of Westminster : but in 1553 it was taken 

from that appropriation, and by king Edward the sixth granted to Richard Chamond, 

by whom it was sold to Clement Buck, of Manuden; who on his decease, in 1577, 

left it to John, his son and heir, of whom it was purchased in 1592 by Thomas Hobbes, 

esq., who dying in 1632, left his only daughter, Susanna, his heiress. Afterwards it 

became the property of Peter Knight, esq. of West Ham, succeeded by his son Peter, 

who married Charlotte Burnaston, by whom he had Joseph Douglas Knight, esq. 

who married Sarah, only surviving daughter of the rev. Wentworth Bradbury. 

The estate named Sawcemeres is what belonged to Ralph Baynard, and to the ^awce- 

_ » ^ •' meres, or 

honour of Mandeville; and was incorporated into the dutchy of Lancaster. The Sawce- 
mansion-house is a mile distant fi'om the church, westward. From an unknown 
remote period it had been holden as half a knight's fee by the family whose name it 
had received, and passed from John Sawcemer to John Batayle ; and about the year 
1575 was in the possession of John Thurgood, of Stansted, who died in 1614: 
Nicholas, his son, was his heir ; of whose posterity it Avas purchased by Philip Mar- 
tin, attorney-at-law, of Epping. 

The church is built in the form of a cathedral, with a transept, nave, north and south Church, 
aisles, and a spacious chancel. It is dedicated to St. Mary, and a stone tower con- 
tains five bells. 

Richard de Camville, and Alice his wife, gave this church to the monks of St. 
Melan, in Bretagne, who had a cell at Hatfield Regis ; and when a priory was 
founded there, this church was among its endowments ; the house, retaining the 
rectorial tithes, instituted a vicarage here, of which it continued the patron till its dis- 
solution ; and afterwards the rectory and advowson of the vicarage were granted by 
Henry the eighth to sir Humphrey Browne, and have since passed to numerous 
proprietors.* 

In 1821, this parish contained six hundred and fifty-six inhabitants, which, in 1831, 

had encr eased to six hundred and ninety-five. 

* Inscriptions. In the north aisle, a mural monument bears a Latin inscription in gold letters, of Inscrip- 
which the following is a translation : " Sir William Waad, knt. son of Armigild, sccietary to the lady tions. ^ 



208 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. 



Hail 



— FARNHAM, Or FERNHAM. 

Fainham. This parish is on the southern extremity of the half hundred, extending- to the 
borders of Hertfordshire; the village is pleasantly situated westward from the public 
road; distant from Bishop Stortford three, and from London thirty-three miles. 

Previous to the Conquest, five freemen held the lands of this parish, which at the 
survey was the property of Geofrey de Mandeville, and of Robert Gernon. It was 
afterwards divided into three manors. 

Fainham The chief manor-house is at some distance south-westward from the church, and 
consists of lands gained by successive encroachments on the king's demesnes. From 
Geofrey it descended to his son William, and to Geofrey his grandson, who was 
created earl of Essex : and from whom and his successors this manor-house was named 
Earlsbury. Maud, sister and heiress of William de Mandeville, by marriage con- 
veyed it to her husband, Henry de Bohun, earl of Hereford and Essex: the sixth in 
descent from him was Humphrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford, Essex, and Northampton, 
who left two daughters, co-heiresses; Elianor, married to Thomas of Woodstock, 
duke of Gloucester; and Mary, married to Henry, earl of Derby, who afterwards 
became king Henry the fourth. Elianor died in possession of this estate in 1399, 
leaving three daughters, of whom Anne, the eldest, became ultimately sole heiress; 
her three husbands were Thomas and Edmund, earls of Stafford, and William Bour- 

Elizabeth's privy council many years ; sent once to the emperor Rodolphus, and to Philip, king of Spain, 
and to Henry the third, king of France ; thrice to Henry the fourth of France and Navarre, and once to 
Mary, queen of Scotland, on various affairs of the greatest importance ; commissary-general of England, 
and superintendant of the soldiery in Ireland, and also secretary to the privy council of our most serene 
lord, king James ; and lieutenant of the tower of London eight years ; afterwards living privately and 
religiously till his seventy-seventh year, died, at his manor of Battleswood, in the county of Essex, on 
the twenty-first day of October, in the year of our Lord 1623." 
Beneath the inscription :' 



" You that have place and charge from princes, trust 
Whom honours may make thankful, not unjust, 
Draw near and set your conscience and your care, 
By this time-watch of state, whose minutes were 
Religious thoughts ; whose hours heaven's sacred 
food : 



Whose hand still pointed to the kingdom's good 
And sovereign's safety ; whom ambition's key 
Never wound up guiltiness, bribe, or fee. 
Zeal only, and a conscience clear and even. 
Raised him on earth, and wound him up 
heaven." 



There is an epitaph on the ground, in the chancel, to the memory of Gertrude, wife of Richard James, 
who died in 1634. 
Charities. Charities. — In 1569, William Bull gave a mark ycaily to the poor here. — This parish partakes with 
Berden in the benefaction of six suits of apparel, by Robert Buck. — In 1659, John Jacklyn gave a 
tenement to the poor. Another tenement was also given to the poor here in 1675, by the rev. John 
Pakeman. — Thomas Parkei', in 1699, gave one hundred pounds to purchase an estate for the benefit of 
tlie poor of this parish.— The same sum was also given by William Gardiner, in 1709, to be employed for 
the same purpose. 



HALF HUNDRED OF CLAVERING. 209 

chier, earl of Eu. The two last in her right enjoyed the manor of Farnham, which, c H a f. 
on the partition of the Bohun estates in 1421, was allotted to king Henry the fifth, ^^^^- 
and annexed to the dutchy of Lancaster. It was part of the dowry of Margaret, 
queen of Henry the sixth, under whom it was holden by John Gaal; and was granted, 
by Henry the eighth, to his first queen, Katharine of Arragon; in 1547, it was holden 
of the king by Robert Chester; and under queen Elizabeth, in 1577, by Edward 
Elliot; and it was left, in 1594, by the same queen, to James Quarles, clerk of her 
kitchen. Li 1603, king James the first, by letters patent under the great seal and 
the seal of his dutchy of Lancaster, granted this manor, in perpetuity, to John Erskine, 
earl of Marr, to hold of the manor of Enfield, in fealty only; and he, in 1607, 
mortgaged it to Peter Vanlore, of London ; his under-tenant at that time being 
sir Robert, son of James Quarles, In 1610, it was purchased by the mortgagee, 
who the following year sold it to Robert Yonge and Thomas Thompson, from whom 
it was conveyed, in 1651, to Richard Hale, who, in 1678, bequeathed it to his grand- 
son, Richard Hale, M.D. afterwards physician to Bethlehem and Bridewell hospitals, 
and who died in 1728.* His widow, after his decease, enjoying the estate, which 
afterwards became the property of Thomas Towers, esq. 

The manor of Walkfares was taken from the chief manor, and consequently holden Walk fares 
of the honour of Mandeville. In the reign of Henry the third, it was in possession 
of Ralph, son of Richard Farnham, from whom it passed to the Lovel family; 
Gunnora, widow of William Lovel, in 1256, claiming her dower out of this estate in 
her husband's right. It was afterwards holden by Walter Arden. John de Walkfare 
held it of the earl of Hereford, and on his decease in 1345, left Euphemia his wife, 

daughter and co-heiress of Edward Comyn, and widow of De la Beche, of 

Beeches, in Rawreth; John, his son, being at that time eight years of age: she 
enjoyed the estate till her decease in 1361: in 1529, it became the property of the 
family of Ap Rice, and was sold, by Roger Ap Rice, to John Eliot, in 1559, and 
conveyed, by Elizabeth Eliot, to John Haynes, of Old Holt, in Birch; from whose 
son John it was sold, in 1622, to William Hone, of the Temple, who, in 1640, con- 
veyed it to William Halton, esq. created a baronet in 1642; and he sold it, in 1645, 
to Thomas Meade, from whom it afterwards passed to another of the same name, 
both being of the family of Meade, of Berden; this last sold it, in 1694, to John Gill, 
attorney-at-law, whose executors sold it to Richard Hale, M.D. lord of Earlsbury; 
after whose decease, passing as that estate did, it became the property of Thomas 
Towers, esq. 

The mansion-house of this manor is a short distance from the church, southward; Hertisho- 
the manor, previous to the Conquest, was holden by a freeman; and at the survey ^^^' 
belonged to Robert Gernon, an(J passed to his descendants the Montfichets: it was 

* This learned gentleman published some valuable tracts in the Philosophical Transactions from 1701 
to 1720. 



210 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. holden under them, in 1117, by Roger Anglicus, or English, in whose family it con- 
" tinned till 1293, and was afterwards, in 1366, in possession of sir John de la Lee, who 
died in 1370, and whose son and successor, sir Walter de la Lee, died in 1395: he 
was of Albury, in Hertfordshire, and representative for that county in nine parliaments: 
Thomas, his son, died before him, without issue; and his three daughters, Margery, 
married to Robert Newport; Joan, to John Barley; and Alice to sir Thomas More- 
well, became his co-heiresses; and on the division of the estates, this manor, and 
Albury, were the portion of John Barley, whose son of the same name was sheriff of 
Essex and Hertfordshire in 1424 and 1425, and died in 1445. His son Henry was 
also sheriff in 1467, and died in 1475. This manor was in the possession of Thomas 
Leventhorp, at the time of his decease in 1500, and of Agnes Leventhorp, who died in 
1512. It afterwards passed to the Glasscock family.* 

Clmrcli. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is of one pace with the chancel, and has a cross 

aisle, with a tower, containing five bells.f 

* Henry Glasscock, of High Easter, by his wife Grace, daughter of John Ennew, of Coggeshall, had 
Henry Glasscock, of Hevtishobury, who married Margery, daughter of sir Francis Fitch, knt. Edward 
Glasscock, esq. of Brices, in Kelvedon Hatch, was their son; whose son Edward, of the same place, 
marrying Hester, daughter of John Wingate, esq. of Harlington, in Bedfordshire, had by her Henry, 
Thomas, and William ; and by Elizabeth, his second wife, daughter of Henry Capel, had Edward and 
Elizabeth. Henry Glasscock, esq. the heir of Edward and Hester, married Mary, daughter of Thomas 
Jerner, esq. of Whitby, in Yorkshire, and had by her William Glasscock, esq. who, on his decease, having 
only a daughter, left his estate to his great nephew and godson, William Glasscock, esq. desiring it might 
go to the next male heir, from one generation to another. He also, for the same purpose of continuing 
the family name, gave the lease of the rectory of High Estre to Robert, brother of William ; but it did not 
remain long in the family. William Glasscock, esq. second of the name, by Joanna, daughter of Edward 
Raynesford, of Warwickshire, had Henry, William, and Anne : on liis decease in 1746, he was succeeded 
by his son, William Glasscock, esq. Arms of Glasscock : Ermine, a chevron, sable, between three cocks, 
azure, armed, wattled and legged, or. Crest : An antelope's head erased, argent, attired or, collared, with 
a girdle, sable, buckled or. 
Monu- t Monuments and inscriptions. — On the east wall of the chancel is a monument inscribed to the me- 

jnentsand j^^^y ^f Henry Lillcy, rouge dragon, one of his majesty's officers of arms, who died 29th of August, 1638. 

tions. There is also a sculpture of his arms : — three lilies proper, impaling a chevron — between 

three wolves' heads, coupcd, — . 

On the floor of the chancel : William Glasscock, esq. died 23d March, 1690, aged 82; with his arms: 
Ermine, a chevron sable, between three cocks azure, armed, wattled, and legged, or. 

Opposite the communion table, a stone is inscribed, " T. H. F. 1797. F. F." 

On the wall of the church : to the memory of Nathaniel Geering, B.D. rector of this parish, who died 

1784, aged 80; he was the fourth son of Gregory Geering, esq. formerly of Deuchworth, in the 

county of Berks. Arms : Gules, on two bars, or, six mascles of the first ; on a canton sable a leopard's 
head, or. 

There was formerly an inscription on a stone in the middle of this church, to the memory of John 
Gaal, who, in 1448, held lands in Earlsbury, under Margaret, queen of Henry the sixth. This has been 
destroyed, as has also the fine old painting of the story of St. Catharine, which was to be seen in one of 
the windows, when Mr. Salmon visited this church. 
Charity. Charity. — Rowland Eliot left to the poor of this parish, forty shillings a year; to the poor of Bishop 

Stortford the same sum ; and to London Bridge, twenty shillings ; payable out of the manor of Walkfares. 



i 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 



211 



The rectory was in the gift of the family of De Vere, from 1386 to 1545, and pass- C H a F. 

ing to various proprietors, by purchase or otherwise, was given, by Dr. Hale, to _ 

Trinity College, Oxford. 

This parish, in 1821, contained four hundred and thirty inhabitants, which, in 
1831, had increased to five hundred and twenty-four. 



ECCLESIASTICAL BENEFICES IN THE HALF HUNDRED OF CLAVERING. 



R. Rectory. 
P. C. Perpetual Curacy. 


V. Vicarage. C. Chapelry. 

t Discharged from payment of First Fruits. 


Parish. 


Archdeaconry. 


Incumbent. 


Insti- 
tution. 


Value in Liber 
Regis. 


Patron. 


Berden, P. C 

Clavering, V 

Farnham, R 

Langley, C 

Manuden, V 

Uelev V 


Colchester. 


Vicar of Ugley 

L. P. Stevens 

Wm.Greenhill 

V^icar of Clavering. . 
J. C. Hayes Stokes . 
J . R. Pitman 


1818 
1816 
1825 
1816 
1829 
1818 


£bO 

22 12 Hi 

23 8 9 
Not in charge 

tl4 
tl4 13 4 


W. Ugley, Vic. 
Christ's Hospital. 
Trinity Col. Oxford. 
W. Clavering, Vic. 
Rev. H. Marsh, &c. 
Christ's Hosp. Lend. 













CHAPTER IX. 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 



CHAP. 

IX. 



DuNMOW is surrounded by the hundreds of Hinckford, Freshwell, and Uttlesford, 



Hundred 
of Dun- 
by Harlow, Ongar, and Chelmsford: it is in length twenty miles, and in the broadest mow. 

part not more than eight, and contains the following twenty-six parishes: Dunmow 
Great, Dunmow Little, Easton Little, Easton Great, Tiltey, Thaxted, Lindsel, 
Chickney, Broxted, Barnston, Pleshey, High Estre, Good Estre, Mashbury, Can- 
field Great, Canfleld Little, Roding High, Roding Eytrop, Roding White, Roding 
Morells, Roding Leaden, Roding Margaret, Roding Berners, Shellow Bowells, 
Willingale Dou, Willingale Spain. 



GREAT DUNMOW. 



This is the larger of two parishes into which the district has been divided ; the 
town is on a gravelly hill of considerable height, in a healthy and pleasant part of the 
county, near the river Chelmer: it consists principally of two streets. By some anti- 



Great 
Dunmow. 



212 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

liOOK II. quarians it is supposed to occupy the site of a Roman station, and to derive its name 

7, from the Celtic dunum, a hill, and maffus, a town. Bishop Gibson has considered it 

antiqui- ^^y |jg i\^q Csesaromagus of Antoninus; and Mr, Drake, in a letter published in the 

Cae'saio- fifth volume of the Archseologia, streng-thens its claun to this appellation, by reference 

masiis. ^^ ^^^ situation on a Roman road, and also to the circumstance of Roman coins having 

been found here; particularly one of Honorius, of the finest gold, and some large 

ones of the emperor Commodus of brass, were found in fields near the church; and 

on the estate of lord Maynard in this neighbourhood, Roman denarii have been found, 

of Gallienus, Tiberius, Posthumius, Victorinus, and others of the thirty tyrants.* 

Other writers derive the name from bun, high, and mop, a heap.f In records this 
name is written Dunemawe, Dunmaw, Dunmage, Dunmawge, Dunmore ; in Domes- 
da v? Dommaw. 

A market was granted here, in 1253, to John de Berners, by king Henry the third, 
which was held weekly on Saturdays, but it has been long in a declining state: two 
fairs for cattle are held yearly, on May 6, and November 8. The market-house is 
near the centre of the town, and bears the following inscription: 

" Williame Steward, bayliffe, 1578; Wyllyame Swetinge, 1578; Thomas Swetinge, carpenter. Repaired 
and painted by Smeeth Raynor, bailiff, anno 1760." 

The town is well lighted and paved, and supplied with water from springs in the 
P . neighbourhood. It was incorporated in the reign of Philip and Mary, confirmed by 
mcnt. letters patent of queen Elizabeth, in the thirty-second year of her reign, and is 
governed by a bailiff, and eleven burgesses; twelve being elected, out of Avhich the 
bailiff is chosen4 Magisterial authority is not at present exercised by this corporate 
body, who only appoint a constable, fix the assize of bread, and examine weights 
annually, on the Tuesday after Michaelmas-day. The petty sessions for the division 
is held here, and occasionally a court-leet for the chief manor. Formerly the bay and 
say trade flourished here, but is now extinct ; and the only manufactm'e that remains 

* Dr. Salmon observes, " This name to me seems compounded of two words, bun and mop ; the first 
signifying high, the latter, a heap. Let it be remembered that it stands upon the Roman way, as we have 
traced it from London to Colchester, being a continuation from Stanes-street to Stanway. Dunmow 
is a highway or causeway, where the road is raised above the level ; in Warwickshire and other counties 
called the ridgeway." — Salmon's Hist, of Essex, p. 188. 

+ At Merk's Hill, in this parish, among earth and rubbish in a gravel-pit, several small urns, some 
small pieces of brass, and copper coins of Trajan and Antoninus, were discovered in the year 17G0 : the 
urns were ranged in regular order, the largest holding about a pint, and each of the three smallest being 
about the size of a tea-cup. — Cough's Camd. vol. ii. p. 54. 

X The following are the gentlemen who at present act under this charter: — George VVade, esq. recorder; 
John Gunn, bailiff; burgesses, William Wade, esq., Samuel Philbrick, Joseph Grice, Isaac Malster, John 
Cavel Briggs, Joseph Sewell, Benjamin Mortier Foukes, John Scruby, John Fuller, William CoUis, Tho- 
mas William James. 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 213 

is a kind of coarse cloth for sacks and bags. There are some good houses in the C H A p. 
town, and places for religious worship belonging to the Baptists, Independents, 
and Friends. It is distant from Bishop Stortford. seven, and from London thirty- 
eight miles. 

The parish is of considerable extent, and well watered by the river Chelmer, on 
the banks of which there is some of the finest meadow land in the county; it is 
included in the crop-aud- fallow district, yet is found to contain much excellent corn 
land. There are seven manors. 

Previous to the Conquest several freemen held the manor of Great Dunmow under Manor of 
Wisgar ; but at the time of the survey a portion of it was in the possession of Richard, Dunn,ow. 
son of earl Fitz-Gislebert;* the remainder being the property of Hamo Dapifer, steward 
to the king; and who afterwards became the sole proprietor of this estate, which, Avith 
other possessions, he left to Mabel, eldest daughter and co-heiress of his brother, 
Robert Fitz-Hamon. This lady was married to Robert, earl of Gloucester, natural son 
of king Henry the first ; from whom this estate descended to the family of Clare, and 
was, Avith the honours of Gloucester and Clare, united to the dutchy of Lancaster. It 
was holden under Richard de Clare, earl of Gloucester and Hertford, by Simon Fitz- 
Richard, in 1262, succeeded by others of the same family; and it Ai^as holden in 1298 
by Richard Fitz-Simon, under Gilbert de Clare ; Avho left three sisters his co-heiresses : 
Elizabeth, the youngest, was married to John de Burgh ; and their son William left 
Elizabeth, his only daughter, Avife of Lionel, duke of Clarence, third son of king- 
Edward the third; Avho had by her his daughter and heiress Philippa, after his 
decease, in 1368, married to Edmund Mortimer, earl of March, Avho died in 13S1; 
and Avhose son and successor Avas Roger ; Edmund, the son of Roger Mortimer, died 
in 1421, and Avas succeeded by his sister Anne, married to Richard de Coningsburgh, 
brother of Edmund, duke of York, by Avhom she had Richard, duke of York, Avhose 
son Avas king Edward the fourth. In 1509, Henry the eighth made this manor part 
of the dower of Katharine of Arragon, his queen; together Avith a park, Avhich Avas 
afterv/ards granted by EdAvard the sixth to William, marquis of Northampton ; and 
Avas in the possession of sir Richard W^eston, at the time of his decease in 1572, of his 
grandson, Richard, earl of Portland, who died, in 1634, and also became the inherit- 
ance of Jerome his son. DunmoAV Park, also named Dannocke Park, was bounded by 
the brook on the right-hand side of the road to Braintree: the mansion Avas called the 
Lodge; and a house not far from it belonged formerly to sir John Barrington, bart. 
This manor and lordship continued in the croAvn till it Avas purchased by William, the 
first lord Maynard. 

In the time of EdAvard the confessor, Edmar, a freeman, had the manor of Merks, I^Icrks. 
* A knight named Vltalis also ckiiincd this possession. 

VOL, II. 2 F 



\ 



214 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK 11. which has been since named Merks,* from Adeloff de Merc, who held this possession 

under Eustace, earl of Boulogne, at the survey of Domesday. Many places in Essex 

have been named from this family, of whom Simon de Merc had possessions here in 
1210 and 1211, and Ingelram de Merc held this manor in 1258, of the king, as of his 
honour of Boulogne. Robert was his son and heir, on whose decease, in 1305, he 
left Jacomima his widow, who held the estate till her death in 1340 ; her son and 
heir, Ingelram, being at that time beyond sea : in consequence of which, or of his 
dying abroad, it passed to his brother Robert, who sold it to Henry Ferrers, and he 
dying in 1343, was succeeded by his son sir William, whose widow Margaret enjoyed 
the estate after his decease in 1371, and it continued in this family till the death of 
William, lord Ferrers, of Groby, in 1439: his tAvo sons were Henry and Thomas; 
the first of whom died in his father's life-time, leaving Elizabeth his daughter, married 
to sir Edward Grey, who, in her right, became lord Ferrers, of Groby. Sir Thomas, 
second son and heir of William lord Ferrers, granted this manor for life to sir John 
Bourchier, and his lady Elizabeth ; but it had again come into his possession at the 
time of his decease in 1458: he married Elizabeth, one of the daughters and co- 
heiresses of sir Baldwin Frevil, of Tamworth, and had by her sir Thomas, who died 
in 1498, without issue, leaving his cousin, sir John Ferrers, his heir. He died ir 
1511, having married Anne, sister of William lord Hastings, by whom he had John, 
who having married Maud, daughter and co-heiress of John Stanley, of Elford, died 
before his father, leaving John his son ; who marrying Dorothy, daughter of William 
Rushall, had his son Humphrey, and he married Margaret, daughter of Thomas 
Pegot, sergeant-at-law, by whom he had John Ferrers, of Tamworth, who married 
Barbara, daughter of Francis Cockayne, of Ashborn. He sold this estate to John 

Milborn, who married Eleanor, daughter of Meade, of Great Easton, and by 

her had John, his successor on his decease, in 1594. John Milborn, the son by his 
wife Joan, daughter of John Slade, of Warwickshire, had Robert, who married Alice 
Brage, of Buhner, and had by her Robert Milborn, esq. of Merks, who sold this 
estate to sir James Hallet, knt. who died in 1734, leaving his son James his heir ; 
who married Mary, daughter of sir Ambrose Crawley, knt., by whom he had James 
Hallet, esq., his successor in this estate. 

Mynchons A manor, or reputed manor, named Mynchons, in queen Elizabeth's time, belonged 
to the Glascock family; subsequently possessed by James Hallet, esq. 

Newton The manor-house of Newton Hall is half a mile from the church, westAvard; the 

manor to which it belongs was in the possession of Uluric Cawa, in the time of Ed- 
ward the confessor ; and at the survey it was the property of Geofrey de Magnaville, 
whose under-tenant was Hugh de Berners : his descendants retained possession of this 

* Aims of Merk : Gules, a lion argent, within a bordure indented, or.— Arms of Milborn : Gules, a 
chevron between three escallops, argent. 



Hall. 



HUNDRED or DUNMOW. 215 

estate down to near the close of the reign of kmg Edward the third. A branch of C H A P. 
the same family was also seated at Barnston. Margery, Avife of John de Gysors, who ' 



died in 1305, held a moiety of this estate under Edmund de Berners; and it Avas 
holden under Humphrey de Bohun, earl of Essex and Hereford, by John de Berners, 
at the time of his decease in 1372. John de Goldington, in 1419, and, in 1487, 
William KyniAvolmersh, or Kindlemersh,* had this manor, which remained in the 
latter family during several generations, till near the close of the fifteenth century; 
and, in 1627, was in possession of Robert Gosnold, esq., who sold it to Richard 
Deards, Avho died in 1630 ; after whom, the next recorded possessor Avas sir John 
Swinnerton Dyer, bart., son of sir William Dyer, bart. of Tottenham, in Middlesex, Swin- 
who married Thomaslne, daughter and heiress of Thomas Swinnerton, esq. of Stan- faiuily, 
Avay-hall. Sir John Swinnerton Dyer married Elizabeth, daughter of Rowland 
Johnson, of Gray's-inn, by Avhom he had five sons and four daughters : on his decease, 
in 1701, he was succeeded by his eldest son and heir, sir Swinnerton Dyer, Avho mar- 
ried, first, Anne, daughter of Edward Belitha, esq. of Kingston-upon-Thames, and 
had by her Anne, married to Paul Wliitehead. Sir SAvinnerton married, secondly, 
Mary, sister of John Kemp, esq. of Spain's Hall, in Finchingfield, Avho had made her 
his heiress ; by her he left no issue. Dying in 1736, he Avas succeeded by his brother, 
sir John Dyer, bart. of Spain's Hall. This estate Avas afterwards purchased by John 
Henniker, esq. one of the burgesses in parliament for Sudbury. 

Tavo small estates named Shingle Hall and Olaves, Avere held separately by Ansgar ^^'°°^^ 
and a sochman, who held under him, previous to the Conquest; and afterwards belong- 
ing to Geofrey de Magnaville, became united in 1361. V/illiam Glyne, Avith Joan his 
Avife, held this manor, Avhich passed to their son W^illiam. John Josselyn, esq. pur- 
chased it, and left it, on his decease in 1525, to his son Thomas; and, in 1627, it 
belonged to Richard Jennings, esq. Avliose son Thomas Avas his heir. AfterAA^ards 
passing to several proprietors, it Avas conveyed in marriage to Mr. John Parker, linen- 
draper, of London, and became the inheritance of bis son and heir, John Parker, esq. 
of Whaddon, in Surrey. It has a court baron and court leet, and in the rolls is called 
the manor of Sliingled Hall, alias Olaves, cum Waldraines. The mansion-house is 
a mile from the church soutliAvard. 

The manor of Martels is on the right-hand side of the road from tlie toAvn to the Maitels. 
church. Previous to the Conquest it belonged to Ansgar, and afterAvards Avas holden 
under Geofrey de Magnaville by Martel, Avhose name it has retained. The proprietors 
of this estate have not been further recorded till 1637, Avhen being in possession of 
Robert Smith, esq. it Avas purchased of him by Geofrey Stane, esq. of Rise, in Platfield 
Broadoak, from Avhom it passed, as the Hatfield estate did, tu his grandson, Stane 
Chamberlain, esq. 

* Anns of Kindlemersh : Per fcss, erminois and sable, a Hon rampant, conntcrchanced. 



216 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



Bigods. 



BOOK II. The manor of Bigods, or Alferestune, was formerly a hamlet to Great Dunmow, 
and has had a chapel, from which the field where it stood has heen named Chapel-field. 
The mansion-house is a mile from the church, toward Stehhing and Lindsel. 

In 1201, Hugh de Chatillion, count de St. Paul, had this estate, as had also Thomas, 
count de St. Paul, in 1210 and 1211: it sometime afterwards passed to the crown, 
and, in 1226, was granted to Reimund de Burgo, and afterwards to Bartholomew 
Bigod, or Le Bigod. WiUiani de Bigod had part of this manor in 127T; and Ralph 
Bio-od held it at the time of his decease in 1315, as did also sir Walter Bigot in 1372, 
leavino- his o-randson Walter, the son of his son Thomas, his heir; who, with Isabel 
his wife, held this manor of Bacons, in Danesey, of the abbey of Bileigh; he died in 
1398, leavino- his son William his heir. This estate, in 1426, was holden by Isabella, 
wife of John Doreward; and, in 1434, a third part of it was holden by Richard Fox, 
who left it to Anne, his daughter and heiress: this portion of the estate belonged also 
to Joan, wife of John Hotoft, who, dying in 1445, left it to her son, John Nowers. 

Jenouie The Jeuoure* family were possessed of this estate from sometime after this period to 

family. ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ .^ ^^^^^ purchased by Michael Pepper, of Stansted Thele. 

Southall. Two parcels of land, in the time of the Saxons belonging to Algar, earl of Mercia, 
and to a freeman; and, at the survey, to William de Warren, and Suene of Essex, 
have been imited, and form the maiior of Southall; the mansion being about a mile 
southward from the church. In 1263, it was holden by Jollan de Durmers, under 
the crown, as of the honour of the earl of St. Paul, by the service of a pair of gilt 
spurs; his son and heir is, in the inquisition, named Jollan de Duresme,f succeeded 
by his son Edmund, whose co-heiresses were his daughters, Ada, Elizabeth, and Maud. 
In 1389, a licence Avas granted to Robert Rickedon, Robert Knechbole, Thomas 
Houlet, and John Eleyne, clerk, to give this manor to the prior and convent of Little 
Dunmow, holden of the king; and it remained in that house till its dissolution, after 
which it is supposed to have been granted, under the name of Clopton Hall, to 

* The Jenoure family was of Stonham Aspall, in Suffolk, and John Jenoure, esq. piothonotary of the 
common pleas, had this manor in 1529, and dying in 154-2, left his son and heir Uichard, who died in 
1548; whose son Andrew was his heir. He died in 1620; his son, Kenelm Jenoure, was created a 
baronet in 1628, and died in 1629, having married Jane, daughter of sir Robert Clark, baron of the 
exchequer ; he left by her sir Andrew, his eldest son and heir, who married Margaret Smith, of London, 
by whom he had sixteen children ; of whom Andrew, the eldest son and heir, married Sarah, daughter of 
Robert Milborn, esq. of Merks, but died before his father, leaving his son, sir IMaynard Jenoure, who 
succeeded his grandfather, and marrying Elizabeth, only daughter of sir John Marshall, kut. of Sculpins, 
had John Maynard, Joseph, and IMary, wife of James Bellenden, esq. son of lord Bellenden. Sir John, 
the eldest son and heir, died in 1739, having married Joan, only daughter of Richard Day, esq. of Epping, 
by whom he had his son and heir, sir Richard Day Jenoure, who, on his decease in 1744, was succeeded 
by his kinsman John, son of Joseph Jenour, vvho married Anne, daughter of John Sandford, esq. of 
Bishop Stortford. 
t Arms of Duresme : Argent, a cross gules, charged with five fleur-de-lis, or. 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 217 

Robert, earl of Sussex, and liolden by William Withipole, in right of Joan his wife, chap. 
widow of Henry Radcliffe, viscount Fitz-Walter. In 1634, it belonged to lord Petre, 



•tind was afterwards purchased for the Drapers' company, with money left by Mr. 
'Bancroft, founder of the almshouses at Mile-end. 

The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is a spacious Gothic structure, consisting of a Church, 
nave with lateral aisles, a chancel Math a south aisle, at the west end a lofty tower 
■embattled, and six bells. The east window is a fine specimen of what has been termed 
the decorated style of English architecture.* About the door of the tower on the 
outside were thirteen shields; some of the arms are well known, being those of 
INIortimer, Bohun, Bourchier, Braybrooke, Louvain, Coggeshall, Quincey, Baynard, 
Duresme, &c. ; these great men had probably been at one time or other contributors 
to the building or repairs of this considerable church, which was the head of the 
<daanery of DunmoAv. Two hundred and thirty new sittings have been lately pro- 
vided here, of which two hundred are free.f 

This church was anciently a rectory and sinecure, the rectors presenting to the 

■* Mi. Symoncls collected the fenestral antiquities here, and arms and epitaphs, some of which yet 
ic-main : in the chancel east window, Edward the confessor's arras; in the window of the south aisle, 
Bourchiers ; in the south porch window, baron and femme, the woman's lost, the man's quarterly, sable, 
.-d fess between three cinquefoils, or. (Salmon, from whom probably Mr. Morant copied this notice of 
Z\Ir. Symonds' notes, has an additional reading, " quarterly sable, a fesse between three cinquefoils, or. 
Arma Robti de Re . . . . armigi et Katerinae uxoris." — Salmon, p. 211.) On the west wall the See of London, 
irapaling several bishops' arms ; in the south aisle, party per fess ermine and sable, a lion rampaut, 
ccC'Uiiterchanged for Kindlemersh, impaling those that they matched with, amongst the rest four water 
'bougets for Bourchier. Salmon notices two other shields of arms in this church : on the south wall, 
^zare a leopard rampant guardant, or, impaling Jenour, and another quarterly. In the south aisle, 
3Iaynard's coat and crest and quarterings. The following arms, in stained glass, were remaining in 1625. 
Argent, a bend engrailed sable. South aisle of the nave : Argent, a cross gules charged with five fleur- 
•de-lis, or. South aisle of the chancel : Argent, a cross gules between four water bougets, sable. 

f Monuments in the church : Against the south wall of the chancel. — " Near this place lies the body Monu- 
oi sir John Swinnerton Dyer, late of Newton Hall, in this parish, bart. son of sir William Dyer, late of i^^'-'nts. 
"I'ottenham High Crosse, in the county of Middlesex, bart. He married Elizabeth, ye daughter of Rowland 
.Johnson, of Gray's Inn, in ye same county, gent, by whom he had five sons and four daughters, who are 
all living except the eldest son. He departed this life, ye 17th May, 1701, in the 4-lth year of his age, to 
whose memory his lady erected this monument. Arms : Quarterly, one and four or, a chief indented 
;gules ; two and three, argent within a bordure engrailed gules, a cross pattee fleury. Over all, the 
.feadge of Ulster. Crest : Out of a ducal coronet, or, a goat's head sable, armed of the first." 

On the floor of the chancel : " Under this stone lies deposited the body of Aim, late lady of sir Swin- 
nerton Dyer, of Newton Hall, in the county of Essex, bart. and fourth daughter of Edward Belitha, of 
Kingston-upon-Thames, in the county of Surrey. As she always shewed herself dutiful to lier parents, 
•so the duties of love and obedience, fidelity, modesty and chastity, comfort and help, friendly and kind 
-■society and conversation, she prudently paid to her husband. She died August 21, 1714, aged 33 years, 
ieaving her disconsolate husband only one child, a daughter, named Ann." This epitaph is in Lc Neeve's 
{irinted collection, 1700 to 1715. Also in the Harleian MS. No. 3616, in the British Museum. Other 
opitiiphs on the Dyer family are on dame Elizabeth Dyer, wife of sir John Swinnerton Dyer, who died 



218 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. vicarage: the duke of Clarence, and afterwards the Mortimers, earls of March, had 

~ the patronage till 1479, when the rectory was appropriated to the dean and chapter 

of the collegiate church of Stoke, near Clare; and from that time the l)ishop of 

London, and the canons, alternately presented the vicar till the dissolution. In 1554 

30th of May, 17-27, at. sus 58. Elizabeth Dyer, eldest daughter of sir John Swinnerton Dyer, bart. who 
departed this life 1 0th of Aug. 1728, a^ed 42. 

North wall of the chancel : " Sacred to the memory of William Beaumont, esq. son of sir Thomas 
Beaumont, bart. of Staunton, Leicestershire, who departed this life, 31 Mar. 1718, aged 76, leaving issue 
by his wife Jane, daughter of Hugh Watts, of the same county, esq. who died 22 June, 1719, aged 66, 
William, Henry, Henrietta, Jane, and Mary. Also of William Beaumont, esq. junior, son of the above 
William, who died 17th January, 1729, aged 47. The names of both of them, for their singular sweetness 
of behaviour, probity of life, constancy in religious duties, remain with all who knew them, honoured and 
dear, a pattern of piety to posterity, and an honour and ornament to their ancient lineage, derived from 
noble ancestors. This monument was erected by the pious care of Elizabeth, daughter of William Jordan, 
esq. of Cathwick, in the county of Surrey, now the sorrowful widow of the above William Beaumont, jun. 
supported from this comfort alone, that she has borne and now educated his children, viz. George, 
William, Thomas, Elizabeth, and Margaret, all of promising hopes, seeming already to aspire to the 
imitation of their parent's virtues. Elizabeth, the daughter of William Beaumont, died 19th July, 1735, 
aged 11 years. Arms: Azure semee of fleur-de-lis, a lion rampant, or: impaling the same crest on a 
chapeau azure, sem^e of fleur-de-lis, or, turned up ermine, a lion passant of the second." 

" In this chancel are deposited tlie remains of sir George Beaumont, bart. of this place, who died Feb. 
4, 1762, aged 36, and of dame Rachel his wife, who died iNlay 5th, 1814, aged 96 years. Erected to the 
memory of his parents by sir George Ho wland Beaumont, bart. of Colerton Hall, in the county of Leicester. 



" The dreadful hour is come, 'tis come, tis past ; 
That gentle sigh, dear mother, was thy last ; 
And now, diffused among the blest above. 
Glows the pure spirit of maternal love ; 
Tinged by whose beam my very failings shone, 
Graced in thy eyes with something not their own. 
No more affection shall thy fancy cheat. 
Or warp thy judgment when again we meet ; 
But every action, in its native hue, 
Rise undisguised and open to thy view. 



Rlay every action then be duly weigh'd. 

Each virtue cherish'd, and each duty paid ; 

That when my trembling soul shall wing her 

flight, 
Through death's dark valley to the realms of 

light, 
I may ex])ect, where no false views beguile. 
The approving look of that accustomed smile ; 
Blest smile, becoming her sublime abode. 
And harbinger of pardon from my God." 



Arms of Beaumont : Impaling argent, two bars sable, in chief three lions rampant, of the second. 

" Here lyeth the body of Mr. Thomas Beaumont, vicar of ye parish, second son of sir Thomas Beau- 
mont, of Stouton Grange, in the county of Leicester, bart. He married Susannah, daughter of William 
Oldys, D.D. vicar of Alderburg, in the county of Oxon, by Avhom he had four sons and two daughters. 
He died Jan. 15, 1710, aged 71." Arms much defaced. 

This epitaph is in part supplied from Salmon, being in 1826 considerably defaced ; he adds the following 
particulars in the way of illustration : " The title is now devolved to his grandson, sir George, whose 
residence is at Dunmow. The said Dr. William Oldys, fatlier of the famous civilian of that name, is 
mentioned by David Lloyd, Anthony Wood, and Dr. Walker, but not particularly enough ; his monument 
is in Alderbury church ; part of the epitaph is as follows : ' P. M. S. Gul. Oldys S. T. P. hujus ecclesiffi 
vicarii qui flagrante bello plusquam civili Isesae et religionis et majestatis causae fidelis et strenuus assertor, 
perduellium militibus prope banc villam, anno salutis 1645, setat 55, vulneratus occubuit, &c.' He was 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 219 

and 1559, the bishop alone presented, and so did his successors up to the year 1590, C H A P. 
Avhen queen Elizabeth granted the rectory of Great Dunmow, which is a manor, to __1_L_ 
John Aylmer, bishop of London, and his successors in the see for ever. 

In 1821, this parish contained two thousand four hundred and nine, and, in 1831, 
two thousand four hundred and sixty-two inhabitants. 

returning from Oxford, where he had been to admit his son, and fearing he should fall into the hands of 
the parliament soldiers, ordered his servant to ride at some distance before him, and if he saw any of 
them, to drop his handkerchief, as a signal for him to go back to the garrison of Oxford or Banbury. 
The man dropped his handkerchief, which his master passed without seeing: as soon as he perceived the 
enemy he turned about, but his malignant horse would not leave his road, so he was shot through the 
back." — Salmon's Hist, of Essex, p. 211, Lives of the Loyalists, Sujferings of the Clergy, &c. 

" In this chancel are interred the remains of George Howland, esq. late of Haverill, in this county, who 
died 16th February, 1098, aged eighty-five years. This tal)let was erected to his memory by his grateful 
nephew, sir George Howland Beaumont, of this place and Colerton-hall, in the county of Leicester, bart." 

" The rev. John Mangey, prebendary of St. Paul's, London, and only son of the late rev. and learned Dr. 
Thomas Mangey; he lived twenty-eight years vicar of this parish, and departed this life on the 1st day of 
November, 1782, in the fifty-fifth year of his age. His widow erected this monument." Arms : Argent, 
a chevron vaire (argent and azure) on a chief gules, two mullets of the field ; impaling azure, a turtle, or 
tortoise, argent. 

" Near this place lies the body of Mrs. Dorothy Mangey, widow of the rev. Dr. Mangey, late rector of the 
parish church of St. Mildred's, Bread-street, London, and prebendary of Durham, and second daughter of 
the most reverend Dr. John Sharpe, late archbishop of York. Her son, John Mangey, the present vicar 
of this parish, from a principle of sincere and tender regard to a most kind and affectionate parent, whom 
he always loved and revered, caused this monument to be erected. She died July the 5th, 1780, in the 
eighty-eighth year of her age." 

" Near this place lieth interred the body of Mary, daughter of John Wiseman, of Bozeat, in the county 
of Northampton, esq., late wife of Thomas Cullum,sonof John CuUum, of Thornden, in Suffolk, esq., by 
whom she had issue seven sons and one daughter ; which four sons lie here also. She died in childbed, 
31st of August." — Arms : A chevron ermine, between three pelicans, or, impaling quarterly one and four 
sable, a chevron between three coronels argent, two argent, ten roundels gules, the whole within a 
bordure sable three, argent, a cross gules, between four birds (supposed, peacocks) azure. 

" Mr. Robert Hasel Foot, surgeon, died 12th June, 1748, aged seventy." 

In the nave. — "John Pepper, esq. of this parish, who died June 1822: he was the last surviving 
descendant of the late Michael Pepper, esq., and grandson of sir Richard Fitzgerald, bart. Also, .... 
infant daughter, Susan Frances Maria, who died 31st October, 1819, aged four months." 

" Dame Joanna Maria Fitzgerald, relict of sir Richard Fitzgerald, bart. of Castle ...., in the kingdom 
of Ireland, who departed this life at her house in Portman-square, London." 

" To the memory of lord John Henniker, of Newton Hall, in this parish, who died April ISOS, and is 
interred with dame Henniker, his wife, in the cathedral church of Rochester. This monument was 
erected by his son, tlie hon. major-general Brydges T. Henniker. 

"To the memory of dame Ann Henniker, the wife of sir John Henniker, bart. of .... Hall, in this 
parish." (The elevated situation of these monuments prevents the investigation of the arms.) 

On brass plates. — " Hie jacet Johannes Calthorpc generosus qui obiit in anno 1616. Claudit Huthcrsauli 
carpus lapis iste Johannis quern sacrum in Thalmos Martha relicta dedit obiit 3 die Decembris An. Dni. 
1604 astatis sue An. 33." 

" Here lieth the body of Elizabeth, the wife of Francis Vassall, citizen and draper, of London. She was 



220 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. 



LITTLE DUNMOW. 



^'"^^' Little Dunmow extends eastward from the larger parish of the same name, and is- 

bounded south and south-eastward by Barnston and Felsted. In circumference it i». 
computed to he twelve miles, and is distant from Chelmsford twelve, and from Londoa 

forty miles. 

Previous to the Conquest, the lands of this parish were in possession of a free- 
woman, of a freeman, and of a sochman; and, at the time of the surve}', belonged to 
Ralph Bapiard, whose son Geofrey was his successor, and the father of William, who 
joining the enemies of king Henry the first, was deprived of his barony and large 
estates, which were given to Robert, son of Richard Fitz-Gislebert, progenitor of 
the ancient earls of Clare, and from whom the noble family of Fitz-Walter descended. 

the daughter of John Smith, minister of this parish, and Elizabeth his wife: she died the I2th of May^ 
Anno Dni. 1652, being of the age of eighteen years." 

" In memory of Thomas Waskett, of Barnston Hall, yeoman, ^vho died in 173S, aged ninety-two ; and of 
liis son, Thomas Waskett, of Barnston Hall, who died in 1750, aged sixty-two: Also, John Waskett, of 
Barnston Hall, obiit 21st June, 1758, aged sixty. — Elizabeth Waskett, wife of the above John, obiit 5th 
Aucnst, 1771, aged seventy-five.— Also, John Waskett, son of the above John and Elizabeth, obiit 1st 
March, 1776, ast. forty-six." 

On a large flat stone in the chancel, the figure of a crosier, within a border ; but no brass or inscription 
remaining. — On another stone, the figures of a man and woman, the brass of the man gone ; with tw(x- 

shields of arras. Dexter side a chevron between three cocks .... sinister, same as the dexter shield^ 

impaling .... a chevron between three coronels .... Wiseman. 

The following inscriptions are recorded by Weever and Salmon, but few or no vestiges now remain : — 
" Exoretis niiain dei p. aia Walter! Bigood armigi qui ob. 16 Mar. 1397." Weever has—" 17 die mens- 
Mar." "This is the first of the family," Salmon observes, "that settled at Bigods." — Salmon gives the 
following inscription in Norman French, with Saxon characters, as being on the verge of a stone-" Simott 
^s Rijhani jatnj pyone be Dunmaue ici Iriyc." Weever gives this inscription complete, but with the 
spelling somewhat modernized, and the abbreviations supplied — " Simon de Righam jadis parson de 
Dunmow gist ici Dieu de son Alme eit mercy. Amen." — Salmon observes, "This is no rector's name 
since 1360."— In the middle of the church was this inscription: " Of your cherite prey for the sowls of 
John Jeiione. esquyr, som tyni of the common pleas of Westminstre, and Alys his wyff, whych John dyed 
xvii Septembyr mvcxlii." Salmon spells the name Jenour. — ^The next inscription, which is given by 
Salmon, is said to have been removed from the chancel to make way for sir John Dyer's monument : — 
"Here lyeth the body of Richard Deardes, of Newton Hall, gent, who died 28th April, 1630; and of 
Thomas Deardes, his son, who died 2d of May following."— On another monument, " Hie jacet Gulielmus- 
Glascock ct Piiilippa uxor ejus qui ob. 3 Dec. 1679, ct Philippa ob. 19 Dec. 1G08." i. e. " Here lies AVilliam 
Glascock and Philippa his wife: he died 3d Dec. 1579; and Philippa died 19 Dec. 160S." Other monu- 
ments recorded the names of Howland, Pindeck, Smith, Raymond, and Burr. 
Charities. Charities. — The rent of a house and land at Cutler's Green is given to the poor by the churchwarden.?. 
The rents of four houses aie for the repairs of the church. 

There are almshouses for six poor people, and a charity school for fifty boys, and twenty girls ;. 
supported by voluntary subscriptions. 




i 



^.. 




HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 221 

His posterity held this lordship, as part of the barony of Fitz- Walter, through ten chap. 
generations, including Robert, who died in 1328; John, in 1362; Walter, in 1432, ^^- 
whose widow Elizabeth died in possession of it in 1464; in defect of heirs male, leaving 
the family possessions to be divided among co-heiresses. Anne, the second daughter 
of Walter Fitz- Walter, married to Thomas Ratcliffe, esq, had this and other estates; 
sir John, their son, Avas summoned to parliament in 1485, by the title of lord Fitz- 
Walter : Robert, his son, was created viscount Fitz- Walter in 1526, and earl of 
Sussex in 1529: his descendants retained this possession till after the death of Robert 
Ratcliffe, earl of Sussex, in 1629, who v»'as the last of the family in the direct line. 
By purchase or inheritance, it afterwards became the property of sir Henry Mildmay, 
knt. of Moulshara Hall ; and from Thomas Mildmay, his descendant, it was afterwards 
conveyed to sir Thomas May; and, sometime after the close of the sixteenth century, 
was sold to sir James Hallet, knt. who died possessed of it in 1703. James Hallet, 
esq. his son, married ISIary, daughter of sir Ambrose Crawley, knt. by whom he had 
«ight children. On his decease in 1723, he left this estate in jointure to his widow, 
on whose death it descended to their eldest son, James Hallet, esq.* 

The priory of Dunmow was for canons of the Augustine order, and founded in the Prloiy. 
3^ear 1104, by the lady Juga, sister of Ralph Baynard. There was a manor, or 
reputed manor, belonging to it, as is apparent from letters patent of king Henry the 
jeighth, in which he "granted to Robert, earl of Sussex, and his heirs, the site of 
the priory of Dunmow, with the manors of Dunmow Parva and Clopton." This 
estate was sold by Edward, earl of Sussex, in 1640, to sir Henry Mildmay, knt. of 
Moulsham. 

The manor, known by the name of Priory Place,f was, soon after the restoration, 
in possession of sir William Wjdde, knt. and bart.J who dying in 1679, Avas succeeded 
by his son, sir Felix Wylde, and his sister and heiress Anne conveyed it, in marriage, 
to John Cockman, M.D. whose daughter was married to Nicholas Toke, esq^ from 
whom it descended to his son, John Toke, esq. 

Of the extensive buildings belonging to this monastery, no remains have been pre- Cinuch. 
served, except what is made to constitute the parish church, including the east end of 
the choir, and the north aisle § of the original priory church, which Avas both for 
conventual and parochial use. It was consecrated by Maurice, bishop of London, 
and dedicated to the Virgin Mary; and massive columns, the capitals covered Avith 

* Arms of Hallet : Or, a chief indented sable, on a bend engrailed, gules, three bezants. 

t Arms of the priory : Sable, a cross, argent, between four mullets, or. 

% Sir William was recorder of the city of London : in 1668, made justice of the common picas, and of 
the king's bench in 1672. " 

§ Mr. Gough says, " the present church is only the south aisle and five arches of the nave."— 
jDri(an?iia, vol. ii. p. 54-. 

VOL. II. 2 G 



S22 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



liOOK II. 



Chantrv. 



Monti- 
inents. 



Inscrip- 
tion;). 



foliage of oak, elegantly carved, and beautiful Gotliic windows, the remains of the 
original fabric, give sufficient evidence of its former magnificence. 

The living of this church has been augmented by two separate donations of two 
hundred pounds each, and by six hundred pounds from Queen Anne's bounty.* 

In 1274, Roger de Saling founded a chantry in the chapel of St. Mary, in the court 
of the priory, for the reception of strangers, to pray for his soul, and the souls of some 
other persons for ever ; and endowed it with Much-mill and the mill-pond, Much-field 
meadow, and other lands in Rayne.f 

A tomb, under an arch, in the south Avail, is believed to contain the remains of lady 
Juga, the foundress: it is of a chest-like form, and of great apparent antiquity. A 
monument, not far from this, is to the memory of Waiter Fitz- Walter, the first of 
that name, who died in 1198. He was buried, with one of his wives, in the middle 
of the choir, and the tomb, with the effigies with which it has been ornamented, have 
been removed to this place. The figure of sir Walter has received considerable 
damage, and has the legs broken off at the knees ; the hair of the head has a singular 
appearance, curling inwards, and seeming to radiate from a centre — a fashion com- 
monly observable in monuments of the same period ; and the mitre-like head-dress of 
the lady, with lace, a necklace, and ear-rings, give a correct idea of the fashionable 
oi'naments of the time. Sir Walter is represented in plate armour; under which a 
shirt of mail is seen above the collar and below the skirts. Others of this family were 
also buried here, particularly Robert, son of Walter, who died in 1234, and was 
buried before the high altar ; the second Walter, son of Robert, died in 1259, and 
was also buried in this church, as was also Walter, lord Fitz- Walter, the last male of 
the family, in 1432, under a mural arch, near the remains of his mother. An alabaster 
figure, in a superior style of workmanship, lying between two pillars on the north 
side of the choir, represents Matilda, the beautiful daughter of the second Walter 
Fitz- Walter; who, according to the traditionary legend, was destroyed by poison, 
secretly administered, in revenge for refusing to gratify the illicit passion of king John.:}: 

* Originally, the induction to this church was by the prior and canons selecting one of their own body, 
and presenting him to the bishop to serve the cure, but he was not instituted, as into a rectory or vicarage : 
and since the dissolution, it is only a donative, or curacy, in the gift of the lord of the manor. 

f To the south of the church of Little Duumow, two field-lengths from it, at the corner of a field, is a 
square area, surrounded by earth-works, which are very high on the southern side. 

X In Little Dunmow church are the following inscriptions : — " In memory of those whose mortal 
remains were deposited in an adjacent vault at the following periods : Sir James Hallet, knt. died Jan. 31, 
1703, aged 76.— October 1720, Dame Mary his wife, the daughter of Thomas Duncombe, esq., aged 72. — 
Nov. 1723, James Hallet, esq. their son, aged 38.— Aug. 1732, Ambrose, also son of James Hallet, esq., 
aged 20.— Feb. 1733, sir James Hallet, knt. aged 76.— Feb. 1755, Mary, widow of James Hallet, esq., and 
daugh^r of sir Ambrose Crawley, aged 67.— Feb. 176,), John, son of James Hallet, esq. aged 49.— April 
1766, James Hallet, esq. his son, aged 56.— Oct. 1767, Mary, widow of the last James Hallet, esq. and 
daughter of James Pearce, esq. aged 48.— April 17S0, Mary, the wife of William Hughes, esq. and 



HUNDRED OF DUN MOW. 323 

The ancient and whimsical tenure by deHvery of a flitch of bacon, is pecuHar to C H A V. 
this town, and that of Whichnor, in Staffordshire. The custom is, by some writers. 



supposed to be of Saxon, by others of Norman origin ; it was undoubtedly here, ^^^^^ 
as at Whichnor, a burthen upon the estate, and the condition of some charter. 
The institution of it here may reasonably be supposed to have been by one of the 
family of Fitz- Walter. The earliest recorded delivery of the bacon was in 1444, when 
Richard Wright, of Bradbourn, in Norfolk, having been duly sworn before the prior 
and convent, had a flitch of bacon delivered to him, in conformity to the conditions of 
the tenure. The ceremonial required the claimant to kneel on two pointed stones in 
the church-yard, and, after solemn chanting and other rites performed, to take the 
following oath : — 



" You shall swear, by custom of confession, 
That you ne'er made nuptial transgression, 
Nor since you were married man and wife, 
By household brawls, or contentious strife, 
Or otherwise, at bed or hoard, 
Offended each other in deed or in word : 
Or since the parish clerk said Amen, 
Wished yourselves unmarried again ; 
Or in a twelvemonth and a day, 
Repented, even in thought, anyway ; 



But continued true, in thought and desire, 
As when you join'd hands in holy quire. 
If to these conditions, without all fear. 
Of your own accord, you will freely swear, 
A whole flitch of bacon you shall receive, 
And bear it hence, with love and good leave ; 
For this is our custom at Dunmow well 

known, 
Though the pleasure be ours, the bacon's 

your own." 



Then the pilgrim, as he Avas called, was taken up in a chair, on men's shoulders 
and carried about the priory church-yard, and through the town, with his bacon borne 
before him, attended by all the friars, and by the townsfolk, with shouts and acclama- 
tions ; and at last sent home in the same manner. 

In the chartulary of the priory, now in the British Museum, three persons are re- 
corded to have received the bacon previous to the dissolution of religious houses ; and 
since that event, several instances have occurred of the observance of this custom, 
in which the ceremony was performed at a court-baron for the manor by the steward. 
One of these was at a court-baron of sir Thomas May, knt. holden the 7th day of 
June, 1701, the homage being five fair ladies, spinsters, who found that John Rey- 
nolds, of Hatfield Broadoak, gent, and Anne his wife, and William Parsley, of Great 
Easton, butcher, and Jane his wife, were fit persons to receive the bacon. The last 
that received it were John Shakeshanks, of Weathersfield, and his wife Anne, in 1751. 

In 1821, the inhabitants of this parish amounted to three hundred and forty-two, 
and in 1831, had increased to three hundred and seventy-eight. 

eldest daughter of the said John Hallet, esq. — Oct. 1794, Elizabeth, widow of the said John Hallet, esq. 
and only daughter of Richard Pinncll, esq., aged 68. — Feb. 1805, Elizabeth, third and youngest daughter 
of the said John Hallet, esq. aged 48. — May 1823, James Hallet, esq. his son, aged 78." 

On a marble tablet, is the following inscription ; — " The rev. Thomas Hambly, late incumbent of this 
parish, died 28th April, 1802. He married Anne, second daughter of John Hallet, esq." 



224. 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. 



Easton- 



Little 
Easton. 



EASTON. 

Two parishes, lying nortli-nortli-west from Dunmoiv, have received this name, and 
are distinguished from eacli other by the appellations of Little and Great. In records- 
the name is Estames, Eiston, Eystanes, Eyston, Estaynes, Estaynys, Estones, and in 
Domesday, Estanes. 

Little Easton* lies northward from Great DunmoAv, and the pleasant country 
village which belongs to it is on the border of the river Chelmer, over which it is 
approached by a wooden bridge; the immediate vicinit)'^, possessing a fruitful soil 
richly cidtivatcd, is luxuriant in vegetable productions, and partakes of the beautiful 
scenery which distinguishes the elegant seat of lord Maynard, by the demesne lands of 
which it is surrounded. It is distant from Thaxted five, and from London forty miles. 

The manorial history of this parish contains accounts of the progenitors of great and 
distlno'uished families of ancient origin. Previous to the Conquest, the holders of 
these lands were a freeman, and a free- woman, named Duna : at the survey, they 
belonged to William de Warren, and Geoffrey de Mandeville. 

Even as early as the reign of the Conqueror, this lordship was holden of Windsor 
castle, by a family surnamed De Windsor. Walter de Windsor, castellan of Windsor^ 
had a son named Robert, who was lord of tlie barony of Ewston, or Easton. William 
de Windsor was his son, Avhose only daughter, his heiress, was married to Robert de 
Hastings ; and had by her Delicia, by whom this possession was conveyed to her hus- 
band, Henry de Cornhill, and afterwards to her second husband, Godfrey de Louvain,. 
a valiant knight, brother to Henry, duke of Brabant, and his lieutenant of the honour 
of Eye, in Suffolk.f In 1262, Matthew de Louvain, son and heir of Godfrey, held 

* It was also named Easton ad Turrim. or at the tower, because its church had a tower, and Great 
Easton had not. 

f Godfrey, first duke of Lorraine and Brabant, count of Louvain, and marquis of Antwerp, married Ida,, 
daughter of Henry, fourth emperor and fifth king of Germany; he was surnamed Earbatus, or the bearded, 
because he had made a vow never to cut his beard till he had added the dutchy of Lorraine to his domi- 
nions : his son Godfrey, the second duke, married Lutgarda, daughter of Berengarius, count of Zulzbach^ 
by whom he had Godfrey, the third duke, who married Margaret, daughter of Plcnry, earl of Limburgh, 
and died in I ISO ; his son Henry was the fourth duke, and married Maud, grand-daughter of Stephen, king 
of England, by his daughter Mary, who had been a nun, and became abbess of Romsey, in Hampshire ; 
afterwards married to Matthew, son of the earl of Flanders, who had by her two daughters, of whom 
Maud, the youngest, was married to the before-mentioned Henry, duke of Lorraine. Mary, the daughter 
of king Stephen, by consent of Henry the second, possessed all the lands of her father in England, amongst 
which was the honour of Eye, by marriage conveyed to the duke ; to whom the possession of them was 
confirmed by king Richard the first. In the beginning of king John's reign, duke Henry made a grant of 
them to his brother Godfrey, who, on that account, came into England. — Dugdale's Baronage, vol. i. p. 736. 

The descent of some of the most dignified families of Europe trace their ancestry to this original ; and 
from Godfrey's elder brother Henry, fifth duke of Lorraine, the landgraves of Hesse descended. Ogiva, 
wife of Carolus Posthumus, surnamed, also, " the simple," was daughter of Edward, king of the West-Saxons- 






,1/ I 

I 



i 



«, 



■I 



,1(K 



I 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 225 

this manor of the Idng, as head of this barony : Matthew Avas his son and successor; CHAP. 

followed by Thomas, Avho died in 1345, and whose son John died in 1317, leavino- ^^' 

by his wife Margaret, daughter and co-heiress of sir Thomas Weston, Alianore and 

Isabel. Margaret, their mother, died in 1349, and Isabel in 1359, leaving Alianore 

sole heiress to this and the other family estates, which she, by marriage, conveyed to 

sir William Bourchier, earl of Eu and of Essex, who died in 1483 : William, his 

eldest son, who died before him, was succeeded by his grandson, Henry, earl of 

Essex, Avho, in 1540, was killed by a fall from his horse, at his manor of Basse, in 

Hertfordshire. His only daughter and heiress, Anne, was married to sir William 

Parr, baron Kendal, earl of Essex and marcjuis of Northampton, who sold this manor, 

with other estates, to sir William Wriothesley, lord chancellor. In 1558, it belonged 

to sir Kenelm Throckmorton; and to Kenelm Throckmorton, esq. in 1582: in 1589, 

it was granted, by queen Elizabeth, to Henry Maynard, esq. 

The name of Mainard, or Maignard, is of great antiquity: a branch of the family J^'aynard 
1 • 1 1 ■ T^ 1 T-> ' • family. 

was, at an early period, seated in Kent, and at Brixton, in Devonshire; Nicholas 

Maynard, of that place, married Margaret, daughter of John Ellys, of Ellys, in the 

same county, and had by her a son, named John; he also by a second wife, had another 

son of the same name. The younger of these, seated at St. Alban's, in Hertfordshire, 

was steward of that borough for life; and represented it in parliament in the year 

1553, in which he was one of the thirty-nine members who absented themselves from 

the house, rather than admit the pope's authority in England. He died in 1556, 

having married, first, Margaret, daughter of Ralph Rowlet, esq. of St. Alban's and 

Sandridge, sister and co-heiress of sir Ralph Rowlet, by whom he had Ralph and 

two daughters. His second wife was Dorothy, daughter of Robert Perrot, esq. 

widow of John Bridge, and by her he had Henry, Robert, who died unmarried, and 

Dorothy, married to sir Robert Clarke, of Pleshey, one of the barons of the exchequer. 

Henry, the eldest son by the second marriage, was the first that settled here: he was 

secretary to sir William Cecil, lord Burleigh, and representative in parliament for 

the borough of St. Alban's in 1586, 1588, and 1597, and of the county of Essex in 

1601; he served the office of sheriff in 1603, and in that year received the honour of 

knighthood from James the first. By his lady Susanna, daughter and co-heiress of 

Thomas Pierson, esq. gentleman usher of the star-chamber, he had eight sons; 

William, his successor; John, made knight of the bath at the coronation of Charles 

Of tlie same origin are also the ancient dukes of Suevia and Saxony, the landgrave of Thuringia, the counts 
of Flanders and Limburgh. The emperor Louis le Debonaire, married Judith, daughter of Welph, or 
Guelph, first count of Altorp, one of the earliest ancestors of the potent house of Brunswick ; and this 
Judith was mother of the euiperor Charles the bald. 

Arms of Louvain : A fess between nine billets, five above and four below. Or, according to some 
accounts, fifteen billets, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1. 



226 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. the first, who married Mary, daughter of sir Thomas Middleton, of Stansted Mont- 
"~ fichet; Charles, one of the auditors of the exchequer; Francis, and two others; also 

two daus^hters ; Elizabeth, married to sir Edward Bainton, of Bromham, in Wilt- 
shire; and Mary, who was never married. Sir Henry died in 1610, and was suc- 
ceeded by sir William, his eldest son, who was educated at St. John's College, 
Cambridge. He was in the list of the first baronets, which distinction was 
conferred upon him in 1611, and, in 1620, he was, by James the first, created 
baron Maynard of Wicklow, in Ireland; and, in 1627, by king Charles the first, 
further advanced to a baron of the realm, by the title of baron Maynard of Estaines 
Parva, otherwise Estaines ad Turrim, and Little Easton. His lordship died in 
1640, and was buried near his father, in this church. He married, first, Frances, 
only daughter of William Cavendish, first earl of Devonshire of that family, and by 
this lady, who died in 1613, had his daughter Anne. By his second lady, Anne, 
daughter and heiress of sir Anthony Everard, of Great Waltham, he had William, 
the only son who survived him, and Susan and Jane, Avho died unmarried; Anne, 
married to sir Henry Wrothe, knt. of Durance, in Enfield, Middlesex; Elizabeth, 
married to John Wrothe, esq. of Loughton; and Mary, married to sir Ralph Bovey, 
knt. of Caxton and Longstoue, in Cambridgeshire. William, the second lord, 
born in 1622, was of the privy council, and comptroller of the household to king 
Charles the second, and to king James the second, and custos rotulorum of this 
county. His first lady was Dorothy, daughter and sole heiress of sir Robert Banastre, 
knt. of Passenhara, in Northamptonshire; and his second lady was Margaret, daughter 
of James Murray, earl of Dysart. By the first he had Banastre, and William, father 
of Thomas and Prescot Maynard, esqs. By his second lady he had Henry; and 
Elizabeth, married to sir Thomas Brograve, hart, of Hamels, in Hertfordshire. 
Banastre, the eldest son, on the decease of his father in 1698, succeeded as the third 
baron, and died in 1717, leaving, by his lady Elizabeth, only daughter of Henry de 
Grew, earl of Kent, eight sons and three daughters; Arabella, married to William 
Lowther, esq. of Swillington, in Yorkshire; Dorothy, to Robert Hesilrige, esq. of 
Noseley, in the county of Leicester, son of sir Robert Hesilrige, bart. and Elizabeth, 
who died unmarried. Henry, the eldest surviving son, succeeded his father in honours 
and estate, and dying unmarried in 1742, aged 70, was succeeded by his next brother 
Grey, lord Maynard, who also dying unmarried in 1745, aged 65, had for his successor 
his youngest brother, Charles lord Maynard, the sixth baron, who being the last male 
descendant of sir William, the first baron, aged and unmarried, was created, by 
patent, in 1766, baron Maynard of Much Easton, in the county of Essex, and viscount 
Maynard, with limitation, on failure of issue male of his body, to his third cousin, 
sir W^iliiam Maynard, of Waltons, in the county of Essex, bart. great grandson of 
Charles, third son of Henry. The viscount died unmarried in 1775, Avhen the 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 227 

baronetcy, and English and Irish bai'onies created in 1620, and 1628, became extinct, CHAP, 
but the titles conferred in 1766, devolved on the late viscount, eldest son and heir of ' 



sir William Maynard, of Waltons. 

The line of descent of the present family is from Charles Maynard, third son of 
sir Henry, and brother of the first lord. He was auditor of the exchequer in the 
time of Charles the second, and died in 1665, leaving- his son William, created a 
baronet in 1681, and father of sir William and sir Henry, successively baronets, of 
whom the last-named was father of sir William, to whom the remainder of the titles 
of viscount and baron Maynard were granted, in 1766. This sir William Maynard, 
born in 1721, married Charlotte, second daughter of sir Cecil Bisshopp, of Parham, 
in the county of Sussex, bart. and dying in 1772, left issue by her Charles, who 
succeeded, on the death of his cousin in 1775, to the title of viscount Maynard, being 
the second viscount. The second son of sir William was Henry, rector of Radwinter, 
and vicar of Stansted, in Essex, who died in 1806, leaving Harriet, Susan, and 
Marianne; and Henr)^, present and third viscount. Heir apparent, Charles Henry, 
the viscount's only son.* 

This ancient, stately, and commodious mansion, is pleasantly situated within a Easton 
spacious park, and the surrounding grounds are highly ornamented and picturesque. 
The prospect from the house northward presents an interesting view of the noble 
church and spire of Thaxted; and within this circuit are included a wide extent of 
lands belonging to the lordship, with four parochial churches. The house was erected 
in the latter part of the reign of Elizabeth, and is distinguished by large projecting 
windows, and other peculiarities, which characterise the architecture of that period; at 
more recent periods, however, important improvements have been made, and con- 
siderable alterations. At the east end there is a handsome chapel, built by William 
lord Maynard, in 1621; its eastern window is of stained glass, displaying the principal 
events of the history of our Saviour. 

The ancient church is kept in an excellent state of repair, chiefly by the munificence Church, 
of its noble patrons, whose ancestors are interred in the chapel on the south side of 
the chancel. 

The parsonage is a good building of brick, erected by the rev. J. Pincent, when 
rector here. A convenient house for the clerk of this parish was given by Charles 
lord Maynard, to be kept in repair by his lordship's successors, owners of the manor.f 

* Arms of Maynard : Argent, a chevron azure between three sinister hands coupcd at the wrist, gules. 
Crest : A stag statant, or. Supporters : Dexter, a stag proper attired, or. Sinister, a talbot argent pied 
sable, collared gules. Motto : " Manus justa nardus. The just hand is as precious ointment." 

t Charity : — In 1662, dame Margaret Banastre, widow of sir Robert Banastre, left an annuity of twenty Charity, 
pounds for the maintenance of four poor women of the parish of Little Easton, five pounds to be paid to 
each of them by quarterly payments. Her grandson, Banastre lord Maynard, in addition to this benevolent 
provision for the said poor women, built houses for their habitation, with provision for their being kept 
in sutHcient repair. 



228 



HISTORY OF ESSEX.^ 



BOOK II. 

Inscrip- 
tions. 



A handsome chapel on the south side of the chancel, called Bourchier's chapel, and 
formerly belonging to some of the family of that name, has been made the bm-Ial-place 
of the Maynards, and contains numerous splendid and appropriate monuments, with 
inscriptions, amongst which are the following: — 



" Qucra fucrim (lualcniquc fiii me curia novit : 
Plebs, proccres, princeps, patria, testis erat. 
Hos de nic (Lector) non niarmore consule : famiB 
Saxa nihil tribuunt ambitiosa nieai. 



Whence, who, and what I was, how held at Court, 
My prince, the peers, my country, will report. 
Ask these of me (good reader) not these stones. 
They knew my life, these do but hold my bones." 



" Here resteth in assured hope to rise in Christ, sir Henry Maynard, knt. descended of the ancient 
family of Maynard, in the county of Devon, and dame Susan his wife, daughter and one of the co-heirs 
of Thomas Picrson. esq. to whom she bore eight sonnes and two daughters. He ended this life 11th of 
May 1610 his lady, six sons, and two daughters then living; as is expressed in the following lines : 



" Sex natos natasq. duas charissima nuper 

Pia:nora,mortemobienscummatresuperstiteliqui: 
Tres me de natis morientem extemplo sequuntur : 



Tarn breve, tarn vanum, tarn vita; fulgur inane 
Ne tarn multum viduus, ne caelum solus adirem : 
Ecce meos comites, me cetera turba sequetur." 



'* Translation : — "At my death I left with their surviving mother six sons and two daughters, pledges, lately, 
which I loved most tenderly : soon after my decease, so short, so vain, so empty is the lamp of life, three of 
them followed me, that I might not go to heaven quite a widower and alone. Behold, my companions, the 
rest will follow me." 



" Rare was the roote, the braunches bravely spred, 
And some still are, though some be withered. 
Two of the precious ones (a piteous spoil) 
Were ill transplanted to a foreign soil. 



Where the hot sunne, (howe'er it did beiall} 
Drew up their juice, to perfume heaven withall. 
When will the heaven such flowers to the earth rejiay, 
As the earth afforded heaven, two in a day." 



** Here lyeth the lady Maynard, wife unto sir William Maynard, knt. and bart. and sole daughter of 
William lord Cavendish, and of Anne, his first wife. She died 1st of Sept. 1613, aged 20. As her life was 
most virtuous and religious, so was her end no less christian and saint-like. She left behind her one 
daughter, named Anne, to the care of her truly grieved husband, for the unspeakable loss of so loving 
a wife." 

•' M.S. D. Dni Gulielmi Maynard de Estaines, in com. Essex, necnon de Wicklow, in Hibernia, baronis 
honaratissimi. Qui sercnissimi Caroli primi in comitatu Essexiae et Cantabrigia; locum-tenens constitutus. 
Provinclam banc per plures annos ingenti et regis et populi applausu adornavit, conscientii etiam sxiSl 
apud utrosque inculpabili, dignissimi nimirum qui principis, et pacis, et legum, et fidei Catholico-Anglicanas 
defensoris vices in omnibus suppleret. At vcro ingruenti indies fanaticorum rabic, cum religio etiam ipsa 
exularet, incjuietoc, rebelli, et ingratia; valedixit; patria; tanto (tam in deum, quam in proximum) chari- 
tatis vere Christiana; exemplari prorsus indigna;, quem tandem pro meliore nempe ccelesti feliciter commu- 
tavit 10 Dec. 1640, setat. suae 55. — Juxta jacet Hannah conjux honoratissima, ex antiqua Everardorum 
familia de Langleys in com. Essex oriunda. Quas postquam filium unicum et quinq. filias egregias utrius- 
que parentis virtutibus quibus ad invidiam usq. excelluerunt adornatos videat, maritum denuo ad ccelos 
sequuta est ; amabili ibidem et beatissimo ipsius consortio inter sanctos iterum fruitura, 5to die 
Aug. A.D. 1617." 

English.. — " Sacred to the memory of the right honourable William lord Maynard, baron of Estaines, in 
the county of Essex, and of Wicklow, in Ireland. He for many years executed the office of lord lieutenant 
of the counties of Essex and Cambridge, under king Charles the first, with great applause both of king and 
people, and with a conscience unblamcable. In every respect, indeed, he was a man calculated to supply 
the place of the most worthy prince, of the defender of the peace, the laws, and the Catholic faith, as pro- 
fessed by the church of England. But when the rage of fanaticism daily encreased, when even religion 



r 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 229 

itself was banished, then he bid adieu to a restless, rebellious, and ungrateful country ; so great an exam- C H A F. 



IX. 



pie was he of truly Christian love (as well towards God as towards his neighbour) , to his unworthy 
country, which at length he happily changed for a better, namely, a heavenly, on the 10th of Dec. 1640, in 
the 55th year of his age. — Near hira lies Hannah, his right honourable wife, descended from the ancient 
family of the Everards, of Langleys, in the county of Essex ; who after she had seen an only son and five 
excellent daughters adorned with their parents' virtues, which they so excelled in as to excite the envy of 
mankind, followed her husband to heaven, there to enjoy again his amiable and most happy company 
among the saints, on the 5th of August, in the year of our Lord 1647. 

" Within this vault lie interred the bodies of the right hon. William lord Maynard, who died Feb. 3, 
169S, aged 76: and of the lady Dorothy his wife, daughter of sir Robert Banastre, knt. who died October 
30, 1649, aged 27 : and of the right hon. Banastre lord Maynard, their son, who died March 4, 17 17, aged 
76 : and of the lady Elizabeth Grey, his wife, the daughter of Henry, earl of Kent, who died Sept. 24, 1714 : 
and of the hon. William Maynard, their eldest son, who died unmarried March 8, 1716, aged 50: and of 
the right hon. Henry lord Maynard, their next surviving son, who died unmarried Dec. 7, 1742, aged 70 : 
and of the right hon. Grey lord Maynard, the successor of his brother Henry, who died unmarried April 
27, 1745, aged 65: and of the hon. Elizabeth Maynard, the sister, who died also unmarried, October 4, 
1720, aged 43. To the memory of all these his most worthy ancestors, parents, brothers, and sister, by 
whose care, and through whose hands the honours and estates of the family, after a splendid, hospitable, 
and charitable use of them, have successively been transmitted to him the right hon. Charles lord Maynard 
(the youngest son of Banastre lord Maynard, and of the lady Elizabeth his wife), in testimony of his piety, 
love, and gratitude, erected this monument, A.D. 1746."* 

In 1821, the population of this parish amounted to three hundred and three, and in 
1831, had increased to three hundred and fifty. 



GREAT E ASTON. 

This parish extends northward from Little Easton, and the village, which is small, Great 
is near the eastern bank of the Chelmer. It has been named Easton ad Montem, 
either from a small mount on which the church is situated, or from a similar elevation 
near the Hall. The soil is in general light and productive, the situation pleasant and 
healthy, and the roads good. From Thaxted it is distant seven, and from London 
forty miles. 

Previous to the Conquest, the lands of this parish were in possession of Achlns, a 
freeman; and at the time of the survey, belonged to Matthew Mauritaniensis, or 
Mortaing. In the time of Richard the first, William de Clinton held this estate by Manor. 
the sergeantry of being the king's larderer at his coronation ; and it was in possession 

* The last lord of the Bourchier family of this place is buried under an ancient monument of grey 
marble, without inscription, as appears from a passage in Sandford's Genealog. p. 85 : " Isabel, countess 
of Essex, only daughter of Richard, earl of Cambridge, was married to Henry Bourchier, carl of Essex and 
viscount Bourchier ; by whom he had a numerous issue. The tomb of tliis Henry and Isabel is placed 
between the chancel and Bowser's, (i.e. Boucher's) isle or chapel of Little Easton, in the county of 
Essex." There is also in the chancel, a very ancient monument in the north wall, under an arch, sur- 
mounted by a pyramid : it has no Inscription, but the arms are those of Bourchier and Louvaine. 
VOL. II. 2 H 



230 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



Stouiton 
family. 



BOOK 11. of Ralph le Moyne*, by the same tenure, in the reign of Henry the third. WilHam, 
son of Ralph, had Henry le Moyne, who died in 1314, and his wife, Joan, died in 
1340. Their son and successor was John le Moyne, the time of whose death is not 
mentioned. The next on record is sir Henry Moyne, who at the time of his decease, 
in 1375, held this manor by knight's service : his son and successor, sir John, left a 
daughter named Elizabeth, Avho was married to sir William Stourton, and conveyed 
to him this estate, with the advowson of the church. This family derived their name 
from the town so called, on the banks of the river Stour, in Wiltshire, and were 
seated there from a very remote period. He held this manor by the grand ser- 
geantry beforementloned. His son and heir, sir John, was created lord Stourton, in 
1447, and died in 1462, holding this manor, with the advowson of the church: his suc- 
cessors were, William lord Stourton, John, W^illiam, Edward, William, and Charles. 
This last being guilty of murder, and executed for it in 1557, his estates passed to the 
crown ; but this manor had been previously disposed of, and was in possession of sir 
Ralph Warren, lord mayor of London, at the time of his decease, in 1553 ; it was also 
holden by his son Richard, who died in 1597, and left this estate to his sister's son, 
Oliver Cromwell, esq. of Hinchingbroke, who sold it to Henry Maynard, esq., from 
whom it has descended to the present lord Maynard. 

An estate named Blamsters, vulgarly, Blansted Hall, belonged to William de 
Blamster, who died in 1280, leaving this estate to his daughter Beatrix, from whom 
it passed to her sisters and heiresses, Eleanor le Strange, Joan, married to sir William 
de Barentyne, and Maude the wife of sir William de Bracey. In 1499, George 
Pakeman held this estate under William lord Stourton, as of his manor of Great 
Easton ; Margaret and Elizabeth, daughters of his brother Thomas, were his co- 
heiresses. In 1602, it belonged to Richard Jennings, esq., and passed afterwards to 
the Kendal family of Bassingbourns, in Takeley; of whom it was purchased by John 
Taleure, esq., remembrancer of the exchequer, from whom it passed to his descendants; 
and has become the property of William Josling, esq. of Great Easton. 

Tiltey abbey had a grange or farm here, named Croys, which, after the dissolution, 
was granted to James Gunter and William Lewis, from whom it was conveyed to 
William Fitch, who sold it to John Meade, of Henham ;f in whose family it continued 



Blamster; 



* The 111 St of this family was Geofrey le Moyne, lord of Oreshampton, succeeded by sir Robert ; and a 
second sir Robert, father of Robert, and grandfather of this Ralph. 

t Of his three .sons, John, Robert, and George, the last had Nortofts, inFinchingfield : John succeeded 
his father on his decease in 1602, having married Ellen, daughter of Nicholas Colin, of Broxted, by whom 
he had Thomas, of Henham, whose son John was of Matching. John, to whom he gave Dutton Hill, in 
this parish : also Robert and William : he died in 1614. John, of Dutton Hill, his second son, married 
Jane, daughter of John Glascock, of Roxwell, by whom he had his son and heir John Meade, who marry- 
ing Elizabeth, daughter and co-heircss of Robert Samford, of Chapel, had by her fourteen children, of 
whom there survived, on his decease in 1664, John, Robert, Philip, William ; Elizabeth, Anne, and Esther. 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 231 

till the failure of heirs male, on the decease of John Meade, of London, merchant, who chap. 
died in 1689: and of his daughters, Anne in 1758, aged 87, and Elizabeth in 1761, _____ 
aged 85 ; they having previously sold to Henry, the youngest brother of their father, 
the estate of Dutton Hill, where he, in 1721, built a handsome brick mansion, enjoyed Dytton 
by his wife on his decease, and which became the inheritance of his daughter Elizabeth. 

The church of Great Easton, dedicated to St. John, is a plain ancient building, in Church. 
an excellent state of repair; and situated on a hill, is seen at a considerable distance 
from various parts of the country. Its southern porch has a semi-circular arch.* 

In 1821, this parish contained seven hundred and fifty-five, and in 1831, eight 
hundred and forty inhabitants. 



TILTEY. 

The parish of Tiltey extends northward from Great Easton, and joins to Broxted, Tiltey. 
Linsell, and Thaxted. The village contains few inhabitants, the increase of the 
population of the parish not having exceeded twenty during the last forty years. Dis- 
tance from Dunmow three, and fi'om London forty miles. 

* Among the inscriptions in this church are the following : " Joseph Plume, B.D. rector, died January Inscrip- 
16, 1686, aged 81. George Scott, esq. who died Jan. 16, 1647. Joan, wife of George Scott, esq. with ^'^ns. 
their son and daughter, twins, buried in 1721. Thomas Leader, rector, died 27th June, 1618." 

On a brass plate : " Dum libris vivo, morior : sic vita raihi mors. Nunc vitae evoluo librum : sic mors 
mihi vita. — Mortalitatis exuviae viri immortalis Thomas Cecilii, rectoris, dum vixit,hujus ecclesiae dignis- 
sinii, summi Theologi, morum candore, vitse integritate, artiura literarumque peritia, viri insigniter 
ornati, sub hoc tumulo reconduntur. Ob. Jan. 29, 1627." In English : — 

" Whilst I live to my books, I die : thus || Now I turn over the book of life : thus 

Life to me is death. || Death is to me life." 

*' Under this tomb are deposited the mortal remains of that immortal man, Thomas Cecil, the very 
worthy rector of this church whilst he lived, a most excellent theologian, and a man endowed in an especial 
degree with simplicity of manners, integrity of life, and knowledge in arts and literature. He died 
January 29, 1627." 

Among those of the Meade family, are the following : " John Meade, of Dutton Hill, who died in 1614, 
aged 67. Jane, wife of John Meade, of Dutton Hill, in 1626 ; John, eldest son of the said John and Jane, 
in 1666, aged 84-. Mrs. Ann Meade, daughter and co-heiress of John Meade, esq. of London ; and Mrs. 
Sarah Meade, his wife ; she died 2d Jan. 1758, aged 87. Mrs. Rebecca Meade, sister to the above, who 
died Jan. 20, 1761, aged 85, and others of the same family." 

Charities. — Mrs. Rebecca Meade founded a charity school in 1759, for ten poor girls; endowed with Charities, 
lands in this parish, named Kirby's, which, being copyhold, was enfranchised by lord Maynard; also two 
fields called Cronehill, or Cramps, in VVeathersfield : and as an appendage to this charity, Charles lord 
Maynard, in 1761, gave an annuity of five pounds, payable out of Great Easton Hall farm, for a school- 
master to teach twelve poor boys of Great and Little Easton. A house and field have been given by an 
unknown benefactor, for the use of the poor. — In 1761, a messuage or tenement, with appertenances, was 
given for the use of the parish clerk, by Charles lord Maynard, to be at all times kept in sufficient repair, 
by his lordship's heirs and assigns. 



232 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II- 



Abbev. 



Church. 



Monu- 
ments. 



Previous to the Conquest, this parish belonged to a thane named Doding; and to 
Henry de Ferrers at the survey: under whose descendants, earls of Notting-hain, it 
was holden by a family named Geofrey, who had possession under Henry the first ; 
Maurice Fitz-Geofrey held it in the time of king Stephen; and he, in 1133, founded 
an abbey here for Cistercian monks : it was dedicated to St. Mary, and the founder 
endowed it with his " whole land of this parish without exception." It had also other 
large endowments.* Their church was consecrated in 1221, at which time large 
grants were made to them in Tha.x:ted, Dunmow, and various other places. After the 
suppression, in 1542, Henry the eighth granted the site of the monastery, and the 
church, belfry, and chapel; a mansion called the founder's lodging, and the guest 
hall ; Tiltey grange ;f the manor of Tiltey, and other possessions of the abbey, to sir 
Thomas lord Audley, of Walden, and his heirs.:]: Margaret, his daughter and heiress, 
conveyed this with her other very large inheritance, to her two husbands, Henry 
Dudley, slain at St. Quintins in 1557 ; and Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk. By 
the last, she had Thomas, created earl of Suffolk, who sold this estate to Henry May- 
nard, esq. ancestor of the lords Maynard, of Easton, to whom it has descended. 

The remains of Tiltey abbey, which are in the open field between the church and 
the mill, consist of traces of foundations, and considerable remains of a wall, said to 
have been part of the cloisters. On the wall may still be seen the semi-circular 
arches from which the groins sprung. The situation is very interesting, being a val- 
ley surrounded by pleasant hills, and watered by a stream, the banks of which are 
skirted by what is termed Tiltey Wood. 

The present church, which is dedicated to the Virgin Mary, formed the east end of 
the abbey church, and presents a remarkably fine specimen of what has been termed 
the decorative style of English architecture. It has bold buttresses at the east angles, 
with two rich niches, which are in a curious situation, being partly on the buttresses 
and partly on the wall. At the east end is a very beautiful window of five lights, with 
peculiarly elegant tracery. There is also a fine window of three lights on the north 
side. The chancel contains some rich stalls. The roof is tiled, and a cupola above 
contains one bell. 

The monuments in Tiltey church are curious. On the fioor of the nave a flat stone, 
which it is probable was formerly inlaid with brass or some other metal, appears, from 

* Some writers have confounded this with the monastery of Bicknacre, in Woodham Ferrers ; probably 
misled by the title given to it in the Monasticon, of Tilteyensis Abbatia, alias Wudeham : the two houses 
were also founded by the same person, Maurice Fitz-Geofrey, but at different times.— Monaslicoii, vol. i. 
p. S89. — BMop Tanner, p. 129 — Newcourt, vol. ii. p. 600. 

t Cistercian monks had granges, or barns, having larger crops of corn than other religious orders, in 
consequence of pope Paschal the second and Hadrian the fourth having discharged the lands held in their 
own hands from payment of tithes. 

t Arms of Tiltey abbey : Argent, on a cross gules, five fleurs-de-lis, or. 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. . 233 

the cavities, which are deeply cut, to have contained an ornamented cross. In a ^ ^^ ^• 

border, round the edge of the stone, is the following inscription, in very old Gothic 

characters : — 

" MAHAVD DE MORTEMER GIST ICI lESV PVR * * * EIT PITE E MISERICORDE DE SA ALME EIT MERCI." 

On the south side of the chancel, on a flat stone, are the effigies in brass of a man 
in a suit of plate armour, his wife, five sons, and six daughters ; at each corner of the 
stone a shield of arms, and round the ledge the following inscription in black letter : — 

" Hie jacet sepultus, cum conjuge Maria, Gerardus Danet de Broukynsthorp in comitatu Lecestrie, 
anniger et serenissimi Regis Henrici octavi Consiiiarius : obiit anno a Christo nato millesimo quingente- 
simo XX. die mensis Maii quarto, et anno Regni predicti Regis Henrici xij. quorum animab' propiecietur 
Deus." That is—" Here lies buried, with his wife Maria, Gerard Danet, of Broukynsthorp, in the county 
of Leicester, esq. and counsellor of king Henry the eighth : he died in the year of our Lord one thousand 
five hundred and twenty, on the fourth day of May, and the twelfth year of the reign of the aforesaid 
king Henry ; to whose soul may God be propitious.^'* 

On the north side of the chancel, on a flat stone, are the effigies, in brass, of a man 
in plate armour, his wife, three sons, and two daughters, with the following inscription 
in black letter : — 

" Herevnder lyeth buryed, with Mary his wyfe, George Medeley, of Tyltey, in the covntye of Essex, 
esquier, which dcessed the one and twentyth daye of INlaye, in the yere of oure Lord God one thowsand 
fyve hundreth threscore and two, and in the fower and fyfteth yere of hys age."t 

The two following inscriptions, also, either are or were in the church. 
Within the communion rails, the effigies, in brass, of a woman kneeling, with three 
male children, three female, and three in swaddling clothes ; beneath them : — 

" Here lyeth buried the body of Margaret Tuke, wife unto George Tuke, of Layer Marney, in Essex, 
who died 22d Oct. 1590." 

In the middle of the church, on a plate of brass, on the floor : — 

" Abbas famosus bonus et vivendo probatus, 11 Thomas dictatus qui Xto sit sociatus 

In Thakely natus qui jacet hie tumulatus, II Rite gubernavit istumque locum peramavit." 

i.e. " The well-known and good abbot, of approved life, born at Thakely, who lies here buried, by 
name Thomas, (may he be now with Christ) ruled righteously, and exceedingly loved this place." 

In 1821, this parish contained seventy-eight, and in 1831, eighty-two inhabitants.^ 

* Arms : Gutee a canton ; with several impalements and quarterings. — Salmon incorrectly reads the 
name Dant. * 

t Arms : Barry on a chief three mullets pierced. 

X Charity. — The right hon. Charles lord Maynard settled a house, with appurtenances, on the parish 
clerk, and his successors for ever, in the same manner as at the Eastons. 



234 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



HOOK II. 



THAXTED. 

rhaxtpd. The ancient town of Thaxted is on the borders of the river Chehner, near its 
source. It is of considerable extent, containing many good houses, and there is a 
large and handsome chapel here, belonging to the Dissenters of the denomination of 
Independents. The road from Chelmsford to Cambridge passes through this town, 
which is a considerable thoroughfare: formerly it was a borough, incorporated by 
charter from Philip and Mary, its government being vested in a mayor, bailiff, and chief 
burgesses. This charter was confirmed by queen Elizabeth, and additional privileges 
granted by James the first; but all these were tamely given up, either through fear or 
poverty, by the corporate oflicers, who, on being served with a quo warranto in the 
time of James the second, thought fit to retire from their ofl&ces in silence. From a 
visitation of the heralds in 1637, it appears to have had at that time a mayor, recorder, 
two bailiffs, and about twenty principal burgesses, of Avhich ten had passed the 
mayoralty; they had a common seal, but no arms. The market, which had been 
discontinued, was some time ago revived, but it has not risen to importance. It is 
on Thursdays; and there is a fair on the twenty-seventh of May, and another on the 
tenth of August, for cattle. It is distant from Dunmow six, and from London forty- 
seven miles. 

The earliest account of this town is in the Monasticon,* which informs us that the 
college of St. John the Baptist, at Clare, in Suffolk, founded by Eluric, in Edward 
the confessor's time, had the church of Thaxted among other revenues; at which time 
this lordship belonged to Wisgar, but was taken from him by the Conqueror, and given 
to Richard, son of Gislebert, and grandson of Geofrey, natural son of Richard, first 
duke of Normandy of that name. Coming over with the Conqueror, to whom he was 
related, he had, besides other extensive possessions, the lordship of Clare, in Suffolk, 
from which the family took the surname of De Clare.f Richard Fitz-Gislebert 
marrying Rohaise, daughter of Walter Gifford, earl of Buckingham, had Gilbert, his 
successor, the first earl of Clare; who marrying Adeliza, daughter of the earl of 
Clermont, had by her Richard, Gilbert, Hervey, Walter, and Rohaise. Richard, 
the eldest son, married Adeliza, sister of Ranulph, earl of Chester, by whom he had 
Gilbert, Roger, and Alice, married to Cadwallader ap Griffith, prince of North Wales. 
Gilbert, eldest son of Richard, dying without issue in 1151, his brother Roger suc- 
ceeded, and married Maud, daughter of James de St. Hilary: his son, Richard de 
Clare, earl of Hertford, married Amicia, daughter of William, earl of Gloucester, 

» Vol. i. p. 1009. 

t A full account is given of this powerful family in Mat. Paris, ed. 1640, p. 262, 995, &c. ; they were 
very actively opposed to king John, and Henry the third. Richard, earl of Clare, was the first of the 
twenty-five barons, conservators of Magna Charta. 



•i:«. 



*r' 




S^"l'i!,'. .. \ 



''hi, 



I 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 233 

who was heiress of that earldom ; and their son Gilbert, earl of Gloucester and ^ ^ ■} ''• 

Hertford, married Isabel, third daughter of William Marshal, earl of Pembroke. 

Richard was his son and heir, who died in 1262, suspected to have been poisoned at 
the table of Peter de Savoy, the queen's uncle : Gilbert de Clare, surnamed " the red," 
was his son and heir, who married Alice, daughter of Guy, earl of Angoulesme, niece 
to king Henry the third. This lady becoming lunatic, he was divorced from her in 
1285, having granted her the manor of Thaxted, and other possessions. He married, 
secondly, Joan of Acres, daughter of king Edward the first, by whom he had Gilbert, 
Eleanor, Margaret, and Elizabeth; on his decease in 1295, his lady had to her second 
husband Ralph de Monthermer, a plain esquire. Gilbert de Clare, surnamed " the 
red," her son by her first husband, was earl of Clare, Hertford and Gloucester; being 
then under age, he had not livery of his lands till 1307, when he was obliged to give 
satisfaction to the king. He was slain in 1314, at the battle of Bannockburn, where 
he commanded the van-guard of the English army. His son John, by Maud, daughter 
of John de Burgh, died before him, and in consequence his three sisters became his 
co-heiresses.* Eleanor, married to Hugh le Despenser, the younger: Margaret, to 
Piers de Gaveston; afterwards to Hugh de Audley, in 1337 created earl of Glou- 
cester; and Elizabeth, married to John de Burgh, son and heir of Richard, earl of 
Ulster; married, secondly, to Theobald de Verdun; and, thirdly, to Roger Damory, 
who was summoned to parliament in the reign of Edward the second. He was taken 
prisoner at the battle of Borough-bridge, with the earl of Lancaster, and his lands 
seized by the king; but his life was spared for the sake of his lady. 

In the reign of Edward the second, Bartholomew lord Badlesmere having married 
Margaret, eldest daughter of Thomas, brother of Gilbert de Clare, had liberty of free 
warren, and of holding an annual fair here on the eve, the day, and the morrow of St. 
Luke, and was made constable of Tunbridge castle: joining the discontented barons, 
he lost this and his other estates, and was beheaded in 1321. But by the favour of 
Edward the third, his son Giles recovered his estates and honours ; he married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of William de Montacute, earl of Salisbury, but left no issue; and this 
manor was equally divided among his four sisters, who all married into noble families.f 
Three parts of the estate became the property of the Mortimers, earls of March, and 
were re-united to the honour of Clare, which had been conveyed by marriage to this 
family;:]: the remaining fourth part descending to the Le Despensers, derived from 

* Arms of the Clare family: Or, three chevronels, gules. 

t Margery, married to William lord Roos, of Hamlake ; Maud, to John de Vere, earl of Oxford ; 
Elizabeth, to Edmund Mortimer, earl of March; and, after his death, to William de Bohun, earl of 
Northampton ; and Margaret, to sir John Tibetot. 

X Roger Mortimer, the first earl of March, married Joan, daughter and heiress of Peter Geneville, lord 
of Mede, Vaucolour, and Trim, in Ireland.— FeVjcen?, p. 325. The Mortimers afterwards quartered the 



236 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. them its name of Spencer's fee. On the marriage of Elizabeth, daughter of Edward 
the fourth, to Henry the seventh, the honour of Clare reverted to the crown, and was 
settled, by Henry the eighth, on Katharine of Arragon, afterwards his queen, who, 
in 1514, granted the manor and borough of Thaxted to sir John Cutts,* knt. to hold 
during her life, under a rent; and soon afterwards the reversion in fee-farm was 
granted by the king to the same knight. His son of the same name died in 1528, 
holding his father's estates; but sir John Cutts, his son and heir, on his decease in 
1554, had considerably diminished the family possessions; and the succeeding sir 
John, his son, being remarkable for unbounded hospitality and a magnificent style of 
living, his affairs became embarrassed,! and he was obliged, in 1599, to vest the manor 
and borough of Thaxted in trust to Thomas Kemp, esq. who had previously purchased 
the estate of Coldham's fee, in this parish. Thaxted soon afterwards became the 
property of sir William Smijth, knt. of Hill Hall, in whose family it has remained to 
the present time. 

Parish. The parish is large, and comprehends the northern extremity of the hundred, 

bounded by Uttlesford and Freshwell: besides that of the borough or town, there 

are six other manors. 

Hoiaiu The manor-house of Horam Hall is nearly two miles distant from the church south- 

Hall. . , ^ •' 

westward; it is a venerable and stately edifice, and a valuable and interesting specimen 

of the style of domestic architecture which immediately succeeded the ancient castellated 

mode; and as in the more ancient arrangement, the castellated form was for use, in 

this we find towers, turrets, and battlements added to houses merely for ornament. 

If even there were no historical evidence of the time this building was erected, it 

would yet be generally believed to have been immediately preceding, or early in the 

reign of Elizabeth ; and it is remarkable that the chief front exliibits the greatest 

arms of Gcncville, as they are found in this church. Arms of Mortimer : Barry of six, or and azure, on a 
chief of the first three pallets between two base esquisses, dexter and sinister as the second: an ines- 
cutcheon, ermine. 

* Leland gives the following account of this family. " Syr John Cutte, knight, and undre treasorer of 
England, bought of one Savelle, a man of fair landes in Yorkshir, then beyng yn trouble, the lordship of 
Godhurste, with the mines of a castelle that standith aboute a 2 miles from the bank of Medwaye river, 
and 2 miles from Maidstone.... Old Cutte maeried the doughter and heyre of one Roodes, about York- 
shir, and had by her a 3 hunderith markes of lands by the yere Old Cutte buildid Horeham-haule, a 

very sumptuus house in Est Sax, by Thaxtede, and there is a goodly pond, or lake, by it, and faire parkes 

thereabout. Cutte buildid at Childerley, in Cambridgshir Cutte buildid at Salsbiry-park, by St. 

Alban's Young Cutte, sun and heire to old Cutte, married one ...., and by her , by the 

procurement of my lady Lucy." — Iliner. vol. iv. p. 30, part i. Arms of Cutts : Argent, on a bend engrailed, 
sable, three plates. 

t He rendered himself so remarkable for his housekeeping, that queen Elizabeth sent the Spanish 
ambassador to be entertained by hira, during a fit of sickness. The tower of Horam Hall was used by 
Elizabeth as an agreeable retirement and place of refuge, during a part of the reign of her sister Mary; 
and often, after she succeeded to the crown, as a place which she took pleasure in visiting. 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 237 

variety of architectural forms, in which all uniformity of opposite parts has been c H A i' 
studiously avoided. The stately toAver, the projecting gable, notched; the square ^^' 



embattled turret, with double windows, with another turret of larger dimensions, and Curies, 
ornamented windows, the whole height of the building; and, lastly, a plain bay 
window of two stories, above which there is an ornamental gable. In some of its 
parts this building bears a striking resemblance to detached parts of Gosfield Hall; 
but in the same degree that uniformity has been avoided in this structure, in that more 
ancient edifice it has been carefully observed. In 1262, the heirs of Walter de Acre 
held lands here, which are believed to have been this manor; and William de Wanton, 
who died in 1347, held the same, which his son William also held as three knights' 
fees, of the honour of Clare. 

The next recorded possessor was sir John Cutt, or Cutts, who held it of the queen, 
as of her honour of Stambourne, by fealty and suit of court. The mansion-house was 
erected by sir John, from whom the estate passed to sir Charles Smijth, with the 
capital manor. 

This manor, holden in 1262, under the earl of Clare, by William Beaucondre, was Ricli- 
named Beauconders, and consisted of a knight's fee; his successor was Richard Beau- 
condre, who died in 1398, succeeded by Ralph, son of Roger, who is stated to have 
been a benefactor to the knights of St. John of Jerusalem : Nicholas Richmond was 
the next possessor on record, and his name has been retained by the estate, which 
became the property of sir John Cutts, by the name of Richmonds, at Richmond 
Green: it was holden by Nicholas Fuller in 1528, and, in 1590, was sold, by sir John 
Cutts, to William Godfrey. It afterwards belonged to Richard Beale, esq. of Hale 
Place, in Kent, who died in 1712, and left it to his nephew, Alexander Beale, who 
sold it to Guy's Hospital, also Thaxted Lodge. The mansion of Richmonds is half 
a mile from the church south-eastward. 

The family of Fitz-Ralph gave their name to a manor here, which belonged to P'tz- 
William Chishul, esq. in 1570, who dying that year, left it to his son Giles, of whom 
it was purchased by Israel Owen, who died in 1632, and left John, his son. This 
estate afterAvards belonged to Henry Wale, esq. of Little Bardfield. 

The manor named Venors, or Vernors, anciently belonged to Tiltey Abbey, and Vernois 
was denominated a grange. It was granted, by Henry the eighth, to Charles Brandon, 
duke of Suffolk, in 1538, who the same year sold it to John Wiseman; and he, in 1551, 
conveyed it to Matthias Bradbury, of whom it was purchased, in 1552, by John 
Wiseman; and he, in 1569, sold it to George Meade. This estate, about twenty years 
after, belonged to the Pigot family, who retained possession till 1640, after wliich it 
became the property of the Fenn family. 

The reputed manor named Stanfold-garden was in possession of sir John Cutts, at Stanfold- 
the time of his decease in 1520, holden by him of Henry Tumor. 

VOL. II. 2 I 



238 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BO(JM II. Gerdelay, named in Domesday Gerdelai, was reckoned a hamlet to Thaxted: under 
^TjijJ^j^ Edward the confessor, it was holden by two freemen, and at the sm'vey belonged to 
Tihel Brito, whose descendants, surnamcd De Helion, retained possession, till it was 
conveyed, by William de Helion, to Aubrey de Vere, earl of Oxford in the reign of 
Henry the second ; and some under tenants of that noble family took the surname of 
Yerdley, or Yardley, from this place. Their names appear in the records from the 
time of Henry the third to Henry the seventh; and John Yardley, attainted in the 
tirst year of king Richard the third, had his lands in Thaxted seized on that occasion. 
In 1558, it belonged to John Wiseman, esq. of Felsted, and continued in his family 
till the decease of Wiseman Clagget, esq. in 1741, when it was purchased of his 
executors by Charles lord Maynard. Goddards farm is a valuable estate in this 
parish, formerly belonging to the Wale family. 
cimicL. It is not certainly known at what time this church was erected, but is believed to 

have been at various times, and completed about the close of the fourteenth century. 
Different writers have spoken of it as dedicated to St. John the Baptist, the Virgin 
Mary, and to St. Lawrence ; but all these assertions remain unauthorised. 

It seems most probable, from various authorities, that the expense of this erection 
was defrayed partly by parochial assessments, partly by public and private contri- 
butions, and partly by the patronage of the illustrious house of Clare and their 
descendants. It is true, none of the rates or other accounts respecting the first rise 
of this building are now extant; but as four churchwardens are mentioned during its 
erection, we may conclude the appointment of this extraordinary number to have 
been for the receipt of contributions and management of the accounts. During the 
same period, also, many donations of land are recorded, some expressly left in trust to 
the four churchwardens, and others to the same number of trustees; the portions of 
land referred to are also stated to have been soon afterwards sold ; undoubtedly, to 
raise the necessary supplies for carrying on the undertaking. The number of armorial 
bearings on the roof (some of which belong to families resident in Thaxted) serve to 
confirm this account. As early as the reign of Edward the confessor, the church of 
Thaxted belonged to the collegiate church of Clare, which, in 1090, was annexed to 
the abbey of Bee, in Normandy; and its having belonged to the college of Clare 
previous to this appropriation, leaves us no longer at a loss to account for its beauty 
and magnificence.* It is universally allowed to be the finest specimen of ecclesiastical 



/;. in. 

* Width of the nave 21 6 

Length of ditto 89 

Width of the nuve and side aisle 23 10 

ength of the transept 8G 

Whole building in length 1B3, in breadth 87 feet, in the inside. The elegant stone tower and spire rises 
to the height of 181 feet ; the tower being 80 feet. The circumferenre of the whole building, including 
the projections of the buttresses, is 345 yards. 



ft. in. 

Width of the transept 20 4 

Length of the chancel 49 8 

Widthof the middle 17 

Ditto of the sides 25 6 



il^ 



^ HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 239 

architecture in the county. The whole fabric is embattled, and supported by strong c H .\ p 
buttresses, terminated by canopied niches, crowned with purtled pinnacles of curious 
workmanship; on each buttress, below the niches, carved heads of grotesque appear- 
ance form water-spouts. The original windows are large and elegant, and ornamented 
with tracery and painted glass. 

It has already been observed, that the time of the building of this church is not cer- 
tainly known, yet it is conjectured that it could not have been earlier than some time 
in the reign of Henry the third, but more probably in that of Edward the second. 
First, because the benefactions of the inhabitants of Thaxted to the neighbouring 
abbey of Tiltey, during the reigns of Henry the third and Edward the first, were more 
considerable than could have been expected if this building had been then begun : but 
in the reign of Edward the second, no more than one benefaction appears from Thaxted 
to Tiltey, and that in the earliest part of it ; therefore this reign seems the most likely 
period for fixing the date. When, in the further progress of this inquiry, we find in 
whose hands the patronage of Clare was then vested, we shall see another powerful 
evidence for the truth of this conclusion. The different parts of the church were 
built at different times, as appears from the variation of the style. The south aisle, and 
the south end of the cross aisle, are unquestionably its oldest parts. The south aisle, 
which has no pilasters for its ornament within, and had originally no buttresses for its 
support without, and where the windows are most simple and least expensive, were, 
perhaps, erected by the inhabitants without any foreign aid. In the adjacent end of 
the cross aisle, there is a visible difference in the style of architecture, from which we 
may infer that it was erected by other means than what the parish afforded. The 
female portraits in the twelve smaller lights of the great window at the south end of 
this aisle, four of which are known to be St. Mary, St. Affra, St. Katharine, and St. 
Petronilla, proclaim the patronage of some female architect, and we may fairly pre- 
sume, from a coincidence of other circumstances, that this was no other than Elizabeth 
of Clare, daughter of Gilbert, earl of Gloucester and Hereford. This lady was 
patroness of the monastery, which was removed to Stoke, in 1124, and succeeded to 
her share of the paternal property in 1313, the seventh year of the reign of Edward 
the second. The arms of De Burgh, earl of Ulster, and son of the lady Elizabeth of 
Clare, which appear in four of the windows, at the entrance into the nave, point liim 
out as the architect of this part of the building. Though several of the De Burgh 
family had connexion with that of Clare, none of them were chiefs of their house, except 
William de Burgh, and his daughter. The arms before us being without abatement 
must, therefore, have belonged to one of these ; but the daughter being so great an 
heiress, and a ward to king Edward the third, contracted from her earliest infancy to 
his son Lionel, the king undoubtedly caused the marriage to be completed before she 
was of sufficient age to become the patroness of this work, and consequently the arms 



240 HISTORY O F E S S EX. 

BOOK II. belonged to her father. William de Burgh dying in or about the year 1340, the nave 
must have been built by him sometime previous to that period. 

The next part of the building, in order of time, is the south porch. That this was 
erected after the adjacent aisle, is evident from inspection ; that it was built after the 
nave is highly probable, from the style and ornaments, especially the coronet over the 
principal entrance of the porch. There is some reason to suppose that it was built by 
Lionel, duke of Clarence, son-in-law and successor to the earl of Ulster, who came 
into possession of the Ulster estate in 1360, and died in 1368. As this agrees well 
with the order of events, it is certainly the most probable supposition. The effigy 
and arms of Edmund, earl of March, son-in-law and successor of Lionel, duke of 
Clarence, in the principal window of the north side of the church, evidently shew that 
he was the architect of the north aisle, and the north end of the cross aisle. The 
superior elegance and taste displayed in this part of the church may well be applied to 
him, as he was equally distinguished for his skill in architecture, and for his piety and 
munificence.* As the effigy in armour, bearing on its shield the arms of March, is 
unaccompanied with that of his countess, by means of whom he became connected with 
Clare, we may infer that this part of the church was erected after her death in 1377 ; 
her husband died in 1381. The short life of this nobleman seems to have prevented 
him from putting the finishing hand to the windows of the north aisle ; for the paint- 
ings there are in a very different style from the others. A sun, which tills the prin- 
cipal rose in one of these windows, seems to allude to the victory of king Edward the 
fourth at Mortimer's Cross, and, if so, must have been added in the reign of that 
monarch. It is very probable that Roger, son of the last-mentioned earl of March, 
was prevented from extending his charity to the church of Thaxted, by the pressing 
exigencies of the monastery of Stoke, occasioned by a fine and the loss of a consider- 
able part of their revenues, which was appropriated to Westminster abbey. On 
account of the wars with France, this being an alien monastery, the revenues of it had 
been seized long before the charters of denization. Under these circumstances, Ave 
have great reason to suppose that the father was a principal benefactor to this church, 
rather than the son. If we descend to Edmund, son of Roger, the former earl of 
March, and last heir male of the house of Mortimer, as he was not of age till 1412, 
this will occasion an improbable delay in the progress of the building. There are, 
however, some cognizances in this part of the church, in the smaller lights of an adja- 

* In the east window of the cross end there were several golden falcons, accompanied with white 
roses, alluding, perhaps, to some benefaction of the house of York. The motto was, " Min grace :" 
formerly, the arms of Stafford and Vere were caned upon pannels, and supposed to be those of Henry 
Stafford, duke of Buckingham, and .John de Vere, earl of Oxford, to whom king Edward the fourth was 
guardian. The beautiful ornamented niches, formerly on the east side of the south end of the transept, 
were destroyed by order of Mr. Hcckford ; they were probably the same as are on the east side of its 
north end." 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 241 

cent window to that containing the effigy of the earl of March, which require expla- chap 
nation. As the windows and paintings are exactly similar, there can be no doubt but —Li- 
the cognizances in the one had an allusion to the person represented in the other. 
The chief cognizance to be explained, and which would illustrate the subject, is a 
dragon writhing round a ragged staff, both argent. The arms of March and Ulster, 
still remaining in the groined arches of the tower at the west end of the church, point 
out to us the munificent hand of a Mortimer in this beautiful building.* But it is 
difficult at this distance of time to discover which of that great family erected this 
tower as a monument of his taste, his munificence, and his piety. If, as has been 
supposed, the north end of the north aisle was built before the tower and spire ; if 
Edmund, earl of March, was prevented by death from finishing the windows in the 
north aisle ; if, lastly, his son Roger, earl of March, for the reason assigned, could not 
be concerned in the building, then it follows that Edmund, the last earl of March, 
must have this honour ascribed to him. 

In the chancel the arms and cognizances of Edward the fourth, in every part of it, 
particularly in the windows of the north aisle, clearly manifest that he was the founder 
of this part of the church, or at least that it was built in his reign ; there are also the 
remains of two other shields, which, in their perfect state, contained the arms of York, 
March, Ulster, and Geneville; also male and female figures in scarlet robes, both in the 
attitude of devotion. The family of Geneville, which had only for two generations 
been raised above the rank of commoners, failing in heirs male, the heiress of their 
house was married to Roger Mortimer, afterwards the first earl of March ; but it does 
not appear that any of his descendants bore the arms of Geneville, excepting in this 
instance, which could not have been adopted to dignify the house, but only to denote 
descent. The reason of this was evidently to justify his own marriage with Elizabeth 
Widville, by removing the objections against her family, being only ennobled with a 
single barony, when the same was to be found in his own descent. The centre of 
the cross aisle, between the chancel and the nave, as it must depend on the eastern 
side for support on the chancel, and could not well have been built without it, we 
naturally conclude was built at the same time, and most probably by Edward the 
fourth, or, as it may otherwise be supposed, by the inhabitants, who had now been 
engaged in the building for more than a century and a half. The whole fabric, 
except the north porch, may then be considered as finished under Edward the fourth ; 
and if the observation respecting his arms be just, about the year of his marriage, 
A.D. 1465. 

It has been generally supposed that John of Gaunt was the founder of this church ; 
but this supposition appears to have arisen in a mistake of the arms of Lancaster, in a 

* There are escallop-shells, and pelicans between the arms of March and Ulster, on the roof of the 
tower. 



242 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. window of the south aisle, where we find the royal arms ; in a second instance, with 
the addition of a label of three parts ermine, and in both with wreaths of white roses. 
Now, it is very certain that no prince of the house of Lancaster bore the white rose 
in his arms before Henry the seventh, and as these are connected Avith the guloche, 
which was an ornament of architecture introduced in the reign of Henry the eighth, 
these arms must be referred to him ; for the same reason, the portcullis, pomegranates, 
and emblems of the martyrdom of St. Katharine, are all to be referred to the same 
reign. 

From all these appearances, and from the property which king Henry possessed in 
Thaxted, as a descendant of the house of March, and which was part of the queen's 
dower, we may infer that the south aisle was in some measure indebted to them, as 
well as some other parts of the church, for improvements or repairs ; indeed, it is 
most probable, from these circumstances, taken collectively, that Henry the eighth, 
rather than Edward the fourth, was concerned in building and finishing the chancel ; 
especially as the Avide-expanded windows in the side aisles were peculiar to the time of 
the former, and the more pointed style to the time of the latter.* 

Nothing has so much improved the appearance of the interior of this church as an 
elegant window of stained glass at the east end, given by the present incumbent, the 
rev. Thomas Gee, to supply the place of the old one, which was much broken and 
defaced. The workmanship and colours supplied by Mr. Egginton, who executed the 
windows in Arundel castle, are of superior excellence : it consists of the following arms 
and cognizances, copied from the broken windows and carved roof: king Edward 
the fourth ; Lionel, duke of Clarence ; Mortimer, earl of March ; De Burgh, earl 
of Ulster; earl of Clare; Tiltey abbey; viscount Maynard : the Katharine wheel 
and pomegranate, the cognizance of Katharine of Arragon ; portcullis, of Tudor ; of 
Henry the seventh, red and white roses ; fleurs de lis, crosses, and celestial crown, 
with a variegated border, and other embellishments. 

The ceiling of the whole church exhibits abundance of carved work ; with repre- 
sentations of martyrdoms, legends of saints, grotesque physiognomies, and animals. 
The pulpit and the font are fine specimens of ancient workmanship. 

Twenty obits were founded in this church ; and donations for Jesus' mass, and 
various similar religious uses, the chief endowments of which have been appropriated 
to charitable purposes. There were also numerous altars and chapels : the high altar, 
the altars of St. Margaret, St. Thomas of Canterbury, St. Lawrence; with Our Lady's 

* The roses in the windows are all white, as are those likewise painted on one of the beams ; the carved 
work on tiie desks (formerly in the chancel) is filled with the heads and paws of lions ; with dragons, 
pelicans, falcons, and swans, intermixed with roses ; but their chief ornaments were a range of figures 
placed near their base, rejjresenting griffins, with the lion of March and the falcon of York united. 
The great window of the north end was destroyed by a storm, Dec. 2, 1703, and the opposite window was 
so much damaged as to require being taken down. 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 243 

lig-ht, and the lights of St. James, St. Katharine, and St. George the martyr.* The CHAP, 
chapels were, the chapel of the Holy Trinity, at the north end of the transept ; the l! 



chapel of St. Anne, at the opposite end ; the chapel of Our Lady, at the east end of the 
south aisle in the chancel ; and the chapel of St. John, or St. Lawrence, in the north 
aisle. In Our Lady's chapel, on the roof, are several Gothic letters; " M," surrounded 
with glories, and the letters " J. H. S." alternately. A glory round the chalice repre- 
sents the real presence at the sacrament. 

* The following are among the inscriptions in this church :—" To the memory of Thomas Swallow, Inscrip- 
bachelor of physic, of the university of Cambridge ; he married Anne, daughter of the rev. Robert Barnard, tio"*-- 
vicar of this church. He died of the small-pox in 1712, aged 26 ; leaving two children." 

" Sacred to the memory of Daniel More, esq. son of John More, of Thaxted. He lived fifty-nine years 
a life of integrity ; thirty of these years he was employed in offices under government, to which he proved 
himself well qualified ; by Katharine his wife, he had Thomas, Daniel, Charles, Edward, Abraham, Humpli- 
rey, Elizabeth, and Margaret. He was, whilst he lived, charitable to the poor of this town, (the place of 
his birth and his burial,) to whom he left a donation of forty pounds. At length, to the great grief of his 
friends, he fell a victim to death, on the 21st of July, in the year of his salvation 1631. Thomas More, his 
eldest son, and heir of the most affectionate father, caused this monument to be erected." 

" Here lie the remains of Bridget and Joan Smith, daughters of Thomas Smith, esq. and Joan his wife ; 
they both died in the year 1638." 

"Under this marble lies the mortal part of the Rev. Robert Barnard, A.M. late vicar of this church, 
who, with the greatest diligence, an astonishing prudence, and a very happy success for about fifty years, 
instructed, established, and built-up numerous inhabitants of this town in Christian faith and practice. 
He w'as constant in his attention to the sick ; exercised a remarkable liberality to the poor and helpless ; 
advised and assisted all who were acquainted with him ; and gave an example of an unblameable life of 
sincere and unaffected piety. At length, full of years, and ripe for Heaven, he died June 26, 1720, 
aged 79. Anne, his wife, died July 9, 1681, aged 30." 

On the north door of the church : " Orate p aiab Henrici Boyton et Johis." — " Pray for the souls of 
Henry and John Boyton." 

In the north aisle : " * * * * yg the myrakell of our ***** shewyde by Anes Wentworth * * * * * " 
One-fourth part of the manor of Thaxted belonged to the family of Wentworth, from 18th Ed. IV. 

" In the vault beneath are deposited the remains of William Heckford, gent, who died Dec. 5, 1749, aged 
59 : and of Elizabeth (daughter of T. Rayner, gent.), his wife, who died August 16, 1757, aged 66 : with 
Anne, Thomas, Mary, and William, four of their children." 

" John Rayner, gent, died August 27, 1679, aged 51. Thomas Rayner, of Trinity College, was buried 
Dec. 20, 1674." 

" Nathaniel Westley, and Sarah his wife, died April 27, 1711." 

" Richard Turner, died Sept. 22, 1701 : and Richard, son of Richard Turner, and Hannah his wife, died 
Aug. 10, 1706." 

On the south side of the tower : " Near this place lieth the body of Peter Piatt, stone-mason ; of wliose 
care and fidelity as a servant, his master, Edward Thompson, after eighteen years' experience, places this 
stone as a memorial. Of his qualification as a mason, this south side of the tower, repaired under hi- 
direction in the year before his death, will remain a lasting monument. He died Aug. 15, 1759, aged 54. 

" Where Peter lies, 'tis fit this tower should show. 
But for his skill, itself had lain as low." 

Charities. — The charitable benefactions belonging to this parish are very extensive. The estate named Chaiities. 
Yerdleys, in the time of Henry the sixth, belonged to Thomas Yerdele, and was, on his death, vested in 



244 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. During the summer of 1814, the spire of this church was considerably injured by 
lightning ; and scaflPolding was erected, at the expense of nearly four hundred pounds, 
for taking down the damaged part; of which forty-six feet had been removed, when, 
on the 16th of December following, a violent storm arose, which threw down the 
scaffolding, and thirty feet of what remained of the spire. Tlie body of the church was 
also very considerably injured, but was completely repaired, and the tower rebuilt in 
1822, by Mr. Cheshire, of Over-Wliitaker, near Coleshill, in Warwickshire. 

Prior's Previous to the Conquest, the rectory of Thaxted, called Prior's Hall, belonged to 

the collegiate church of St. John the Baptist, of Clare, in Suffolk; in 1124, removed 
by Richard, son of Gilbert de Clare, to Stoke, near that town. This appropriation, 
first made bv Richard, bishop of London, was confirmed, and the vicarage endowed 
by Roger Niger, his successor. The convent was afterwards converted into a college, 
with a dean and chapter, who retained both the rectory and vicarage till the dissolu- 
tion of their house, after wliich the vicarage and manor of Prior's Hall were granted 
by Edward the sixth, to his preceptor, sir John Cheeke, who was deprived of this 
possession on the accession of queen Mary. In 1560, they became the property of 
William lord Howard, of Efiingliam, and of his son, Charles lord Howard, in 1580; 
from whom they were the same year conveyed to Robert Petre, esq., and in 1605, 
John lord Petre sold them to sir Henry Maynard, ancestor of the present proprietor. 

A dispute arising between William lord Maynard, impropriator of Thaxted and 
patron, and Norman Leader, vicar, respecting the tithe of hops, it was referred to 
Dr. Laud, the bishop of London, whose decision was agreed to by both parties ; and 
which ordered that the vicar should receive yearly, besides his usual oblations and dues, 
twenty pounds of well-dried hops, that he should be discharged from his usual payment 
of five marks for the reparation of the chancel, and that he should have from the rector 
a yearly pension of thirty pounds. 

feoffees, in trust for his four sons, and their issue, or, in default of such issue, to be sold for the benefit 
of the church and poor, and for the repairs of the adjacent hiijhways. The sons all dying childless, the 
estate was sold in 1489, and the produce made to form a fund, for the tenths and fifteenths that might be 
levied on the parish by the government, or, when not wanted for this purpose, the revenues were to be 
applied to other charitable uses. The mode of taxation by tenths and fifteenths having been long dis- 
continued, the produce of the fund is now applied to the support of a school, repairing the church, im- 
proving the highways, &c. — William lord Maynard, by will, in 1698, bequeathed four thousand pounds 
for purchasing the rectory of Thaxted, or some other of equal value, to be vested in trustees, for the pur- 
pose of increasing the salary of the minister, repairing and beautifying the church, marrying poor virgins, 
binding out apprentices, relieving poor people overburthened with children, and for other purposes. The 
rectory of Thaxted being entailed in such a manner that it could not be obtained, that of Potten, in Bed- 
fordshire, and some estates in Suffolk, were purchased with the abovementioned princely donation, the pro- 
ceeds of which are applied according to the directions of the donor. — Among the numerous other charities, 
are endowments for almshouses in different parts of the town: one of the buildings appropriated to this 
use is an ancient chantry-house: the Guildhall is now the parish workhouse, and the Mote-hall is used 
for a school. 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 245 

Samviel Purchas, B.D., a learned divine, was born at Thaxted, in the year 1577 chap. 
and died in 1628. He received his education at Cambridg-e; and was a man of '^' 



universal learning-. With great labour and industrj^, he enlarged and perfected ^amu^l 
Hackluyt's collection of Voyages and Travels; a work highly esteemed, and valuable 
for the various instruction and amusement contained in it. He also wrote Micro- 
cosmos, or the History of Man, and other works ; and died in poverty and distress, 
from the charges of publishing. 

This parish, in 1821, contained two thousand and forty-five, and, in 1831, two 
thousand two hundred and ninety-three inhabitants.* 

LINDSEL. 

This small and pleasant parish, from Thaxted extends south-eastward to DunmoAv, l^in'lsel. 
and to Hinckford hundred. In records the name is written Lyndesele, Lindezel; in 
Domesday, Lindeseles. Distant from Great Dunmow three, and from London 
forty miles. 

The lands of this parish, previous to the Conquest, belonged to Ulmar, a freeman, 
and at the survey had been given to Eudo Dapifer. There are three manors. 

Lindsel Hall is near the church; this manor, in 1210, was holden under Eudo, by f^'i'^lsti 
the service of one knight's fee, by Ralph Pirot, whose descendants were the recorded 
possessors of this estate till the reign of Edward the first, when it belonged suc- 
cessively to Ralph Pirot in 1251, sir Ralph his son, and to John and Simon Pirot, 
of the same family. Afterwards it became the property of the Clare family, from 
whom it was conveyed, by marriage, to Bartholomew lord Badlesmere, and by his 
youngest daughter Margaret, to her husband, John de Tibetot, on whose decease, in 
1367, his son, Robert de Tibetot, or Tiptoft, was his successor, who dying in 1372, 
left three daughters, the youngest of whom, married to Philip le Despenser, brought 
him this estate; and he, on his decease in 1423, left it to his only daughter Margaret, 
married to sir Roger Wentworth, whose successors were sir Philip, sir Henry, and 
sir Richard; which last died in 1528, in possession of this estate; his son, sir Thomas 
Wentworth, was created baron Wentworth of Nettlested in 1529, and is supposed to 
have sold this estate to William Fitche, esq. of Brazen-head, a capital mansion in this 
parish, so named from a wolf's head of brass over the gateway. Richard, the second 
son, succeeded his father liere; whose son Thomas, his successor, had by his wife 
Margaret Meade, Thomas Fitche, of Margaretting, and Robert, of Brazenhead, whose 
son Thomas was living in 1614. This manor afterwards became the property of sir 
Francis North, lord Guilford, and now belongs to the earl of Guilford. 

Latcheley Hall is on an eminence, near the road to Stebbing, three quarters of a Latcheiey. 
mile from Lindsel church: it was holden of the honour of Clare by the family of 

* We cannot pass this opportunity of acknowledging the great and kind assistance which we have 
received, in the history of his own parish, from the rev. Thomas Jee, vicar of Thaxted. 
VOL, II. 2 K 



246 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK 11. Badlesmere, succeeded by William Bohun, afterwards earl of Northampton, from 
whom it descended, with Thaxted, to Richard, duke of York; and passing- to the 
crown, was granted, by Henry the eighth, to Richard Jenour, esq. from whom it 
descended, with Bigods in Great Dunmow, to his heirs and successors. 

Pi ioi '> Prior's Hall is a short distance from the church, and the considerable manorial estate 

"'^"' to which it belongs was in possession of Harolf, in the time of Edward the confessor; 

and at the survey had been given to the monastery of St. Valery, in Picardy. Being 
one of the priories alien, it passed to the crown in the time of the wars with France, 
and was afterwards given to New College, Oxford. 

Clinrtli. I'he church is of one pace with the chancel, and the steeple stands on the south side 

of the west end. This church was appropriated to the abbey of Walden, and a vicarage 
endowed, to which, in 1433, the convent added six marks per annum.* 

In 1821, there were in this parish three hundred and fifty-three, and, in 1831, three 
hundred and eighty-one inhabitants. 

CHICKNEY. 

ciiickuoy. This parish extends from Lindsel and Thaxted south-westward to Henham, on the 
border of Uttlesford hundred. The name is written Chikeneye, Chigney, and in 
Domesday Cichenai: sometimes it is called Great Chickney. 

A thane named Siward, had the lands of this parish in the time of Edward the 
confessor, and at the survey it was one of the thirty-five lordships belonging to Ralph 
Peverel, in this county; Garin was his under-tenant. Ralph Peverel married Ingelric, 
a concubine of the Conqueror, by whom, previous to her marriage, she became the 
mother of William Peverel, of Nottingham, one of whose sons was the ancestor of 
the family who were seated here. In 1210 and 1211, William Peverel held five 
knights' fees; Hugh Peverel had free- warren here in 1247, and, at the time of his 
decease in 1298, held the manor of Chickney of the king, as of his honour of Peverel, 
by the service of one knight's fee. John, his son and heir, held jointly with Joanna 
his wife, the manor of Chickney; he died in 1314, leaving Hugh his son and heir. 
Here a chasm of one hundred years occurs in the records, and during this interval 
the family of Bourchier had come to the possession of the estate. In 1456, it belonged 
to Henry viscount Bourchier; to Henry, earl of Essex, in 1472, and to his successor 
of the same name, who died in 1540, when, on failure of heirs male, it became the 
inheritance of his only daughter Anne, who, by marriage, conveyed it to William 
Parr, earl of Essex and marquis of Northampton, who presented to the living in 1542; 
but being implicated with the party who supported the cause of lady Jane Grey, he 
was attainted, and his estates forfeited. He was restored in blood by queen Mary, 

* Inscription : Beneath the efBgies of a man and woman, with six girls, and five boys, is a Latin 
inscription, of which the following is a translation. " Here lie Thomas Fitche and Agnes his wife, which 
Thomas died 21 April, 1614. May God be merciful to their souls." 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 24T 

but not to the whole of his estates and honours till 1558. Afterwards this estate C H A i'. 

IX 

became the property of Henry CoUyn, esq. succeeded by colonel Evan Lloyd, of ' 



whom it was purchased by Joseph Cranmer, esq. of Quendon Hall. 

The church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, is on g-round considerably elevated, Church, 
commanding an extensive view of the surrounding country. A tower of stone, with 
a spire shingled, contains two bells.* 

In 1821, this parish contained sixty-six, and, in 1831, seventy-two inhabitants. 

BROXTED, or CHAWRETH. 

The parish of Broxted extends from Chickney southward, and westward joins to Bioxtcd, 
Henham. The lands are fruitful and well-cultivated, presenting from the high grounds reth. 
pleasant and extensive prospects. A brook rises here which falls into the Chelmer 
at Tiltey, from which the name of the place has been supposed to have been derived; 
this name in records is written Broxted, Brokesed, Brokesefede, Brokeshend, 
Brokesheved, Broxhed, in Domesday Brocheshevot; and it has formerly been divided 
into Great and Little. It is also traditionally reported to have been originally a hamlet 
to what was named Chawreth; yet this last name does not appear in Domesday. It 
is distant from Dunmow four, and from London thirty-seven miles. 

A part of this parish is stated to have been in possession of two sochmen in the time 
of the Confessor, which at the survey belonged to Eudo Dapifer, whose under-tenant 
here was named Richard. This part, both before and after the Conquest, belonged to 
the monastery of St. Ethelbert, at Ely. There are three manors. 

Broxted Hall is a short distance south-westward from the church, and the manor is Broxted 

Hall 

supposed to be what was holden as a knight's fee in 1210, with part of two fees and a 
half in Chaure and Brokesheved, which the earl of Clare, and the heirs of Walter 
de Acre, held of Richard de Clare, earl of Gloucester and Hertford, who died in 1262. 
After the decease of Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester, in 1314, this estate was 
holden of Elizabeth de Burgh, lady of Clare, by John de Lovaine, who died in 1347: 
his family retained possession till 1359, when it was conveyed, by Alianor his daughter, 
to her husband, sir William Bourchier, in which family it remained till Anne, the 
only daughter of Henry Bourchier, earl of Essex, conveyed it, by marriage, to 
William Parr, marquis of Northampton. In 1558, it was granted, by Mary and 
Philip, to sir Thomas White; and by Queen Elizabeth, in 1590, to Henry Maynard, 
esq. ancestor of the lords Maynard, of Easton Lodge. 

Chawreth Hall, vulgarly named Cherry Hall, at the time of the survey belonged to Chawreth 

the monastery of St. Ethelbert, at Ely. In 1294, William de Wanton held it in 

right of his wife Maud, of John de Lovetott, sen. by the service of two knights' fees; 

and it passed to his descendants, William in 1347, sir William in 1397, and to his 

* There is an ahnshouse on Chickney Green for two dwellers. 



248 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BuuK II. co-heiresses, Joan and Anne. In 1540, it had become the property of sir Richard 
Gresham, alderman of London, who sold it in that year to Thomas Crawley, esq. 
of Wendon Loughts, who died in 1559, holding this manor of John Newdigate, esq. 
as of his manor of Harefteld, in Middlesex. It was afterwards in the families of 
Bendish, Adams of Elsenham, and by purchase passed to sir Strange Jocelyn, bart. of 
Sawbridgeworth, in Hertfordshire, who left it by will to his younger son, sir Conyers 
Jocelyn, M.D. bart. who sold it to Charles lord Maynard. 

Cliiucli. The church is on the side of a hill; it is dedicated to St. Mary; the chancel unusually 

iiigh, with a south aisle; a low wooden belfry contains four bells. 

Uectoiy. The rectory is a manor, and the manor-house is near the church. In 1151 it was 
given, by Alured de Bendeville and his wife Sibil, with Roger Pigot's land, and all 
appertenances, to the hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, for the souls of the noble 
house of Clare, and for their own souls: Gilbert, earl of Clare, is on this occasion 
called " their lord." This gift was confirmed by Richard de Clare, earl of Hertford, 
king John, and Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury. After the suppression, in 1541, 
the rectory, with the advowson of the vicarage, were granted to George Harper, and 
he, in 1543, conveyed them to sir Thomas Audley. 

This parish, in 1821, contained five hundred and ninety-seven, and, in 1831, six 
hundred and ninety-four inhabitants. 

BARNSTON, or BERNSTON. 

Hiiiiistoii, This parish, pleasantly and conveniently situated on the river Chelmer, southward 

or licji'ii" 

stou. from Dunmow, is thinly inhabited, and the labouring part of the community chiefly 

dependant on agricultural occupations. It is distant from Ongar fifteen, and from 
London thirty-six miles. 

Beniston Hugh de Berners held this manor, the only one in the parish, under Geofi'ey de 
Magnaville, at the time of the survey; he also had Roding Berners, in this hundred, 
and both of these estates have retained his name, this being originally Berners-town, 
corruptly pronounced Bernston, and Barnston. The Berners family continued tenants 
of this estate many generations after the Conquest. Sir Ralph died possessed of it in 
1297; sir John in 1375; and his son sir James, surnamed of West Horseley, in 
SuiTey, was beheaded in 1388, for the alleged treason of giving evil advice to king 
Richard the second; his estates being confiscated, this manor was sold to Thomas of 
Woodstock, duke of Gloucester, who, according to the Monasticon, settled it on his 
college of Fleshy; and on the dissolution of religious houses, in 1546, it was granted 
to sir John Gate, on whose attaindure for being of the party who advocated the cause 
of lady Jane Grey, this and his other estates fell to the crown, and were granted, by 
queen Mary, to Robert, brother to Richard lord Rich, to whom part of this estate 
afterwards came by co-heirship; and it remained in this family till Daniel, earl of 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 249 

Nottingham, who married lady Essex, one of the daughters and co-heiresses of the ^ ^ A i*. 
last earl of Warwick, sold Bernston to sir Felix Wylde, hart, of Town-Marden, in ' 



Kent, whose sister was married to John Cockman, M.D. and their daughter, by 
marriage, conveyed this estate and Priory Place, in Little Dunraow, to Nicholas 
Toke, esq. whose descendant is the present possessor. 

Albanes is a capital mansion on the road to High Roding, about a mile from the Aibanes. 
church westward; it was for many generations the residence of the Collard family; 
William Collard died here in 1668, aged 88, and on the death of Ady Collard, esq.* 
unmarried in the 74th year of his age, he left two sisters, Barbara, wife of Nicholas 
Stiles, and Dorothy, who died single in 1743, in the 82nd year of her age: on which 
the estate became the property of sir Robert Fagg, hart, whose lady was daughter of 
William Ward, L.L.D. commissary of York, whose grandmother was a daughter of 
Dr. Ady. 

The church, which is on the top of the hill, and rather an old-looking building, had C'luucii. 
the original entrances by semi-circular arches; of which, that on the south side had 
its mouldings distinct, which are plain: both are now blocked up, and the entrance is 
at the end, by a modern square wooden door.f 

In 1821, this parish contained two hundred and eighteen, and, in 1831, two hundred 
and fifteen inhabitants. 

* Arms of Collard : Party per fesse, argent and or, two moors' heads couped, sable, lips gules, escar- 
sioned, or and sable, 

f Inscriptions: Memoriue sacrum. " Hie situs est Robertus Scottus, theol. professor, decanus Roffensis, Inscrip- 
magister Aulas Clarensis, in academia Cantabr : sub-decanus Wellensis, vir prisca tide, antiquis moribus, 
pietate in deum, probitate in homines, instructissimus, e Collegio, S: et ind ; Trinit. Cant, ubi socius 
summo cum bonorum amore, et pari honore vixit, ad aulam regiam evocatus, sub-eleemosynarius regius 
factus, olim ElizabetliEe, nuper serenissimo Jacobo ; episcopis, proceribus, famulisq : certatim charus, 
etiam dissidentium centrum et amor communis, tanta charitate ut prsefectus regiis eleemosynis suas 
exerceret, et etiam cum cederet loco regiis eleemosynis praefectus videretur, Aulae Clarensis, factus 
magister iisdem moribus rediit Cantabr : quibus olim egressus est, tam aulicarum artium ignarus, quam 
peritus academicarum, quemcumq : locum allegit beavit, templum Roffcnse eo decano Clarense sacellum et 
bibliotheca eo praefecto redornata. Tot loca tot trophaea. Procancellariatum academicum mirabili justitia 
exegit; deniq. vir etiam cum viverit coelestis tam supra adulationem meam (lector) quam tuam fidem. 
Obiit 23 Dec. 1620, ^Etat. 51." 

In English : Sacred to memory. — " Here lies Robert Scott, professor of divinity, dean of Rochester, 
master of Clare Hall, in the university of Cambridge, sub-dean of Wells, a man faithful and good in a 
greater degree than the generality of the people of this age ; most remarkable for piety towards God, and 
integrity towards man. He was of Trinity College, in Cambridge, where he lived as a fellow, highly 
esteemed and honoured by good men. Being called to court, he was made sub-almoner, first to queen 
Elizabeth, then to king James. To bishops, nobles, servants, lie was equally dear ; even those who 
disagreed among themselves, agreed in their love of him. He was so charitable, that when dispenser of 
the royal alms, he gave his own; and even when he quitted this office, he seemed yet a prince's almoner. 
Being appointed master of Clare Hall, he returned to Cambridge with tlie same habits he had when he left 
it, as much ignorant of court-arts as acquainted with academic virtues. He was a blessing to every place 



tions. 



250 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. 



ville 



PLESHY. 



Piesliy. -piiis parish, from tlie extremity of the hundred eastward, extends to Leaden 

Roding, and to High Estre on the north. The village consists of one long street. 
Distant from Donmow seven, and from London thirty-five miles. 

It was anciently a place of importance, being the seat of the high constables of 
England till some time after the year 1400. The name has been supposed to come 
from the French word Plaisir, applicable on account of its situation, on elevated 
ground, with agreeable prospects, especially toward the south, in which direction it is 
watered by a small stream, and by a brook on the north. It is variously named 
in records, Pleshynchou, Plesinchou, Plessy, Pleshe, Plashe, Pleysie, Placy, Placeis, 
Plaisiers, Pleshites, Plecy, Plaisy, alias Belhous, alias Bowles. 

Little is known of the history of Pleshy before the period of the Norman conquest. 
If it was, as some think, included in High Estre, it was, though by usurpation, the 
seat of the high constable in the Conqueror's time ; for Alf here, or Esgar, entitled 
stallere, which is interpreted by the Latin dux, and in another passage constabulariust 
took that place from the abbey of Ely in the Conqueror's reign, and they could not 
regain it without granting him a life estate therein. He was soon after imprisoned 
by order of the king, and ended his life in confinement. But the monks never 
recovered their property, it remaining in the crown. Pleshy was granted to Eustace, 
earl of Bologne, who held it at the survey, and his under-tenant was one Bernard. 
When Maud, grand-daughter of earl Eustace, was married to king Stephen, her 
father's great estates became vested in the crown, and Pleshy was by Stephen con- 
Mande- ferred on Geofrey de Mandeville, who was created earl of Essex. Having joined the 
party of the empress Maud, he was seized and imprisoned ; and the tower of London, 
with the castles of Walden and Pleshy, both of his own building, were made the 
price of his release. He was shortly afterwards slain at the siege of Burwell castle 
by a missile from the walls. Henry II. restored all his estates to his son Geofrey, 
and gave him his cousin to wife ; but soon after took her away, with his two manors 
of Walden and Waltham. Geofrey died at Chester in 1167, on an expedition against 
the Welsh, and was succeeded by his brother William, who obtained leave of the king 
to fortify his castle here, wherein he solemnized his marriage with Hawise, daughter 

he filled; to the church of Rochester, as dean; to Clare Hall chapel and library, the latter of which was 
re-beautified under his mastership. The more offices he held, the more trophies there were of his recti- 
tude, and was in short, whilst he lived, a heavenly-minded man, as much beyond my flattery (reader) as 
thy belief. He died on the 23d of Dec. 1620, in the 51st year of his age." 

There are also epitaphs on Richard Scott, gent, who gave one hundred and sixty pounds for the 
poor ; Robert Scott, who died in 1620 ; Ady Collard, esq. son of William and Dorothy Collard, who died 
July 31, 1747, aged 74 ; and several others of the same family. 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 251 

and heir of William le Gros, earl of Albemarle, in 1 180, by whom he had the earldom c H a F 
of Albemarle. "From this time," Gough observes, "we must probably date the ^^' 
Norman fortification of this place." Geofrey was sent on several embassies by 
Henry II. and Richard I., and is represented by the compiler of the Chronicle of Wal- 
den abbey, which was founded by his ancestors, as a person of lively parts, consummate 
prudence, great personal bravery, and resembling his brother in person, stature, and 
address.* He died without issue in 1198, and his estate devolved to his second cousin, 
Beatrix de Say, grand-daughter of his aunt Beatrix. She married Geofrey Fitz- Piers, 
of Ludgarshal castle, in Wiltshire, chief justice of England, and, in her right, earl of 
Essex : their sons, Geofrey and William, assuming the surname of Mandeville, also 
enjoyed the same dignity and title. They had a daughter named Maud, married to 
Henry de Bohun, earl of Hereford, and lord high constable of England. Geofrey, 
the father, died in 1213, his son Geofrey in 1216, and William in 1227, both without 
offspring; the last of them entailing his estates, with the earldom, on Maud, his 
sister ; whose husband, created earl of Hereford by king John in 1199, and constable 
of England, dying in 1220,-]- was succeeded by his son Humphrey, known by the 
popular appellation of the " Good earl of Hereford;" likewise, in right of his mother, 
earl of Essex. He married, first, Maud, daughter of Ralph de Issodun, by whom he 
had his son Humphrey, Avho died before him : marrying, secondly, Maud de Avenes- 
bury, he had John and Milo. Dying in 1275, Humphrey, eldest son of his son of 
that name, succeeded as earl of Hereford and Essex ; and was also, in his mother's 
right, baron of Brecknock : he obtained leave of Edward the first, in 1320, to inclose 
one hundred and fifty acres, contiguous to his park of Waltham and High Estre ; 
which has been known as Fleshy Great Park. He died at Pleshy in 1298, leaving 
by Maud, sister of William lord Fines, Humphrey, his only son, slain at Borough- 
bridge, in 1322 : having married Elizabeth, daughter of king Edward the first, widow 
of John earl of Holland, by whom he had six sons and two daughters; Margaret, 
married to Hugh Courtney, earl of Devonshire, and Eleanor, to James Butler, earl of 
Ormond. John, the eldest son, and heir to his father's estates and honours, was twice 
married ; but dying childless, in 1335, was succeeded by his brother Humphrey, who 
also died without issue in 1361. William, earl of Northampton, his next brother, 
died before him, in 1359, but Humphrey, his son, succeeded his uncle, as earl of 
Hereford, Essex, and Northampton; baron of Brecknock, and high constable of 
England. He married Joan, daughter of Richard Fitz- Alan, earl of Arundel and 
Surrey, and on his decease, in 1372, left Eleanor and Mary, co-heiresses to an immense 
estate : his widow died in 1416. Eleanor was married to Thomas of Woodstock, 

* Vir acer ingenio, consilio providus, in armis nomine inagnus ; ipsuni autcm eadem complexio, simili 
facundia, par corporis proceritas, fratri satis assiniilavit. — Monast. Augl. i. 451. 

•fMaud, liis widow, was married to Roger de Dautsey, but divorced from him in 1227. 



ccstei. 



252 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. sixth son of king- Edward the third, and, in her right, succeeding to the family honours, 

was also, in 1377, created earl of Buckingham, and, in 1385, duke of Gloucester. 

With his lady he had Fleshy, High Estre, Waltham, and other estates. 

Mary, the youno-er sister, was married to Henry earl of Derby, afterwards king 
Henry the fourth. 

The duke of Gloucester was uncle to king Richard the second, and highly distin- 
guished for valour, probity, and honour ; but having great influence in public affairs, 
and being o})posed to the measures pursued by his nephew's favourite advisers, his 
destruction was determined upon, for Avhich purpose he was treacherously decoyed 
from his castle of Fleshy, and forcibly conveyed to Faris, where he was murdered, 

in 1397. 
Death of This transaction is related as follows, by Froissart : — " On a day the kynge in maner 
of Giou- as goyng a huntyng rode from Haveryng of Bour a xx myle from London in 
Essexe, and within xx myle of Plasshey, where the duke of Gloucestre helde his 
house. After dyner, the kynge departed from Haveryng with a small company, and 
came to Plasshey about v a clocke ; the weder was fa}Te and bote. So the kynge came 
sodainly thyder about the tyme that the duke of Gloucestre had supped. For he was 
but a small eater, nor eat ne^'er long at dyner nor at supper. When he herde of the 
kvnge's comynge, he went to meet hym in the myddel of the court, and so did the 
duchesse and her chyldren, and they welcomed the kynge, and the kynge entered into 
the hall and so into a chambre. Than a horde was spredde for the kynge's supper.^ 
The kynge satt not longe, and sayd at his fyrst cominge, ' Faire uncle, cause fvve or 
sixe horses of yours to be sadylled, for I wyll praye you to ryde with me to London, 
as tomorrowe, the Londoners wyll be before us. And there wyll be also myne uncles 
of Lancastre and Yorke, with dyvers other noblemen. For upon tlie Londoners 
requestes I wyll be ordred accordyng to your counsayle, and commaunde your stewarde 
to foUowe you with your trayne to London, where they shall fynde you.' The duke, 
who thought none yvell. lyghtly agreed to the kynge. And when the kynge had 
supped and rysen, every thynge was redy. The kynge then toke leave of the 
duchesse and of her chyldren, and lepte a horsebacke, and the duke with h^-m, accom- 
panyed all onely but with sevyn servauntes, thre squyers, and fonre yeomen, and tooke 
the waye of Bondelay, to take the playne waye and to eschewe Brendwode and London 
commen hyghewaye. So they rode a greet payee, and the kynge talked by the way with 
his uncle, and he with hym, and so aproched to Stratforde on the ryver of Thames. 
When the kynge came nere to the bushment that he had layde, than he rode from his 
uncle a great pace, and lefte hym somewhat beh}Tide hym. Than sodaynly the erle- 
marshall with his bande came galopyng after the duke, and overtoke hym, and saide, 
' Sir, I arest you in the kynge's name.' The duke was abasshed with that worde, and 
sawe well he was betrayed, and began to call loude after the kynge. I can nat tell 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 253 

weder the kynge herde hyra or nat, but he turned nat; but rode forthe rather faster ^ H A p. 
than he dyde before." * ^____ 

The tenants of the duke did not long remain without an opportunity of showing 
their love to their lord and their hatred to his enemies. The duke of Exeter, who 
was concerned in the conspiracy against Henry IV., when he heard of the defeat of his 
partisans at Cirencester, in Gloucestershire, being then at London, immediately took 
horse, and, with sir John Schevele, fled to the coast of Essex, intending to escape by 
sea. Being, however, driven back in repeated attempts, he contrived to secrete him- 
self for some time, but was at last discovered by the country people while sitting at 
supper in the house of a friend.f He was taken first to Chelmsford, and thence, for 
the sake of greater security, to Pleshy, the manor of the late duke of Gloucester, in 
whose death he was believed to have had too much concern. No sooner, therefore, 
did the tenants and villaines of the manor understand that he was in their power, than, 
resolving to be themselves the avengers of their lord, they seized upon him, and cut 
off" his head.f 

* Bourchier's Froissart, fol. cclxxxvii. — The duke of Gloucester is made to give the following account 
of his apprehension in the Mirror of Magistrates ; — 

" For lying at Plashey my selfe to repose 

By reason of sickenesse which helde mee full sore : 
llie king espying mee apart from those 
With whom I confedered in band before, 
Thought it not meete to tract the time more, 
But glad to take mee at such a vauntage. 
Came to salute mee with friendly visage. 



Who having a band bound to his bent, 
By colour of kindnesse to visite his game, 
Tooke time to accomplishe his cruell entent ; 
And in a small vessell downe by the streame, 
Conveyd mee to Calais, out of the realme, 
Where, without process or dome of my peeres, 
Not nature, but murder, abridged my yeeres." 



The parliamentary records contain the confession of John Halle, who was hanged for this murder. He 
was a valet of the duke of Norfolk, and, among other particulars, stated, " that Norfolk came to him at 
Calls, and called him out of his bed, telling him that the king and the duke of Aumerle had sent their 
valets, Serle and Franceys, for the purpose of murdering Gloucester, and that he must be present in the 
name of his master." Halle prayed that he might be suffered to go away, though with the loss of all his 
property; but Norfolk told him he must be present or forfeit his life, and therewith struck him violently 
on the head. The confederate valets first went to a church, and were sworn to secrecy ; they then repaired 
to Gloucester's lodging at his inn, who, seeing Serle, asked him how he did, saying, " Now I know I shall 
do well ;" but Serle, taking Franceys with him, called the duke into another chamber, and they there told 
him it was the king's will that he should die. Gloucester answered, that if it was the king's will it must 
be so: they asked him to have a chaplain, to which he agreed, and confessed ; they then compelled him 
to lie down on a bed ; the two valets threw a feather-bed over him, three other persons held down its 
sides, whilst Serle and Franceys pressed on the mouth of the duke till he expired ; there were three other 
persons in the chamber on their knees, weeping and praying for his soul, whilst Halle kept guard at the 
door. The duke of Norfolk came to them, and saw the body of murdered Gloucester. — Placeta, Purl. vol. iii. 

t An old chronicle quoted by Leland (Itin. vi. 31) says he was apprehended in a mill at Pritewelle. — 
Fabyan (ii. 342) says, "And at Prytwell, in Essex, was taken sir John Holland, duke of Exeter," &c. 

X The authorities for this account are Walsinghara, Otterbourne, and the monk of Evesham. — We have 
an account given by Dugdale (Baro. ii. 80) of the king's sending his precept to the churchwardens of 
Pleshy, " to deliver his head," to the countess's messenger, " to be buried with his body." It would 
VOL. II. 2 L 



254 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. The duke of Gloucester being in the ensuhig- parliament declared a traitor, his lands 
and possessions were forfeited to the king ; his Avidow, however, at the time of her 
decease, in 1399, enjoyed nearly the whole of the estates belonging to her ancestors, 
with the office of high constable. The remains of the duke, her husband, were first 
buried in his collegiate church here, but afterwards removed to Westminster abbey; 
where she was also buried. They had an only son, Humphrey, who died unmarried, 
and three daughters, Anne, Joan, and Isabel : the last of these was a nun ; Joan was 
married to Gilbert lord Talbot, and died in 1400, and her only daughter died young; 
so that Anne, the eldest daughter, became sole heiress to the Bohun estates. She was 
married, first, to Thomas, and, secondly, to Edmund, his brother, successively earls of 
Stafford ; and, thirdly, to William Bourchier, earl of Eu. But she did not enjoy this 
lordship; for, in 1421, a partition being made of the estates of Humphrey de Bohun, 
last of that name, earl of Essex, between king Henry the fifth, son of Mary, youngest 
daughter of Thomas of Woodstock, and Anne, countess of Stafford, this castle and 
nianoi*, with the park, became the king's property,* and were united to the dutchy of 
Lancaster. 

In 1547, Edward the sixth granted the "manor of Plecy, and Plecy parkes, alias le 
great park and le little parke de Plecy," to sir John Gate ; on whose attainder, in 
1553, this estate again passed to the crown. The great park, sometime afterwards 
becoming the property of Richard lord Rich, was incorporated with the demesnes of 
Waltham-bury ; and the little park of Pleshy, with a messuage belonging to it in 
Great Waltham, was purchased by sir Robert Clarke, baron of the exchequer, who 
held it in fee-farm of the honour of Mandeville, at the time of his decease, in 1607. 
Robert, his son, was his successor; followed, in 1629, by his son of the same name, 
who built the large house called the Lodge, using, on this occasion, the materials of 
the ancient castle and the college. The successive heirs of this family retained pos- 
session of the lodge estate and tithes of the parish, till Robert Clarke, esq. of Rifehams, 
sold them, in 1720, to sir William Joliffe, knt. who on his decease, in 1750, left them 
to his nephew, Samuel Tufnell, esq. of Langleys, in Great W^altham, ancestor of the 
present possessor ; to whom, likewise, belong the estates of Pleshy-bury and farm.f 

appear, however, that the duke of Exeter was actually buried at Pleshy ; for Wcever says, " Vpon one of 
the parts of a dismenibred monument, carelesly cast here and there in the body of the church, I found 
these words : ' Here lyeth lohn Holland, erle of Exceter, erle of Huntington, and chamberleyne of England, 
who dyed ' " 

* Statut. 9th Hen. V. 

t The following memorandum, relating to the manor of Pleshy, is found among the records in the 
Augmentation office :— " Mem. That there is a court-baron and court-leet belonging to the said manor 
usually holden upon Wednesday in Whitsun week. That the mayor of Pleshey for the time being, is to 
collect and gather all the quit rents, fines, and amercements of courts, without any consideration allowed 
him for his pains; that the tenants holding of the said manor do usually pay one year's quit-rent, upon 
descent or alienation, as a relief, unto the lord thereof." 



Pleshv- 
burv. 



Roman 
I'emains. 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 255 

The site of Pleshy appears to have been occupied by the Romans. A Roman ^ ^ -^ '^ 
fortification (Gough says) surrounds the village. It begins to the west of the church, 
which stands just without it, and falls into the fosse of the keep of the castle on the 
west side. The vallum, Avitli a noble fosse, is very perfect in parts of the north, east, 
and west sides, and the four roads which led into the camp, may be easily traced. 
That which enters the west side, running by the church, may be followed by piecemeal 
almost to Chelmsford, to the west of the Walthara road. By its side have been found 
many human bones, a bit of iron,* a stone coffin, and a glass urn with bones in it, as 
also some tesselse of pavements.f The circumference of the vallum is within a few 
yards of a Roman mile. " About twenty-five years ago several urns were found in a 
field about half a mile from the church ; and, at Pleshy-bury farm, in a field called 
Stickling, had been discovered a vault, about three yards square, paved with bricks, 
about nine inches square, and containing in niches several earthen vessels with 
stoppers (which a countryman, my informant, said were brass), and filled with earth 
and bones. In a field about a quarter of a mile from the church, belonging to the 
Bury farm, in the road leading to High Estre, was found, about thirty years ago, a 
tine glass urn, with some burnt bones in it, which Samuel Tufnell, esq. shewed to the 
society of antiquaries. I could hear of nothing else found there. In the tower of the 
church are some Roman bricks ; and Mr. Morant finds such at the two corners of the 
chancel of the adjoining church of High Estre.":}: The whole vallum, as measured by 
surveyors in 1773, was said to be nineteen chains, eighty links, or sixty rods, in circum- 
ference, and the keep thirteen chains, fifty links, or fifty-two rods. 

Supposing the castle of Pleshy, with some writers, to have been a Norman struc- Pleshy 
ture, still there can scarcely be a doubt that the prodigious earth-works which yet 
remain are much more ancient; if not Danish, perhaps the work of the still older British 
occupiers of the soil. Leland has preserved a tradition which clearly points to this 
great antiquity of the earth-works. " One of the college of Plescy yn Estsax," he 

* Gough is here supposed to mean, an iron bridle bit. 

f " The road from Bromfield to Great Chicknal lies for nearly two miles very straight ; and the name of a 
few houses that stand on each side of one part of it is, to this day, fick-street, or, as in Chapman's map, 
JVick-street. Street has been always allowed to be a corruption of stratum, and Vick seems to retain the 
sound of f^icus : so that such a road may naturally be supposed to lead to some ancient station. This 
road ceases about a mile from Chelmsford, and turns off into that which leads to Margaret Rodintr. In 
the fields opposite to yick Street, and in the line to which it points, is an evident artificial ford over the 
river, which now lies only in fields and is disused. The street may be followed from this ford, though, 
in some places, turned a little round, to lead to a farm house to within a mile of Pleshy, where it is lost 
in enclosures, but pointed directly to the church, and its ridge may be seen from the keep extending some 
way into the enclosure." — Gough, p. 3. 

X Gough's " History and Antiquities of Pleshy," p. 2. Cough's book was published in 1803. — " Old 
Lodge," Gough observes, " a small moated spot, about a mile north-east of Pleshy, is by some imagined 
Roman, but is most likely a lodge in one of the parks, if nut a mansion-house." 



256 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. says, " told me that he had heard of men of knowlege that the toun and place wher 
the castelle nou standith was of auncient tyme caullid Tumblestoun, and that the new 
name is writen thus, Castel de Placeto. It long-gid to the Mandevilles : but whither 
they had it straite after the conquest or no I cannot know for a surety. Ther was a 
great man caullid de Placetes that mariod the heire general of the erle of Warwick. 
Thomas erle of Bukingham, sunne to Edward the 3 was — of this castelle : and built 
the college there." * 

The earth-works consist of an area of about two acres, enclosed by high and strong 
embankments, with a deep moat on the outside of the embankments. On the east 
side is an immense mound, separated from the enclosed area, as well as from the 
surrounding grounds, by a very deep ditch. This mound has been called by topogra- 
phers the keep, and on it appears to have been built the strongest part of the castle. 
The area has no embankment on the side immediately adjoining to the moat which 
surrounds the great mound. The walls of the castle appear to have been built on the 
embankments, and it is to this arrangement, probably, that Leland alludes, when he 
observes, " One tolde me that muche of the walls of Plaschey castle in Estsex is made 
of erthe."f The walls have now disappeared, but the brick bridge of one lofty pointed 
arch, which formed the communication between the castle and its keep still remains, 
and, mantled with ivy and foliage, forms from the wooded moat below a most pic- 
turesque object. The arch, according to Gough, is eighteen feet high, and eighteen 
feet wide, and is, he says, " remarkable for the singular circumstance of contracting 
as it approaches the foundations." He observes, also, that " on this bridge was till 
very lately a brick gate mantled with ivy, the tottering condition of which rendered it 
dangerous to attempt to clear the brick work of the ivy, in order to see if any arms or 
inscriptions over the arch might be concealed under it. Foundations of brick run 
from the end of this bridge to the left round the keep, and on each side of the way to 
it are foundations of large rooms and angles of stone buildings. The site of the castle 
has been a warren, and four ragged yews occupy the keep, in planting which some 
foundations were laid open.":j: 

College. A college was founded here in 1393, by Thomas of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester, 

for nine chaplains ; of which, one was to be warden, or master, two of them clerks, 
and two choristers : it was dedicated to the Holy Trinity, and endowed with exten- 
sive possessions. The collegiate church was also made parochial; a licence being 
granted from the king and the bishop for that purpose. The old church was on the 



* Leland, Itin. vol. viii. p. 13. He adds, " Syns one Hiimfrede duke of Bokingham was buried with his 
wife and .'J of his sunnes at Plascey, wher of one, as I hard, was erle of VVilshir." 

t Leland, Itin. vol. vi. p. 48, 

+ The great mound of the castle has been stated to be upwards of " eight hundred and ninety feet in 
circumference." 



HUNDRED OF DUN MOW. 257 

opposite side of the road, the living- a rectory, g-iven to the abbey of Walden by C H A f. 
Geofrey de Magnaville, the founder of that house, which presented here till 1389. 



Isabel, daughter of the duke of Gloucester, gave an annuity of twenty pounds for 
twenty years, for three priests to celebrate mass for her. Humphrey Stafford, duke 
of Buckingham, slain at the battle of Northampton, in 1460, was buried here, with his 
lady and three of his sons; of whom, John, earl of Wiltshire, gave a hundred marks to 
purchase lands for three priests and six poor men to pray for his soul, and the souls of 
his ancestors. He also appointed a church to be built and hallowed to the worship 
of the Holy Trinity and Our Lady, on the north side of the church, for a mass of Our 
Lady to be said daily. Anne, his lady, who lies buried with him here, settled forty 
marks upon them. Sir Henry Stafford, who married Margaret countess of Rich- 
mond, mother to king Henry the seventh, {third son to Anne,) appointed his body to 
be buried here, and gave one hundred and sixty pounds, to buy twelve marks' worth 
of land to be amortised to find a fitting priest to sing for his soul, in this college for 
evermore. Ed^vard Stafford, earl of Wiltshire, also founded a perpetual chantry 
here, richly endowed. The names of the masters are in Newcourt.* 

In 1546, king Henry the eighth granted the whole college of Fleshy, and the house 
and church, and all manors and appertenances to the said college belonging, to sir 
John Gate, one of the gentlemen of his privy chamber ; and this covetous and mean- 
spirited proprietor, for the sake of the materials, pulled down the chancel ; and the 
body of the church would also have fallen a sacrifice to his avarice, if it had not been 
purchased by the parishioners, with the steeple and bells, that they might not be des- 
titute of a place of worship. In 1553, on the condemnation of sir John Gate, these 
possessions again passed to the crown ; and, in 1564, were granted by queen Elizabeth, 
to William Pool and Edward Downing: and in 1589, under a new grant, they were 
conveyed to William Tipper and Robert Dawe, of whom they were purchased by sir 
Robert Clarke. In 1560, queen Elizabeth granted a portion of the tithes, and a 
tenement here, to the dean and chapter of Westminster, by whom they are leased out 
to the Tufnell family, to whom the other tithes of the parish belong. 

The church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, or to the Holy Trinity, was a large Church, 
cruciform building, with a central tower. The part remaining of this building had 
been purchased of sir John Gate, and had become quite ruinous, when, chiefly by the 
munificence of bishop Compson, a good small church of brick was erected, in the year 
1708 ; yet the tower remained ruinous, and there was no chancel till Samuel Tufnell, 
esq. built one, between the nave and chancel, with a vault for his family under it; he 
had also five bells re-cast. 

After the dissolution, the church became a donative or perpetual curacy, in the dis- 
posal of the owner of the site of the college, with a stipend of eight pounds a year ; 
which, in 1721, was augmented with the donation of two hundred pounds, by the pious 
* \'ol. ii. p. 471, Thomas Walker was the last master. 



258 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

I'JUOK II. and munificent lady Moyer, sister of sir William Jolifi'e ; and, in 1728, with three 
hundred pounds, by Mrs. Jennings, the daughter and executrix of this lady.* 

This parish, in 1821, contained two hundred and eighty-nine, and in 1831, three 
hundred and twenty inhabitants. 

HIGH EASTER, Or ESTRE. 

High This considerably large parish lies west-north-west from Fleshy, and its distin- 

guishing appellation of High may be supposed to be applied because the ground is 
higher than that of the contiguous parish of Good Easter. In circumference it is 
computed to be upwards of twenty miles. The name in records is Estre, or Est€r, 
and in Domesday Estra; the modern orthography of Easter being unauthorised. 
It is remarked by Mr. Salmon, in treating of this parish, that the termination of tree^ 
corrupted from street^ is of frequent occurrence, as " Edwinstre and Estree, in Hert- 
fordshire, and Becontree in Essex." He therefore believes this name came from 
" East-street," or rather " the village east of the street." Both the Estres, and also 
Fleshy, are on the eastern side of a Roman road, which, by the Saxons, would be 
called a street. The village contains some good houses and shops. From Dunmow 
it is distant six, and from London thirty miles. 

Frevious to the Conquest, this parish belonged to the abbey of Ely, and had, in the 

Inscrip- * Inscriptions. — *' I\I.S. In a vault under this monument lieth the remains of sir William Joliffe, eldest 

tions. son of John Jolifife, esq. descended from an ancient and honourable family in the county of Stafford. He 

was member of parliament for Heytesbury, during the reign of king Charles the second. Sir William, 
in private life, was a steady friend, a generous relation, and of extensive benevolence. He represented in 
parliament the borough of Petersfield, in Hampshire, and by his conduct proved himself a disinterested 
lover of his country. Dying a bachelor, he left the bulk of his large estate to his nephews. This monu- 
ment was erected by Samuel Tuffnell, of Langleys, in this county, and John Joliffe, of Petersfield, in Hamp- 
shire, esquires, in gratitude to his memory, Ob. 7 March, 1749, aet. 85." Arms : Argent, on a pile vert 
three dexter hands couped at the wrist— of tlie field. Crest : An arm in armour, holding a cimetar proper. 
On another very elegant marble monument, with the arms, over a bust : " In a vault under this chancel 
lie the remains of Samuel Tuffndl, esq. late of Langleys, near this place, descended from a family which 
was situated at Hadley, in the county of Middlesex. His grandfather, Richard Tuffnell, esq. was member 
of parliament for the borough of Soutlivvark, in the reign of king Charles the second. About the year 
1733, Mr, Tuffnell was appointed one of the plenipotentiaries to assist at the congress held at Antwerp, 
wiiere he resided some years, for settling the barrier treaty, tariff, &c. with the Austrians and Dutch. He 
represented in parliament the boroughs of Colchester and Maldon in this county, and Marlovv, in Bucking- 
hamshire, and discharged the duties of these several public stations through which he passed, with ability 
and unblemished honour. In })rivate life, many virtuous and able qualities did not less adorn him. He 
married Elizabeth, eldest daughter of George Cressener, esq. of Great Tey, in this county, and by her left 
issue three sons ; John Joliffe, George, and William, and two daughters, Elizabeth and Maria Anna. He 
died 27 Dec. 1758, aged 76. In this vault lie likewise interred, Elizabeth and Rebecca, sisters to the 
said Samuel Tuffnell, who both died unmarried. This monument was erected by his eldest and most 
affectionate son, John Joliffe Tuffnell, esq. of Langleys, to perpetuate the remembrance due to his worth, 
and as a memorial of his gratitude to the best of fathers." Arms : Azure on a fesse between three ostrich 
feathers ar. as many martlets sable. 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 259 

Confessor's reign, been seized by Algar stallere, constable of the arrny, as his title c H A ['. 
imports : to persuade him to surrender this possession, a life estate had been granted ' 



to him, b.ut the Conqueror ordered him to be seized and imprisoned for life; and his 
estate, which in the record is on this occasion named Estra, he gave to Geofrey de 
Magnaville. There are six manors. 

The manor of High Estre-bury is near the west-end of the church-yard. On the High 
decease of the first lord he was succeeded by his son William; his grandson Geofrey, bury. 
earl of Essex, who died in 1144; and the two sons of the latter, successively earls of 
Essex; Geofrey, who died in 1166, and William in 1189. Beatrix de Say, by 
marriage, conveyed it to Geofrey Fitz- Piers, who in her right was earl of Essex. 
Their successors were their two sons, Geofrey, surnamed de Mandeville, who died 
in 1216, and William in 1227. Henry de Bohun, earl of Hereford, and lord high 
constable of England, marrying Maud, heiress of the house of Mandeville, she brought 
him this estate. Humphrey de Bohun, their son, fifth of the name, died in possession 
of it in 1274, as did also his grandson Humphrey, who died in 1298; it afterwards 
descended through a succession of heirs male to Humphrey, the tenth of the name, 
who died in 1371, leaving only two daughters, Alianor, married to Thomas of Wood- 
stock, duke of Gloucester, who, at the time of his tragical death, held this manor in 
right of his lady, who died in 1399, leaving High Estre to Anne, one of her daughters, 
co-heiresses, who conveyed it to her husband Edmund, earl of Stafford, on whose 
decease, in 1403, it passed, as the manor of Fleshy did, to king Henry the fifth, who 
annexed it to the dutchy of Lancaster; and king Richard the third, to engage Henry 
Stafford, duke of Buckingham, to be of his party, made him a grant of this manor, 
Avith the rest of the Bohun estates, in 1483, but his enjoyment of it was of short con- 
tinuance; it soon afterwards reverted to the crown as part of the dutchy of Lancaster. 
It was sold, in 1629, by king Charles the first, to the citizens of London, for money 
he had borrowed of them. It afterwards became the property of the rev. Richard 
Master, rector of Woodford, of whose son it was purchased by John Joliffe Tufnell, esq. 

The manor-house of Hayrons is a mile from the church southward, on the left-hand Hayions. 
side of the road to Good Estre. It is an ancient mansion moated round. The 
dignified families who have had this estate in succession since the Conquest are those 
of Mandeville, Hayron, Gedge, and Glascock. 

The mansion-house of Mannocks is a mile fi'om the church east-north-eastward, Manmicks 
and a quarter of a mile from the road to Dunmow; it formerly consisted of two 
manors, named Bellows, or Bellhouse, and Powers; both these estates were holden 
of Anne, duchess of Buckinghamshire, as of her hundred of Ongar, by John Mannock,* 

* This family is of great antiquity, said to have flourished in England from the time of the Danish 
monarchy. In the time of Eduard the third, they were seated at Stoke, by Neyland, and purchased 
Gifford's Hall in the reign of Henry tlie sixth : they had Camoys, and other estates, and were lords of 
Great Gravensdon, in Huntingdonshire, from the time of the Conquest. 



260 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. esq. who died in 1476. He had married Jane Waldgrave a few weeks previous to 
his decease, leaving George, his son and heir by a former wife, who married Katha- 
rine Waldgrave, sister of his mother-in-law : he was fined for refushig to be made a 
knight of the bath, on the creation of Henry, prince of Wales (afterwards king Henry 
the eighth), for which offence he received a pardon in 1504. His son and successor 
William, was of Camoys Hall, in Toppesfield, and married Audry, daughter of John 
Allington, esq. of Westele, in Cambridgeshire, and on his death in 1557, left Francis, 
his son, his successor: who marrying Mary, daughter of William Fitch, esq. of Little 
Canfield, was succeeded in this possession, on his decease in 1590, by his son William, 
who married Etheldreda, daughter of Ferdinando Parys, esq. of Linton, whose eldest 
son, his successor in 1615, was created a baronet in 1627. He married Dorothy, 
daughter of William Saunders, esq. and dying in 1634, left his son, sir Francis 
Mannock, who married Mary, daughter of George Heneage, by whom he had five 
daughters. Living in the time of the civil wars, and wishing to escape the ruinous 
effects of fines and sequestrations, he sold this estate, which sometime afterwards 
became the property of T. Brand, esq. of Hide Hall, near Ingatestone. 
(iarnets The manor-liouse of Garnets and Merks is two miles from the church, near Bishop's 

M('ik<. Green, on the road to Dunmow. This estate belonged to Geofrey Garnet in 1165, 
and continued in his family till 1350. In the reign of Edward the third, it had come 
into the possession of Thomas Gate, esq. the father of William; whose successor, 
sir Geofrey, was a celebrated soldier, and held important offices. He died in 1477, 
and Agnes his widow was re-married to William Bromlac, with whom she enjoyed 
the estate till her decease in 1487, and was succeeded by W^illiam, the son of her first 
husband, who married Mabel, daughter and heiress of Thomas Copdow,* of this 
parish, and had by her Geofrey; and Anne, married to Thomas Darcy, esq. uncle of 
Thomas lord Darcy, of Chich. Sir Geofrey marrying Elizabeth, daughter of William 
Clopton, esq. had sir John, sir Geofrey, sir Henry, and William, who died without 
issue, and Dorothy, married to Thomas Jocelyn. On the death of sir Geofrey the 
father, his son, the celebrated sir John Gate, succeeded, who greatly improved and 
made considerable additions to the estate; which after his violent death in 1553, went 
with his other estates to the crown, and was, in 1558, granted, by queen Mary, to 
Richard Weston, one of the judges of the king's-bench, who, in 1561, sold it to Kenelm 
Throckmorton and John Paviott; and, in 1563, it was sold to William Fitche, esq. 
whose son Thomas was his heir. Afterwards passing to the Dyer family, of 
Dunmow, it was sold, in 1740, together with Newton Hall, to sir Brownlow Sher- 
rard, but that contract having never been legalised, John Henniker, esq. became the 
purchaser. 
Bcrwicks. The manor of Berwicks, partly in this parish, has the mansion nearly four miles 
south-westward from the church. It was holden under Humphrey de Bohun, earl of 
* Arn)s of Copdow : Argent, three piles en point, gules. 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 26] 

Hereford and Essex, by sir Ralph Berners, in the time of Edward the first: Edmund CHAP, 
was his son. It had passed to the crown in the time of Edward the sixth, and that ' 



king-, in 1547, gave it, as parcel of the dutchy of Lancaster, to sir John Gate : it was 
afterwards in possession of the Capel family. 

There is a hamlet in this parish named Pentlow End, vulgarly Pantlo. Pentlow. 

The church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, is large and lofty, containing- a nave. Church. 
north aisle, and chancel, of which the upper part has been named Garnet's chancel, 
having been the burial-place of that family. There is a handsome gallery at the west 
end of the church, and behind it a stately tower, in which there are five very good 
bells; above which there is a spire leaded. The roof of the church is traditionally 
said to have been raised several feet, and supported with curiously carved timbers. 
This improvement is believed to have been effected by sir Geofrey Gate, about the 
year 1460, who also erected, at the same time, a new chancel. Among the orna- 
mental carvings several gates are represented, supposed to be the cognizances of this 
family. 

This church was given, by Geofrey de Mandeville, to the monastery of Walden, 
and the donation confirmed by king Stephen and Henry the second, and the vicarage 
continued in the patronage of the abbot and convent till their dissolution; after which 
the rectory impropriate, which is a manor, was granted, in 1538, to Thomas lord 
Audley. But king Edward the sixth settled it on the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, 
with the advowson of the vicarge, of which they have ever since continued patrons, 
the rectory being held under them by lease.* 

In 1821, this parish contained eight hundred and nineteen, and, in 1831, eight 
hundred and sixty-two inhabitants. 



GOOD EASTER. 



This parish lies between Pleshy and Mashbury, extending eastward from the Good 
ancient Roman road to the extremity of the hundred; it is computed to be ten miles 
in circumference: distant from Dunmow eight, from Chelmsford seven, and from 
London thirty miles. 



The following inscriptions, formerly here, have been preserved by Mr. Salmon : Inscrip- 

Of Coppedo gentilman lyon behight, 
Of Hiest' witness his wyff and executor 
This yere and day come on his dely powers 
XXII day January, 1456." 



*' Pray for the soul, all ye that live in light. 
Of sir Jeffry Gate, the curtesse knight; 
Whose wife is buried here; by God's might. 
He bought the manor of Garnets by right 



" Here lyeth dame Agnes Gate, wife of syr Geffrey Gate, knt. the which syr Geffrey Gate was six yere 
captain of the Isle of Wight, and after that marshal of Caleis ; there kept with the Pikards worshipful 
warris .... eo. . . . intended as a good knight to please the kyng in the pties of Nornidi witii all his might. 
The which Agnes dyed the ix of Dec. 1480, .... whose soule Jhu have mercy." 
VOL. II. 2 M 



262 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. Ill Domesday book the name is written Estra; and, before the Conquest, it belonged 
to Ailmar, a king's thane, but after that event was given, by earl Eustace, to the 
collegiate church of St. Martin-le-Grand, in London, founded in 700, by Victred, 
or Withrid, king of Kent; rebuilt and more sumptuously endowed, in 1056, by 
Angelric, and Girard his brother, two noble Saxons; whose foundation and appro- 
priation of this estate was confirmed by the Conqueror in 1068. From this period 
the name appears in records Godicestre, Godichester, and God's Easter; supposed 
from the usual expression of "giving to God" what is appropriated to his service; 
the English words God and Good being both derived from the Saxon Irob. This 
parish was also named the prebend of Good Easter, and the church said to be a pre- 
bendal church, because wholly appropriated to the college of St. Martin; four of the 
prebendaries having their endowments here, each of which had a house; Fawkeners, 
on the south side of the church; Imbers, opposite to it, on the right hand; Bowers, 
behind the vicarage; Paslows, below it, being a large house, moated round. These 
Avere reckoned distinct manors, afterwards consolidated into two. 

In the tim.e of Edward the first, or Edward the second, Peter de Cusance, of 
White Roding, held two carucates of land here, under two of the prebends, who 
Avere aliens; and he perfidiously sold great part of the estate to John Pointon and his 
heirs, on which account the dean and chapter presented a petition to the king and 
council. 

Good Easter, with the adjoining berewic of Mashbury, and other possessions, was 
given, by Henry the seventh, in 1492, with the collegiate church of St. Martin-le- 
Grand, and the sanctuary belonging to it, to the monastery of St. Peter, of West- 
minster, where it continued till the dissolution, and remained exempt from the 
jurisdiction of the bishop, or archdeacon, till Edward the sixth placed it under the 
government of the bishop of London: on the dissolution of Westminster Abbey, in 

1539, all its possessions passing to the crown, were, by king Henry the eighth, in 

1540, made part of the endowment of his newly-erected bishopric of Westminster: 
after the dissolution of which, in 1542, this parish, with the rectory and advowson of 
the vicarage, were granted to sir Richard Rich and his heirs: and, in 1544, the king 
granted him the yearly tenths; of Avhich he died possessed in 1566, as did also his son 
Robert, in 1580; followed by his great grandson Robert, earl of Warwick in 1618, 
whose son Robert sold them, in 1620, to sir Henry Mildmay, of Graces, with all his 
possessions in Good Easter, except the advowson of the vicarage and spiritual juris- 
diction, which his grand-daughter, Elizabeth Waterson, sold to James Bonnel, esq. 
from whom these possessions descended to his posterity. 

Newark)?. The manor of Newarks, or Newland's fee, is on the side of the road to Roxwell, 
distant a mile and a half south-eastward from the church. It was purchased of 
Richard lord Rich, by sir Robert Clarke, baron of the exchequer, who made it the 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 263 

place of his residence; and who, on his decease in 1606, left it to his posterity:* he chap. 

married first Dorothy, daughter of John Maynard, esq. and sister to sir Henry May- '. 

nard, by whom he had two sons and eight daughters, of whom Jane was married to 
sir Kenelm Jenoure, bart.; Melicent, to sir Thomas Nightingale, bart.; Esther, to 

King; another daughter to Cutting; and another to Still; Sarah and 

Clemence were the other daughters. Robert, the younger son, had the manor of 
Gibbecrake, in Purley. The elder son was sir Robert Clarke, knt. whose son and 

heir was Robert, and whose daughter Jane, married to Utbert, was the mother 

of Ehzabeth, who, by her husband, Thomas Hutchinson, esq. had Mary, married to 

Harrison, on whose decease she, during her widowhood, possessed this estate, 

and conveyed it, by marriage, to the rev. Charles Philips, vicar of Terling. 

In 1459, the manor of Wares, which was holden by AHce Strange of the dean of St. Wares. 
Martin's, was left to her grandson and heir, John Skrene, who died in 1474. It was 
in the possession of James Gedge, esq. of Newland Hall, in Roxwell, in 1555, who 
held it of the queen, as of her dutchy of Lancaster, and left it to his three daughters, 
co-heiresses. It afterwards belonged to sir Samuel Thwayt, knt. of Newland Hall, 
who, on his decease in 1636, left it to his son Samuel. It afterwards belonged to 
John Nash, of London. 

The church, dedicated to St. Andrew, has a nave, south aisle and chancel, with a church, 
stone tower, above which there is a handsome, tall, wooden spire: there are five bells. 
From stone arches in the walls of the chancel, there seem to have been several cells, 
or chapels.f 

In 1821, this parish contained four hundred and thirty-eight, and, in 1831, four 
hundred and eighty-seven inhabitants. 

MASHBURY. 

This very small parish extends south-eastward from Good Easter; the name in Mashbury 
records is Mascebery, Massebirig, Maissebery, Maysbury, Messebery, supposed a 
corruption of Macy's capital mansion, or bury, from Macy, whose name appears in an 
ancient writing as the possessor of a knight's fee here. 

The lands of this parish, previous to the Conquest, were in the possession of a free- 
woman named Alueva: after the Conqueror had given it to Uluric, an encroachment 
is stated to have been made on this possession by Geofrey de Magnaville: part of it 

* Arms of Clarke : Argent, on a fesse sable, three crosses fitche, or, between two chevrons of the 
second. Otherwise, or, on a bend engrailed, axure, a plate argent. Crest : On a torse, or and azure, a 
greyhound sejant, sable. 

t Inscription in the church : " Under this stone lies buried the body of Margaret Norrington, wife of j!^^*^'"P" 
Thomas Norrington, daughter of Edward Norrington Bugg, gent, who deceased Jan* 27, 1610. 

Charity.— An annuity of about five pounds has been left by an unknown benefactor, for the repairs ol Chanty, 
the church. 



264 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK 11. was a hamlet to Good Easter, and extended into the hundi'ed of Chelmsford. After 
passing to the Mandeville family, where it continued for several generations, it passed 
to that of Fitz- Piers, and was conveyed, hy the marriage of Maud, daughter of Geofrey 
Fitz- Piers, earl of Essex, to Henry de Bohun, earl of Hereford and Essex, who was 
succeeded by his two daughters and co-heiresses, Eleanor, married to Thomas of 
Woodstock, and Mary, to Henry Plantagenet, afterwards king Henry the fourth, 
who had this included in his share of the Bohun estates; and he annexed it to the 
dutchy of Lancaster ; after which it appears to have formed part of the dower of the 
queens of England, till it was, in 1544, granted, by Henry the eighth, to Geofrey 
Lukyn, whose posterity retained possession till the estate was sold, by William Lukyn, 
in 1354, to sir William Petre, whose descendants have retained this possession to the 
present time. 

Mashbm-y Hall, which is the most considerable estate in the parish, is on the south 
side of the church. 

Cliuicli. The church is a plain building tiled; in the steeple there are three bells. 

In 1821, this parish contained eighty-five, and, in 1831, ninety-six inhabitants. 



Great 
Canlield. 



GREAT CANFIELD. 

Lands extending northward to Takeley and Great Dunmow, to High Roding and 
Hatfield Broadoak southward, and from Hallingbury westward to Little Dunmow 
on the east, have been made to form two parishes, named Great and Little Canfield. 
The larger of these is distinguished by the appellation of " Ad Castrum," i.e. at the 
castle, from a castle which formerly stood here, on the site of which there is an artificial 
mount of earth, planted with trees; and a deep moat surrounds what was the outer 
court of the castle. This fortress appears to have occupied about two acres, and 
having belonged to the De Veres, is believed to have been erected by one of the first 
of that family.* 

In Edward the Confessor's reign, Ulwin and Eddeva were in possession of this 
parish, which at the survey was holden under Alan, earl of Bretagne, by Alberic 
de Vere. 

The situation of this parish is healthy and pleasant, it is eight miles in circumference : 

* It has been supposed that Eddeva might have built a fortification here, before the Conquest, after she 
had sold Stortford castle to the bishop of London : or, this castle might be built by Alberic de Vere, during 
the war between Maud and Stephen. Or, De Vere might fortify this place, on the demolishing of the 
bishop's castle of Weytemore, by king John, on the bishop's executing the pope's interdict. VVeytemore 
was the chief place of strength in this part of the country, which seems to have been erected during the 
octarchy; because the estates subject to the payment of Castle-guard lie on the Essex side of the bank 
which passed through Hertfordshire from Theobalds to Barley; and this was their defence against inroads 
from Mercia. — A'^. Salmon's Hist, of Essex, p. 217. 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 265 

the village, which is small, is distant from Great Dunmow four, and from London chap. 

IX 
thirty-five miles. ' 

The family of De Vere retained this possession from the time of the Conquest till 
Edward, the seventeenth earl of Oxford, sold it to John Wiseman, esq. son of sir Wiseman 
John Wiseman, one of the auditors to Henry the eighth, who had previously, hi 1548, ' ^' 
purchased here of John, earl of Oxford, a messuage, with Great Canfield park, con- 
taining two hundred and sixty acres of land in Great and Little Canfield, Takeley and 
Hatfield Regis. He died in 1558, and was huried in this church with his lady Agnes, 
daughter of sir Ralph Jocelyn, lord mayor of London in 1464. In this family it 
continued till sir Thomas Wiseman,* in 1733, conveyed it to Thomas Hucks, or 
Godfrey Woodward; and it was afterwards conveyed to Nathan Cooper, of St- 
Giles's, whose daughter and co-heiress conveyed it, in marriage, to William Perkin, 

* The offspring of sir John Wiseman and his lady Agnes were John; William, and another son, who 
both died young ; Robert, gentleman pensioner to queen Elizabeth, who had five wives, yet died without 
issue ; Thomas, who died in 1563, and was buried in Chelmsford church : Philippa, wife of William Glas- 
cock, and of Andrew Pascall ; Margaret, wife of Everard, and of Church; Margery, wife of 

John Pascall, of Great Badovv, and afterwards of Reade ; Clemence, wife of Richard Everard, of 

Waltham; Katharine, wife of Thomas Young, of Roxwell; and Anne, wife of Lindhill, and after- 
wards of John Glascock, of Roxwell. John, the eldest son and heir of sir John Wiseman, and the pur- 
chaser of this manor, died in 1602. He married Margery, daughter of sir William Waldegrave, of Small- 
bridge, by whom he had eight sons and daughters ; Joanna, married to Nicholas Brocket, of Willingale 
Dou; and Agnes, wife of Thomas Fitche, esq. of Little Canfield and High Easter, and afterwards of Geo. 
Wingate, esq. ; John, Robert, William, who was a monk, Thomas, Edmund of Little Maplested, and 
Andrew. John Wiseman succeeding his father, married Anne, daughter of John Leventhorp, and had by 
her an only daughter, who died young. He was succeeded on his decease by Thomas, the fourth' son, who 
marrying Alice, daughter and heiress of Robert Myles, esq. of Suffolk, had Robert, William, John, William, 
Kenelm, Edward; Mary, married to Thomas Bolton, of Woodbridge; Susan, and Parnel. Robert, tJie 
eldest son, who had this manor and rectory, with the advowson of the vicarage, and the manor and tithes 
of Little Maplested, died without issue in 1628, and was succeeded by William, the second son, knighted 
and created a baronet in 1628, and constituted sheriff of the county in 1638. Being in the service of 
king Charles the first, he died at Oxford, and was buried there : Elizabeth, his lady, daughter of sir 
Henry Capei, son and heir of Arthur, afterwards lord Capel, died in 1660, and was buried in this church. 
Sir William Wiseman, hart, married first Anne, daughter and co-heiress of sir John Prescot, knt. by 
whom he had no children : he married, secondly, Arabella, fifth daughter of sir Thomas Hewet, bart. of 
Pishobury, in Hertfordshire, by whom he had thirteen children ; of whom William and George died young, 
Thomas, and Charles succeeded to the estate ; John was a barrister of the Temple ; Arabella died young ; 
Anne was married to general Henry Lumley ; Margaret, Jane, and Mary, died young; Arabella, the 
youngest, was married to Thomas Stisted, of Ipswich, attorney at lavv. Sir William, the father, died in 
1684, and his successor was his son, sir Thomas Wiseman, who, dying unmarried, in 1733, was succeeded 
by his next brother, sir Charles, who also died unmarried in 1751. The present representative of this 
family is sir William Saltonstal Wiseman, capt. R. N. of Canfield Hall, who succeeded to the title and 
estate in 1810, and, in 1812, married Catharine, daughter of sir James IMackintosh, who died in 1822, 
leaving a son, Edmund, heir apparent. Arms of Wiseman: Sable, a chevron, ermine, between three 
coronels, argent. Crest: On a wreath, a castle triple-towered, or, port open, argent ; out of it a demi- 
moor, proper ; in his right hand a dart, j)lumed and barbed, or ; in his left hand a Roman target, or. 



266 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. of Westminster; and his two daughters, Sarah and Elizabeth, sold it to William 
Peers, fi-om whom it was conveyed to John Jones, esq. 

Great Canfield Park, a considerable time in possession of the Wiseman family, 
in 1561, was sold, by Thomas Wiseman, to William Fitche, and afterwards conveyed 
to the Maynard family. 
Church. The church is of one pace with the chancel; it has a stone tower, with four bells, 

above which there is a wooden parapet and shaft. Formerly there was a lofty spire, 
which having- become ruinous, was taken down by order of the bishop.* 

Alberic de Vere, the first earl of Oxford, gave this church to the priory of Hatfield 
Regis, who ordained a vicarage here, of which they retained the patronage till their 
dissolution, when passing to the crown it was, in 1553, granted, by Edward the sixth, 
to Thomas Cecil, from whom it passed to the Wisemans and other proprietors. 

In 1821, this parish contained four hundred and thirty-four, and, in 1831, five 
hundred and eleven inhabitants. 



Little 
Canlield. 



Inscrip 
tion$. 



LITTLE CANFIELD. 

The village of Little Cantield is on the high road from Great Dunmow to Bishop 
Stortford ; from which latter town it is distant seven, and from London thirty-five 
miles. The parish occupies a pleasant and healthy part of the county.f 

Previous to the Conquest, this parish belonged to two freemen, and to Ansgar and 

* Inscriptions: " In memory of sir William Wiseman, bart. who married Anne, daughter and one of 
the co-heirs of sir John Prescot, by whom he had no issue ; who since married Arabella, daughter of sir 
Thomas Hewett, bart. and Margaret his wife, of Pishoberry, Herts, by whom he had thirteen children, 
whereof eight are surviving, viz. ITiomas, William, George, Charles, John, Anne, Margaret, Arabella; 
he died Jan. 14, and was buried the 23d, 1684, and in the fifty-fifth year of his age." 

" Soli dei gloria: In memory of the truly virtuous the lady Anne Wiseman, wife to sir William Wise- 
man, of this parish, baronet, who put off the troublesome robe of mortality the II th day of May, 1662, 
leaving thefour-and-twentieth yeare of her age unfinished, whose body lies here mortgaged to the grave, 
until the grand jubile; the resurrection." 

" Here lyeth Eliza Tyderlegh, eldest daughter of sir William Wiseman, bart. ob. April 26, 1654." 

" Here lyeth Jhonn Wiseman, esquier, sometime one of the auditors of our soveraigne lorde kynge 
Henry theight, of the revenues of the crown, and Agnes his wife ; which John dyed Aug. 17, 1558." 

" To the memory of lady Elizabeth Wiseman, wife of sir William Wiseman, of this place, bart- and 
daughter of sir Henry Capcl, knt. son and heire of sir Arthur Capel, of Hedham Hall, in the county of 
Hertford, who died April 6, 1660." 

" Here lyeth buried Thomas Fytchc, of Hye Estre, esq. who had to his wif Agnes, the daughter of John 
Wyseman, esquier, and had issue by her three sons and three daughters : which Thomas deceased 29th 
Nov. 1588." 

t Remarkable instances of longevity have occurred here. Richard Wyatt, of Little Canfield Hall, 
attained the age of one hundred years and upwards ; and when he was ninety-nine, is said to have walked 
from this place to Thavies-inn, in London, in one day ; his son Richard also attained the same age- 
Thomas Wood was clerk of Great Canfield church seventy-eight years, and died in May 1738, aged 106 
years. He kept his bed only one day, and could read without spectacles to the last. 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 267 

Ulwin; and at the survey had become the property of Wilham de Warren, Geofrey chap. 
de Magnaville, and Alberic de Vere, and was consequently divided into three manors. '^* 



The manor-house of Little Canfield Hall is a mile northward from the church; the Little 
estate is what at the survey belonged to William de Warren, and continued the pro- Hail. 
perty of his posterity till the extinction of the family in John, the eighth and last earl 
of Warren, Surrey, and Sussex, who dying in 134-7, Alice, his sister, by marriage 
conveyed this estate to Edmund Fitz-alan, earl of Arundel and Surrey; whose suc- 
cessors were Richard, another Richard, beheaded in 1397, whose son Thomas was 
restored in blood in 1399, but dying without issue in 1414, his four sisters became his 
co-heiresses : Elizabeth was married first to William, son of William Montacute, earl 
of Salisbury; secondly, to Thomas Mowbray, duke of Norfolk and earl of Surrey; 
thirdly, to sir Robert Goushill, and, lastly, to sir Gerard Uffleet; Joan, the second 
sister, was married to William Beauchamp, lord Abergavenny ; Margaret was married 

to sir Rowland Lenthall, and afterwards to Tresham; and Alice, to John 

Charleton, lord Powis, under whom this estate was holden by sir John Hende, and 
afterwards by his heirs. It afterwards became the property of the Fitche family, 
originally of Fitches, in Widdington, from whence descended two branches, one of 
which settled at Brazenhead, in Lindsel, and the other at this place. 

William,* the eldest son of Thomas Fitche, of Brazenhead, died in possession of Fitche 
this manor in 1578, and it continued the property of his descendants till it was sold, 
by sir William Fitche, knt. to sir Henry Maynard, knt. whose descendants have 
retained this possession to the present time. 

Lands called Hodings belong to this lordship. Tliey were holden of the earl of Hodings. 

Oxford by Walter de Hoding, in 1302, and supposed to be what was holden in 1397, 

as the fourth of a knight's fee, by Margaret Sheering; by John Boucher in 1446, and 

by Thomas Moore in the reign of Elizabeth. 

The manor of Lano^thorns was holden by Richard, earl of Arundel, of Humphrey L^mg- 
* ■' thorns. 

de Bohun, who died in 1372; and John Someray, who died in 1416, had this manor 

for life, as the gift of Thomas, earl of Arundel. William Scott, esq. of Chigwell, 

held it of the dutchy of Lancaster, and it descended to his son, John Scott, who died 

in 1526, and was succeeded by his cousin, Walter Scott. It afterwards belonged to 

Ady CoUard, esq. of Bernston, who left it by will to Howland, esq. This manor 

is what belonged to Geofrey de Magnaville at the time of the survey. 

* William Fitche, by his first wife Elizabeth, had two sons and three daughters; and by his second 
wife Anne, daughter of John Wiseman, of Felstcd, had Thomas, and three others, who died without 
offspring. Thomas, the eldest son of Thomas and Anne Fitche, married Agnes, daughter of John Wise- 
man, esq. of Great Canfield, by whom he had three sons and three daughters: on his decease in 1588, 
his eldest son William was his heir, who dying in 1608, without issue, was succeeded by sir William 
Fitche, the son of his brother Thomas, who sold this estate. 



268 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



I400K 1! 



Stone 
Hall. 



Howland 
t'aiiiiiv. 



CImrch. 



Stone Hall is a reputed manor, its name derived from the mansion being- of stone ; 
it lies north-eastward from the chm'ch, and the lands belonoinjr to it extend to Little 
Easton and Dunmow. This estate is supposed to be that which Nicholas de Aldithely, 
or Audley, claimed against Drogo, son of William de Barentyn, and Robert de Bray. 
Thomas Raven is mentioned as of this place in a deed dated 1385; and it passed from 
him to Thomas Nuttal; succeeded by Thomas Rampston : it afterwards belonged to 
Robert Rampston, esq. yeoman of the chamber to Edward the sixth, queen Mary^ 
and Elizabeth. He charged his estate with twenty-two pounds in yearly charity to 
the poor of several parishes in Essex, and to certain prisons in Middlesex.* He died 
in 1585, and was buried in Chingford church, where his wife Margaret was after- 
wards laid : previous to her marriage with him, she was the widow of Elencoe, 

and her second husband left this estate to her son, Nicholas Blencoe, esq. who died in 
1625, and was succeeded by a son or relation of the same name, who mortgaged it to 
Thomas Gwillim, esq. of Highgate, and he, in 1647, sold it to Charles Howland, esq. 
third son of William Howland, of this parish, who left it to his brother George ; suc- 
ceeded in this possession by George his son, father of Charles, who married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Matthew Pinchback, of Great Dunmow, by whom he had seven sons and 
two daughters. Matthew, the eldest son, married Hannah, daughter of George 
Coldham, esq. of Haverhill, by whom he had several sons and daughters.f 

The church is small, and of one pace with the chancel : a small belfry, with a wooden 
spire, contains three bells.J 



Insciip 
tions. 



* The places to receive this donation were, Chingford, three pounds ; Walthara Holy Cross, two pounds ; 
Walthamstow, two pounds ; Woodford, one pound; Loughton, one pound; Chigwell, two pounds ; Wan- 
sted, one pound; East Ham, one pound; West Ham, one pound; Layton, one pound; Enfield, two 
pounds ; to Newgate, King's Bench, and Marshalsea prisons, each one pound ; to both Compters, ten 
shillings each. 

f Arms of Howland : Argent, two bars, and three lions rampant, sable, in chief. Crest : An ounce, 
passant, sable, gorged with a ducal coronet, or. 

X The vestry is on the north side of the chancel, and has the following inscription over the door : " This 
vestry, with the vault underneath it, designed for the burial-place of himself and family, was erected by 
James Wyatt, esq. in the year 1757 ; who also, in the following year, contributed the sura of sixty guineas 
for completing the ceiling of the church, and covering the spire with lead." 

Inscriptions.—" James Wyatt, of Little Canfield Hall, to the memory of his dear father, and ancestors." 

" Richard Wyatt, who died May 3, 1664, aged 103 years. Richard, son of Richard Wyatt, who died 
Feb. C, 1696, also aged lOD years. Richard Wyatt, gentleman, who died May 9, 1715. Richard Wyatt, 
gent, of Little Canfield Hall, who died Feb. 7, 1741, aged 82. Mrs. Elizabeth Wyatt, relict of Richard 
Wyatt, the elder, who died Dec. 16, 1750, aged 90. John Wyatt, gent, son of Richard Wyatt, died July 4, 
1757, aged 68." Arms of Wyatt : Gules, a fesse, or, with three boars' heads coupee, argent, between 
three lions rampant, sable. Crest : on a closed helmet, and a torse azure and or, a lion rampant, sable, 
mantled argent, doubled gules. 

" Here lyethe buried under this stone the body of William Fytche, esq. late lord of this towne, which 
had two wyffes, Elizabeth and Ann ; and the said William had yssue by Elizabeth his first wyffe, two 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 269 

This church and rectory were given to the priory of Lewes, in Sussex, probably by C H A f. 
William de Warren, the founder of that house, in 1078 : on the dissolution of monas- ' 

teries, it was granted, by Henry the eighth, to Thomas Cromwell, earl of Essex, on 
whose attainder, again passing to the king, he, in 1545, granted it to James Gunter 
and William Lewis, who sold the advowson of this rectory to William Glascock, 
whose descendants presented to it about one hundred years: after which it was pur- 
chased by Christ's College, Cambridge. 

In 1821, the population of this parish amounted to two hundred and forty-nine, and- 
in 1831, to two hundred and seventy-seven. 



THE KODINGS. 

Eight parishes (originally nine) in this part of the county have retained the ancient The 
Saxon name of Robinjs, in the record of Domesday, Rodinges, the Ings or Meadows 
by the Rodon, on the borders of which river they are situated.* This district is of con- 
siderable extent, and forms the first of the eight divisions of the county adopted by Mr. 
Arthur Young, to assist in distinguishing the characteristic varieties of soil. The divi- 
sion referred to, has been named the " crop and fallow," and also the "district of the 
Rodings : " the whole of what has been so distinguished extends from Willingale Doe 
on the south, to Wimbish northward; and from Felsted on the east, to Hallingbury on 
the west. The soil here is described as a strong, wet, heavy, reddish or brown loam 
upon a whitish marly clay; not yielding good crops without hollow draining and good 
husbandry. The whole district is hilly, and the surface loam in the vales is better and 
drier than on the hills, forming in some instances a very good soil.f Formerly the 

sonnes and three daughters, and by Anne his second wyffe, foure sonnes, and the sayde William being of 
the age of 82 yeres, changed this life on the 20th Dec. 1578." 

"Ann, daughter of John Wiseman, esq. of Felsted, first married to Thomas Fitche, esq. sometime lord 
of this parish, by whom she had Thomas, William, and Francis ; after her first husband's death, she was 
married to Ralph Pudsor, esq. of Gray's-inn: she died Dec. 3, 1593." 

" Thomas Rodea, of Takely, gent. ob. Aug. 17, 1657." 

" The rev. Thomas Atherson, M.A., rector of this parish, who died June 14, 1749, aged 64. A pious 
and learned divine." 

* A Correspondent to the Gentleman's Magazine considers the derivation of the name of the Roodings, 
or Rodings, from the river Rodon, to be erroneous ; observing, that there were nine stations for pilgrims, 
in the respective parishes, still bearing the surname of Rooding, or, as sometimes written, Ruding; and 
as these stations were formerly called Rood stations, a term derived from the holy rood, or cross, it is 
more than probable the name has had this origin. To these stations, there were very lucrative emolu- 
ments attached ; but what is very remarkable, though these facts are currently reported in the county, no 
mention of them is made by Camden. — Gent. Mag. vol. xci. p. 64. 

t Tlie crop and fallow system, as it is managed here, is considered by the inhabitants to be the only 
mode that can be pursued with success ; the average annual produce being, wheat 24, and barley 36, 
•l?ushels per acre. 

VOL. II. 2 N 



270 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. district of the Rodings was proverbially distinguished by the badness of the roads and 
the uncouth manners of the inhabitants ; but great improvement has taken place in 
these respects. 

HIGH RODING. 

'^'S'; This parish receives its distinguishing- appellation as lying' farther up the stream of 

the river, and being on higher ground than the others ; having been anciently con- 
sidered as the chief, or inost important, it was on that account sometimes named Great 
Roding. Distant from Dunmow five, and from London thirtj^-four miles. 

Tins parish and Avthorp Roding, previous to the Conquest, belonged to the 
monastery of Ely; but the monks, for giving shelter to their fugitive countrymen, 
having incurred the Conqueror's displeasure, were deprived of these possessions, 
which were given to William de Warren, created earl of Surrey by William Rufus, 
in 1088; he died the same year, and was succeeded by his son W^illiam, earl of Warren 
and Surrey, who died in 1138, succeeded by his grandson William, in 1148; whose 
only daughter Isabel, by marriage, conveyed it to W'^illiam of Blois, who died in 1160, 
and was succeeded by Hameline Plantagenet in 1201; holden, in 1210 and 1211, by 
\Mlliam Plantagenet, who died in 1240: succeeded by John, who died in 1304; 
whose grandson, John, was his successor, and dying in 1347, without issue, was suc- 
ceeded by his sister Alice, married to Edmund Fitzalan, earl of Arundel, who, falling 
a victim to the intrigues of queen Isabel and Roger Mortimer, was beheaded in 1326 : 
Richard his son, restored in blood, died in 1375, and his son, of the same name, was 
beheaded in 1397. Thomas, earl of Arundel, his son, was restored in blood and to 
the possession of this and his other estates ; and out of this, he is stated to have given 
ten quarters of wheat jearly, to the prioress of Cheshunt, in Hertfordshire : dying in 
1414, without surviving offspring, his sisters became his co-heiresses: these were, 
Elizabeth, duchess of Norfolk, and, at the duke's decease, married to sir Gerard Ufflet; 
Joanna de Beauchamp, lady Bergavenny; and Margaret, married to sir Rowland 
Lenthall. In 1477, Thomas Boteler, earl of Ormond, had this estate : his onlv 
daughter was married to sir William Boleyn, father of Thomas Boleyn, earl of W^ilt- 
shire, who had two daughters, queen Anne Boleyn, and Mary, married first to William 
Carey, and afterwards to sir William Stafford; who, in 1554, sold this manor to sir 
Thomas Jocelyn, and he died in possession of it in 1562: and in whose family it con- 
tinued about two hun(h-ed years.* High Rodiug-bury, or hall, is near the church; 

* This family is of groat anticiiiity, tiiere being twenty-four successive generations in tlieir jjedigrec. 
Kgidius Jocelyn, a nobleman of Brittany, passed into England in the time of Edward the confessor, and 
was father of sir Gilbert Jocelyn. who returned into Normandy, and accompanying the Conqueror in his 
expedition against England, obtained from him the manors of Sempringham ; he left issue two sons, 
Gilbert and Geofrey. The eldest was born at Sempringham, and founded the Cistercian monastery of 
that place, the monks of which were, from him, called Gilbertines ; he died in 1180, and was canonised 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 271 

■a.nd Newhall Jocelyn, or Davies Hall, is nearly a mile distant from it westward : it is ^ h a i'. 
supposed to have been built by some of the Jocelyn family, about a century and a half ^_1_— 
ago ; it was a large house, with a court and chapel, and in the windows of the hall and 
parlour there were several coats of arms.* 

by pope Innocent the third, in 1202. GeoiVey de Jocelyn (his brother having embraced a religious life) 
inherited the estate. Thomas Jocelyn was his descendant, who married, in 1229, Maud, daughter and 
co-heiress of sir John Hyde, of Hyde Hall, in Hertfordshire; and by this marriage the earls of Roden 
became possessed of that estate, which they have retained to the present time. 

From the time of king Henry the third, this family produce their marriages in the following order : 
Thomas, son of Thomas and Maud, married Joan, daughter of John Blunt; Ralph, their son, married 
Maud, daughter of sir John Sutton ; Geofrey, their son, married Margaret, daughter of Robert Rokel ; Ralph, 
their son, married Margaret, daughter of John Palmer; Geofrey, their son, married Katharine, daughter 
of sir Thomas Bray ; Thomas, their son, married Alice, daughter of Lewis Duke ; George, their son, married 
Maud, daughter of Edmund Bardolf ; John, their son, married Philippa, daughter of William Bradbury ; 
who had sir Thomas, of High Roding. Sir Thomas Jocelyn, lineally descended from the first sir Thomas, 
received the honour of knighthood from king Edward the sixth, and married Dorothy, daughter of sir 
Geofrey Gate, by whom he had : Thomas and Leonard ; Richard, who succeeded his father ; Henry, who 
married Anne, heiress of Humphrey Torrel, of Torrel's Hall, in Willingale Dou ; John, a very learned 
antiquarian, secretary to archbishop Parker, and who was his assistant in collecting materials and writing 
" Antiquitates Britannicae," (published by that learned prelate). He published, " Praefatio ad Epistolam 
Gildae de Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae ;" several Saxon collections, with an English version, and a long 
preface. " Libri Saxonici qui ad manus Jocelini venerunt ; necnon nomine corum, qui scripserunt Historian! 
Gentis Angloruin, et ubi extant, per Th. Hearne." Also, " New England's Rarities Discovered, in birds, 
beasts, fishes, serpents, and plants of that country ; with the remedies used by the natives to cure their 
diseases, &c." 

Arms of Jocelyn : Azure, a circular vvrcatli, or torse, argent and sable, with four hawks' bells attached 
to it, or. Crest : A falcon's leg erased at the thigh proper, belled or. Supporters : Two falcons' wings 
inverted proper, belled or. Motto : " Faire mon devoir. To do my duty." 

* Inscriptions. — " Here lyeth buried the bodyes of Edward Jocelyn, esq. fourth son of sir Thomas Inscrip- 
Jocelyn,late of Newhall Jocelyns, in the parish of High Rothinge, in the county of Essex, knight of the ^'^"S- 
Hath ; and Mary his wife, the only daughter and heire of John Lambe, late of Middlesex, gent, by whom 
he had six sones and eight daughters. He died April 15, 1627 : she Feb. 22, 1614." 



" John Jocelyn, esquire, interred here doth lie. 

Sir Thomas Jocelyn's third son, of worthy me- 
mory. 

Thrice noble was this gentleman by birth, by 
learning great. 

By single, chast, and godly life, he won in heaven 
a seate ; 

He the year one thousand and five hundred twenty- 
nine was born. 

Not twenty yeares old liim Cambridge did with 
two degrees adorn. 



King's [should he Queen's] college him a fellow 
chose, in anno forty- nine. 

In learning tryde whereto he did his mind ahvaies 
incline. 

But others took the praise and fame of his deserving 
wit, 

And his inventions, as their own, to printing did 
commit. 

One thousand six hundred and three, it grieves all 
to remember, 

He left this life, (poor's daily friend), the twenty- 
eighth December." 



Charities : John Jocelyn, of Sawbridgevvorth, and his son of the same name, of High Roding, gave six (^i,a,itips 
milch kine for ever; the profits of two of them for the reparation of the church ; the other four for an 
obit for themselves, and the souls of their ancestors. — In 1616, James (Chopping gave thirteen shillings 



2T2 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. The church, dedicated to All Saints, is a small low building, with a wooden turret 
~ J and spire, and three bells. 

This rectory was given to the priory of Lewes, in Suffolk, by some of the Warren 
family, the founders of that house ; and on the dissolution of monasteries, was, by 
Henry the eighth, given to Thomas lord Cromwell, on whose attainder it again 
passed to the crown, and was conveyed, with the manor, to the Jocelyn family. 

There is no parsonage-house, nor any traces of its former existence ; yet, according 
to Newcourt, " there were twenty acres of land together, and a hoppet, where the site 
should be looked for." 

In 1821, the population of this parish amounted to three hundred and eighty-eight, 
and in 1831, to four hundred and five. 

AYTROP RODING. 

Aytiop -pj^g parish of Aytrop or Eythorp Roding is believed to have been named from an 

ancient possessor, in the time of king Edward the first; in records, it is written 
Eythorpe, Aylthorpe, Gytrop, and Roinges Grumbalds: it extends southward from 
High Roding; in circumference, computed to be eight miles. Distant from Dunmow 
six, and from London thirty-two miles. 

A nobleman, named Leofwine, was the owner of this parish before the Conquest, 
which he gave to the abbot and monks of Ely, to atone for the unnatural crime of the 
murder of his mother. But it was taken from them by king William, and given to 
William de Warren, except a part of it, holden by Samar, a Saxon; which Eudo 
Dapifer, and his under-tenant, Turgis, afterwards had. There are three manors. 
Aytrop Aytrop Roding Hall is near the west end of the church. This manor appears to 

Hall. have been made part of the endowment of the bishopric of Ely; for Nigel, the second 

bishop of that see, granted it to Alberic de Vere, earl of Oxford, by the service of two 
knights' fees; and, in 1165, Simon de Roinges held two fees of the bishop of Ely; but 
Alberic had the service of them. And in 1221, the earl of Oxford held four fees here 
of the bishop ; and Robert and William de Roding possessed them in the reign of 
Henry the third. Afterwards they appear in five generations of a family surnamed 
De Aytrop, who held under the earls of Oxford, and whose name first occurs in 
records in the time of Edward the first. In 1337, sir Thomas Weston, brother of sir 
Humphrey, of Prested Hall, had this estate, which his daughter and co-heiress, Mar- 
garet, conveyed, by marriage, to John de Louvaine, of Little Easton: Alianor, one of 

and four pence to the poor, out of a cottage called Hills ; and a tenement and two crofts called Tooleys, 
and two other crofts called Kingsleys, in Great Dunmow, were charged with the payment of twenty shil- 
lings for ever to the poor of this parish. The field called Little Rowland, he also gave to the poor.— 
Sir Strange Jocelyn, and his brother Edward, rector here, endowed a school for teaching poor children : 
the house is in the Street. 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 273 

her daughters and co-heiresses, was married to sir William Bourchier ; and to this chap. 
lady, her aunt Isabella, sister and co-heiress with her mother, gave her portion of the ' 

estate of sir Thomas Weston ; the whole of which, including this manor, appears to 
have remained in the Bourchier family, till it descended to Anne, daughter of Henry 
Bourchier, the last earl of Essex of this line, and married to William, marquis of 
Northampton, who, having advocated the cause of lady Jane Grey, forfeited this 
with his other estates. 

In 15T0, this manor was granted by queen Elizabeth to Walter Devereux, viscount 
Hereford, heir to the marchioness of Northampton, and afterwards earl of Essex. In 
1607, Thomas Aylett died in possession of this estate, leaving his son Thomas his 
heir ; whose descendants made a sacrifice of this and other possessions to support the 
cause of king Charles the first. It belonged to Richard Luther, esq. in 1670, and 
afterwards became the property of the Barrington family, of Hatfield Broadoak. 

The mansion of the manor of Keeres is a mile south-eastward from the church : it Keeres. 
was in possession of Thomas Aylett in 1607, who held it of Peter Palmer, esq.: in the 
time of Charles the first, it was holden by John Eve ; and in the writings is named 
Caros. Sir John Barrington purchased this estate, in 1661, with the sum of six hun- 
dred pounds, left by John Gobert, esq, for charitable uses, to which it has been 
appropriated. 

A manorial estate, a mile and a half distant south-eastward from the church, which Friar's 
was holden of Tiltey priory, by Thomas Eve, is named the Grange : it was included in 
a grant from king Henry the eighth to Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk, who sold it, 
in 1538, to Robert Trappes; from whom it passed to a family surnamed Stokes; and 

to Dey, whose descendant, Edward Dey, a ship-builder, sold it to Jacob 

Houblon, esq. of Great Hallingbury. 

The church is a small building, dedicated to the Virgin Mary: it has a wooden ciuuch. 
tui'ret, with three bells. 

The rectory originally belonged to the chief manor, from which being purchased, 
it has passed to various proprietors. 

In 1821, this parish contained two hundred and thirty-four, and in 1831, two 
hundred and fifty-nine inhabitants. 

WHITE RODING. 

This parish extends from Aytrop Roding to the south-western extremity of the White 
hundred, and is bounded on the east by Margaret and Leaden Rodings. The situation ° ' ^' 
is on high ground, healthy and pleasant; and the road to Hatfield Regis passes through 
the village. Distant from Dunmow eight, and from London twenty-eight miles. 

A freeman, named Turchill, held lands in this parish in the time of the Saxons ; but 
the whole was annexed to the royal demesnes of the Conqueror; and in Domesday 



274 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BUDK II. book, the name of Roger de Otburville occurs, as holding of the khig, what had 
belonged to the said Turchill. There are two manors. 

Uhiie The manor of White Roding-bury was in possession of Walter de Merc in 1226, 

Uuiy. " who held it by the sergeantry of keeping the king's falcons or hawks. Sir Walter de 
Merc, or Merk, was his successor ; whose son William was a minor at his father's 
decease. In 1268, Isabella, daughter of William de Baynayns, had this possession, 
and obtained the grant of a market and a fair. In 1296, the manor and advowson of 
the church were granted, by king Edward the first, to John de Merks, with remainder 
to his sister. Cicely de Hastings, wife of Humphrey de Hastings, who held this manor, 
and that of Cumberton, in Cambridgeshire, at the time of her decease, in 1304, by the 
service of keeping, for the king's use, two falcons for heron-hawking; and a grey- 
hound, trained to make a lieron rise. This estate is afterwards named, sometimes the 
manor of White Roding, and sometimes of Merks: in 1317, sir Peter de Cusance 
died in possession of it; and sir William, his son, held it from 1322 to 1329 : in 1346, 
Thomas Longeville held it jointly with his wife Beatrix,* on his decease, married to 
sir William de Queneton, to whom she is supposed to have given this estate, which, 
after her decease, he held jointly with his wife Isabel; the remainder in Henry, son 
of Henry Green, of Isham, and of his heirs. Sir William died in 1374, and Isabel, 
his lady, in 1387, her heir being sir Henry Green, from whom the estate descended 
to several collateral branches of the family, till Constance, daughter of Henry, son of 
John, and grandson of sir Henry Green, conveyed it, by marriage, to John Stafford, 
son of Humphrey, duke of Buckingham, and earl of Wiltshire : she died in 1475, 
leaving Edward her son, who died a minor; and this estate went to Humphrey Browne, 
(sergeant-at-laAv,) in right of his wife Anne, one of the daughters of sir Henry Vere, 
of Addington, son of Isabella Green, sister of Henry Green, esq. of Drayton, in 
Northamptonshire, father of Constance, as before stated. It remained in this family 
till 1633, when it was purchased by sir Richard Everard ; and his son, sir Richard, 
died in possession of it in 1648. In 1686, it was purchased by John le Neve; and in 
1717, had descended to his son of the same name, who sold it to Robert Summer, 
esq. merchant, of London, and to Hookman, esq. 

t'olviiie. The mansion of White Roding-bury is near the church; and that of Merks is 

about a mile distant from it northward. Colville, or Coverts-hall, was formerly con- 
sidered as belonging to the manor of White Roding-bury, and passed along with it, till 
it became the property of the munificent Mrs. Prisca Coburne, when, in 1701, this 
valuable estate was left by her for the relief of the widows of poor or unfortunate sea- 
men of the parish of Stepney. The house is three quarters of a mile north-west 

* John de Longeville was kis son, and had Kitchen Hall, in Harlow, but does not appear to have had 
this estate. Beatrix died in 1319, and John Whiteband, and Roger Greenkirtle, her cousins, were 
her heirs. 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 275 

from the church: it was originally a large building, but part of it has been pulled c H A i' 
down. ''^' 



The manor-house of Maskels-bury is an ancient building, moated round., about half Maskels 
a mile distant south-eastward from the church ; the name does not occur in records 
till the time of Edward the third : Henry de Broke held it of the king, as of his 
honour of the count of St. Paul, in 1291, as did also his son John in 1351, whose son 
and heir was Thomas de Broke; after whom the next possessor was Bartholomew de 
Fresteling, who sold it to John Pakeman, junior ; of whom it was purchased by sir 
John Hende, citizen and cloth-worker, of London ; whose son John dying in posses- 
sion of it, left his only daughter Joan his heiress, who was married to Walter Writtle, 
esq. ; in whose family the line of descent failing, and Elizabeth, the widow of sir John, 
having been married after his decease to Ralph Boteler, afterwards baron Sudley, he 
by her gift, or otherwise, became possessed of this estate; which, on his decease, in 
1473, went to one of his sisters, who being married to Haman Bellknap, esq. had by 
him William, the father of sir Edward Bellknap, who died in 1521, possessed of it, 
and from whose three sisters, his co-heiresses, it was conveyed, in 1544, to Anthony 
Cooke, esq. the learned preceptor of king Edward the sixth; after whose decease, 
in 1576, it was conveyed from his son and heir Richard, to Philip Cotton, esq. 
who, dying in 1607, left sir Robert Cotton, the son of his brother Thomas, his 
heir.* 

Sir John Morris, of Cheping Ongar, marrying Katharine, daughter and heiress of 
Gabriel Poyntz, esq. of North Okingdon, assumed the name of Poyntz, and had 
Maskels-bury at the time of his decease, in 1618 : his successor was his son, sir James 
Poyntz, who died in 1623; Richard, his son and heir, died unmarried in 1643; and 
his sister Anne, married to sir Fulke Greville, had this estate, which was sold to sir 
Robert Abdy, ancestor of sir William Abdy, bart. of Felix Hall. 

Morell Roding was formerly a parish, but has become a hamlet to White Roding, Rodinq 
yet the suit and service of the court-leet, by ancient custom, belongs to the hundred 
of Harlow. Before the Conquest, it was holden under Wisgar by Coleman, a free 

* He was born in 1570, and in his eighteenth year began to collect ancient records, charters, and other 
MSS. Camden, Selden, and Speed, acknowledge their obligations to him. He was highly esteemed by 
queen Elizabeth, and by James the first, who created him a baronet. He was the author of numerous 
publications on political and other subjects ; but our principal obligation to him is for his valuable 
library of curious MSS. which he was forty years in collecting. He died in 1631, and left this collection 
to his family, though designed for public use ; it had been much enlarged by private benefactions, before 
his death, as it was aftei-wards by the purchases of his heirs, and donations of others, who added to it a 
great number of books, chiefly relating to the history and antiquities of Hritain. In 1700, at the request 
of sir John Cotton, an act of parliament was obtained for preserving it after his decease, under the deno- 
mination of the Cottonian Library, for public use, and it is now fixed in the British Museum. Statutes 
relating to it arc. 12th and 13th of William III. cap. 5, and 5th Anne, cap. 30. 



276 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



Games 
Hall. 



BOOK II. tenant, and belonged to Richard Fitz-Gislebert at the time of the survey. In 1392, 
Tliomas Stafford, earl of Stafford, died possessed of this estate, from whom it passed 
to his brother, earl William, in 1398; to Edmund in 1402, and to Henry Stafford, 
duke of Buckingham, in 1548. 

Tlie manor-house is supposed to have received its name of Kemys, or Games, from 
an ancient possessor of the family of Camoys. Andrew Prior held this manor of 
Edward, duke of Buckingham, at the time of his decease in 1507, whose heir and 
successor was his son John: in 1646, it was in the possession of John Prest, esq, 
whose descendants held it till the time of king Charles the first, when, in 1638, it was 
in possession of Richard Luther, from whom it passed to his son Anthony, and his 
descendants. 

The little church, or chapel, near Games Hall, of timber and mortar, was sometime 
ago to be seen converted into a pigeon-house. 

The church of White Roding, dedicated to St. Martin, is a handsome structure, 
and forms a conspicuous object at a great distance: a large square tower, embattled, 
with a tall spire, leaded, contains five bells.* The parsonage is a good convenient 
building, and there are between fifty and sixty acres of glebe lands. 

This parish, Avith the hamlet of Morell Roding, in 1821, contained four hundred 
and thirty-nine, and, in 1831, four hundred and seventy-nine inhabitants. 



Chapel. 



Church 



Leaden 
Roding. 



LEADEN RODING. 



Leaden Roding is probably conjectured to have received its name from the cir- 
cumstance of the church being the first that was covered with lead. It is a small 
parish, surrounded by High Easter, and the Rodings named Margarets, White and 
Eythorp; distant from Dunmow eight, and from London twenty-six miles. 



* Inscription : " In a vault beneath this marble are deposited the remains of the rev. John Maryon, 
A. M. rector of this church, who was born at White Roding the 18th day of April, 1692, and departed this 
life the nth day of November, 1760, in the 69th year of his age. Of whom it may with great truth be 
aiBrmed, that his whole life and conduct were a continual recommendation of the doctrines he taught. 
The innocence and simplicity of his manners, his constant patronage and protection of the poor, and his 
unfeigned piety, rendered him an example well worthy of imitation. He was eminent in the practice of 
all the social virtues ; and his behaviour as a gentleman, a magistrate, and a minister of the gospel, made 
him justly esteemed. Notwithstanding he was blessed with a very considerable temporal estate, and 
might have attained to the highest ecclesiastical dignities, no inducement could prevail on him to change 
the place of his residence, or trust the charge committed to him to the care of another; for he continued 
here nearly forty years, in a diligent and faithful discharge of every pastoral duty : that the many virtues 
of so worthy a relation and so sincere a friend may be transmitted to posterity, John Jones, esq. and 
Margaretta Maria, his wife, have caused this monument to be erected to his memory. In the same vault 
lie also the bodies of Jane, the wife of the above-mentioned John Maryon, and of Walter and John, their 
sons, who both died in their youth. Also, the bodies of the rev, Joseph Maryon, sometime rector of this 
church, and Margaret his wife, the parents of the said John Maryon." 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. STf 

This parish, in the reign of Edward the confessor, was in the occupation of a free- chap. 
woman, and was part of the thirteen knights' fees belonging to earl Warren in 1210. ^^' 
There is only one manor, and the mansion is near the church, on the north-east. 

In 1314, this manor was granted by John, earl Warren, to Edward Fitz-Alan, Manor. 
earl of Arundel, under whom it was holden by sir Hugh Blount, at the time of his 
decease in 1361. John Doreward, in 1392, held it under Thomas, duke of Gloucester, 
whose descendants retained possession till, by female heirship, it passed to the family 
of Waldegrave, and was in possession of William Waldegrave, esq. in 1538, con- 
tinuing in possession of his descendants till it was conveyed from Thomas, son of 
Thomas Waldegrave, esq. to Hugh Everard, esq. who died in 1637, and left this 
estate to his son, sir Richard Everard, hart, from whom it was afterwards conveyed 
to Timothy Brand, esq. of the Hide, in Ingatestone, who left it to his son Thomas. 
The rev. Thomas Brand, ancestor of this family, was rector, and died here in 1654: -— 
he had two sons, Thomas and John; the former of whom gave an annuity of five 
pounds for teaching children to read. 

The church is small, of one pace with the chancel, and both of equal breadth; a Church, 
wooden frame, with a spire, contains three bells.* 

This rectory was given to the priory of Castle Acre, in Surrey, by William de 
Warren, the founder of that house in 1085. 

In 1821, this parish contained one hundred and fifty-seven, and, in 1831, one 
hundred and forty-seven inhabitants, 

MARGARET RODING. 

This parish extends southward from Leaden Roding, and is bounded on the east Margaret 
. . . . ... Roding. 

by Good Easter: its circumference is estimated to be six miles; distant from Dunmow 

seven, and from London twenty-seven miles. 

Ansgar and a freeman held it in the time of Edward the confessor; and, at the time 
of the survey, it belonged to Geofrey de Magna ville and William de Warren, their 
under-tenants being Rainalm and Martel. There are two manors. 

The manor-house of Roding Marsraret is at the east-end of the church ; it is called Roding 
Olives, and Garnets, and vulgarly Garnish Hall. Henry Garnett held this manor Hall. 
under the De Veres, earls of Oxford, from 1329 to 1332; and it is stated in the 
feodary of that illustrious house, that in 1268, Robert de Rootinge held under them 
these two fees, of the fee of the bishop of Ely,f as did also John de la Lee in 1350; 
and John de la Lee and Robert Dersham in 1360 and 1371. 

* Mr. Symonds found the following remarkable escutcheon in the east window of the chancel : 
Redemptoris nostri arma. Or, a cross, gules, at the top a cock, at the bottom three nails, a spear and 
reed in saltire, argent, a spunge. — Collect, fol. 489. 

t It is hence supposed to be part of what Leofwin gave to the bishop of Ely. 
VOL. II. 2 o 



278 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



liOOK II. In 1360, William de Bohun, earl of Northampton, and William Olive, had this 
estate, holden by John de Bampton in 1371 : and the reversion of this manor, in which 
John de Boteler is said to have had a life-estate, was in Humphrey de Bohun, earl of 
Hereford and Essex in 1372; as was also the manor of Rodiug Margaret, which 
Thomas Symond had unjustly taken. This estate appears to have been retained 
longest in the Leigh family; it was in possession of Thomas Leigh in 1390 and 1400; 
of John in 1424; Robert in 1437; Roger in 1442. Of Thomas Leigh, esq. in 1479, 
who died in 1509, as did Henry his son in 1495: Giles, son of Henry, became the 
heir of his grandfather Thomas; and, at the time of his decease in 1538, left Margaret 
and Agnes, his daughters, co-heiresses; married to the two brothers, John and 
Christopher AUeyn, avIio had each his portion of this estate ; Christopher and his wife 
Agnes both died on the same day, the 1st of February, 1554, leaving Giles their 
son and heir. John, son of John AUeyn, died in 1558, possessed of this manor of 
Garnets and Olives; succeeded by Giles, who died in 1608, holding the estate of sir 
Francis Huberd, as of his manor of Stansted Montfitchet. Samuel, son of Giles, 
succeeded, who died in 1614; and Isaac, his brother, succeeding him, had for his suc- 
cessor Giles Alleyn, of Haseley, esq. who sold this estate to John Godebold, esq. of 
Terling Hall. 

Marks. The mansion of Marks, or Marcas-fee, is a brick building, half a mile distant from 

the church northward. This manor is supposed to have been a chapelry, not dependant 
on the church of this parish, but of Standon Marci.* From the name of this manor 
it is supposed to have some time belonged to the Merk family. There was formerly 
a chapel here, but it has been entirely destroyed : institutions to it are recorded in the 
London Registry. 

In 1403, king Henry the fourth, and Walter Skirlaw, bishop of Durham, settled 
this manor, with appertenances, on University College, Oxford. The king's name 
appears in connexion with the bishop, yet the latter was the sole benefactor: he pur- 
chased Marks Hall, and had it conveyed from the king to the college, to avoid the 
expense and trouble of the inquisition required in cases of mortmain, and that it might 
be holden of the king. 

Climcii. The church and chancel are of one pace, both tiled; and a wooden turret, with a 

spire, contains four bells. The entrance on the west end is under an arch, with 
indented Saxon ornaments, supported by wreathed pillars. This church is dedicated 
to St. Margaret. Tithes in this parish, belonging to the abbey and convent of St. 
Alban's, were compounded for, by a pension of forty-six marks and eightpence, payable, 
according to Mr. Salmon, out of the manor of Marks. 

In 1821, the population of this parish amounted to two hundred and nine, and, in 
1831, to two hundred and thirty-three. 

* See Smith's Annals of University College, published in 1728. Garnet's Hall was what belonged to 
Geofrey de RIagnaville; and Marks was holden under William de Warren, by Marcel. 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 279 

CHAP. 



RODING BERNERS. 



IX. 



This is the smallest, and the most southern of the RodinjOfs in this hundred, and was Rt)'l'°s 

° _ Beiners. 

holden under Geofrey de Mandeville by Hugh de Berners, at the survey, having, in 
the time of the Confessor, been in possession of Uluric. This village is distant from 
Ongar six, and from London tvrenty-seven miles. There is only one manor. 

Berners Hall is near the church southward. The estate was in possession of Ralph Bernevs 

Hall 

Berners, who died in 1297, and was holden by sir John de Berners in 1372; his son, 
sir James Berners, was imprisoned and beheaded, in 1388, for the alleged crime of 
having given evil advice to king Richard the second; and this, with his other estates, 
passing to the crown, was purchased by Thomas, archbishop of York, and other 
feoffees, for the use of Thomas of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester, who, at the time 
of his death, held it of Joan, countess of Hereford, as of the honour of Mandeville. 
It was purchased of his executors by Richard Torrel, of Little Thurrock, whose son 
Thomas held it at the time of his death in 1442, and it was in possession of his son John 
in 1444, when he had to sustain a suit at laAV, instituted against him, on account of this 
estate, by sir John Bourchier, lord Berners, and Margery his wife, daughter and 
sole heiress of Richard, son of the said sir James Berners: but in 1452, a final agree- 
ment was made between the parties, by which John Bourchier, with Margery his 
wife, gave up all right and claim to this estate, on receiving fifty marks of silver. It 
is not known how long the Torrel family retained the estate after this event, but, in 
1569, Philip Mordaunt died in possession of it, and was succeeded by his son John, 
who, in 1574, was followed by James, his younger brother, who dying a few months 
after, was succeeded by his brother, Robert Mordaunt, esq. of Little Massingham, in 
Norfolk, who died in 1604, and left this and other large estates to Lestrange Mor- 
daunt, esq. the son of his brother Henry; who sold it to sir Arthur and sir Edward 
Capel; after whom, the next possessor was Henry Capel, esq. succeeded by James 
Thwayts, whose son Josias was his heir. It afterwards passed to George Barker, 
surgeon, and others; and to Thomas Berney Bramston, esq. in whose family it has 
remained to the present time. 

The church is small, with a wooden turret containing one bell. It was given to Church. 
the monastery of St. Leonard, of Bow, in Middlesex; and the prioress and convent 
appropriating the tithes to themselves, hired a curate for a small stipend, and it has 
since remained a donative or curacy in the gift of the patron. This impropriate 
rectory, in 1540, was granted, by Henry the eighth, to sir Ralph Sadler, and has since 
belonged to numerous proprietors. 

Juliana Berners, daughter of sir James Berners, of this parish, has been celebrated Juliana 
by various authors as very learned ; and, undoubtedly, she had the best education that 
could be obtained in that age, as she was appointed prioress of Sopewell nunnery, near 



280 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK 11. St. Alban's, sometime before the year 1460. This lady was exceedingly beautiful, 
and fond of masculine exercises, particularly hunting and hawking. On these subjects, 
and on heraldry, she wrote treatises which were so popular, that they were amongst 
the first printed books in the English language, in the infancy of the art. Her death 
is not recorded. Her works are, " The Treatyses perteynynge to Hawkynge, 
Huntynge, and Fishynge with an angle;" and also a "ryght noble treatyse of the 
lygnage of cot armours, endynge with a treatise, which specyfyeth of blazing of armys, 
Lond. 1496, fol." The first edition of her treatise on hawking was printed at St. 
Alban's, in 1481. The book on armoury has, near its commencement, the following 
curious piece of sacred heraldry: "of the offspring of the gentilman Jafeth," (she 
certainly meant Shem) "came Habraham, Moyses, Aron, and the profettys; and also 
the kpigs of the right lyne of Mary, of whom that gentilman Jhesus was borne, 
very God and man; after his manhode kynge of the land of Jude and of Jues, 
gentilman by his modre Mary, prince of cote armure, &c."* 

In 1821, the population of this parish amounted to ninety-three, and, in 1831, to 
one hundred. 



Shellow 
Bowells. 



Manor- 
house. 



SHELLOW BOWELLS. 

This small parish is on the south-eastern extremity of the hundred, on the north 
bounded by Roding Berners, and southward by Willingale Dou. The name in 
records is written Shelewe, Schelewe, Schelowe, Scelga, Selges, Schelve. If, as is 
believed, what appears in Domesday-book under Scelga, refers to this parish, it was 
at that time much larger than at present, containing three large manors, holden by 
Eudo Dapifer and Geofrey de Mandeville, and had, in the Confessor's reign, belonged 
to Harol Uluric, his under-tenant, a freeman, and others. At that time part of it 
extended to the Rodings, and much of it is supposed to have been annexed to the 
contiguous manor of Torrel's Hall, in Willingale Dou. There is only one manor, 
and the house is near the church westward; its earliest possessors were of a family 
named De Bowel, Boel, or Bowles, from whom it has taken its distinguishing appel- 
lation. Sir John Sutton succeeded, who gave it, in 1301, to Ralph Jocelyn, of 
Sawbridgeworth, who had married one of his daughters ; Geofrey Jocelyn, his son, in 
1338, made a gi'ant of it to Robert le Marshall, and Margery his wife, of North Weald, 
during their lives; but it soon after passed to the Torrel family, originally seated at 

* A not unfavourable specimen of this lady's poetry is given from the " boke of St. Alban's," by Ritson, 
in his Ancient Songs. Her reasons for publishing these tracts collectively is thus given at the beginning 
of that which treats on angling: "and for by cause that this present treatyse sholde not come to the 
hondys of eche ydle persone vvhyche wolde desire it, yf it were enprynted allone by itself and put in a 
lytyll plaunflet; therefore 1 have compylyd in a greter volume of diverse bokys concernyng to gentyll andi 
noble men, to the entent that the forsayd ydle persones whyche sholde have but lytyll mesure in the sayd 
dysporte of fysshynge, sholde not by this meane utterlye destroy it." 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 281 

Torrel's Hall, in Little Thurrock. Richard Torrel, in 1404, died in possession of C H a p 

this estate; Thomas was his son, whose descendants retained this possession till it 1— 

again reverted to the Jocelyn family, of whom John Jocelyn, esq. died in possession 
in 1525. From this period the accounts are not regular; but the names of Wiseman, 
Foster, Ange, and March occur; and Thomas March, or Marsh, esq. sold it to 
Thomas Bramston, esq. of Screens, ancestor of the present possessor. 

The church, dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul, which had become ruinous, was re- Chmcb. 
edified in 1752 by a brief, and the assistance of the neighbouring gentry; particularly 
T. Bramston, esq. : it is a handsome small building of brick. 

In 1821, the inhabitants of this parish amounted to one hundred and fourteen, and, 
in 1831, to one hundred and forty-three. 



WILLINGALE, Or WILLINGHALL, 

The whole of the southern extremity of this hundred is occupied by two parishes, Willing- 
named Willingale Dou, and Willingale Spain. Before the Conquest, these lands 
were holden by Siward, and six freemen; and, at the time of the survey, formed only 
one parish, in possession of Suene of Essex, and his under tenant Garner, by Ralph 
Peverel, and his under tenant Ravenot; and by Adam, son of Durand de Malis 
Operibus. The name in records is Willingehale, Wylinghale, Willenham, Wigenhale, 
in Domesday Willengehala, and usually Willingale. The lands of these parishes 
extend into the agricultural district of various loams : they are superior to the neigh- 
bouring parishes of the Rodings ; the inhabitants are also more numerous, and the 
situation is remarkably pleasant and healthy. The two churches are in one church- 
yard, an unusual occurrence : yet this is the case at St. Edmund' s-bury, at Sopham, 
in Cambridgeshire, and at Trimnell, in Norfolk. The distance from Dunmow is 
twelve, and from London twenty-seven miles. 



WILLINGALE DOU, or DOE. 

This is the largest of these parishes, and contains two manors. Willing- 

The manor-house named Warden's Hall, as is supposed from a corrupt pronunciation warden'! 
of the family name of Wanton, is a large and handsome edifice of brick, about half a ^''''• 
mile southward from the church. The estate belonged to William de Wanton, who 
died in 1347. It is supposed to have previously been in possession of William de 
Ou, in the reign of king Stephen; but the accounts are obscure and uncertain. 
William, son of William de Wanton, died in 1393, holding this manor, for the first 
time named Willingale Dou, of sir Robert Marney, as of his manor of South 
Okenden. Joan his sister, and Anne his niece, were his co-heiresses. Sir Thomas 



282 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



iiuoK II. Torrel is believed to have had this manor, because he presented to the living, from 
1445, nearly to the end of that century; but there is no further evidence, and it is 
not known when it passed from this family to those of Jocelyn and Wiseman ; yet it 
is known to have descended through the families of Beadle, Samford, or Sampford, to 
Wiseman, and, by marriage, was conveyed to the family of Fytche; in 1587, Thomas 
Fytche, and A^nes his wife, sold it to Nicholas Brocket, of Sawbridge worth, and 
Joanna his wife, with an entail to their sons. In 1634, this estate was conveyed by 
John, son of Nicholas Brocket, to Robert Cole, one of the " esquires of the king's 
body," to Charles the first. He died hi 1652; by his wife Mary, daughter of Geofrey 
Nightingale, esq. of Newport Pond, he had Edmund, and three other sons, and three 
dauo-hters, of whom Elizabeth was married to Edmund Lambert, esq. of Boyton, in 
Wiltshire; whose sister Deborah became the wife of Edmund Cole, brother of the 
said Elizabeth. The offspring of this marriage was Robert and Deborah, twins, 
besides three elder daughters, Anne, Hester, and Mary, who died unmarried. 
Deborah was married to Thomas Salter, esq. of London; and Robert succeeding his 
father, on his decease in 1662, married Anne Beverley. He died in 1733, aged 
eighty-one years, his wife having died in 1732, seventy-five years of age. Having no 
children, he bequeathed this estate to the son of his twin-sister Deborah, sir John 
Salter, knt. alderman of London, sheriff in 1735, and, in 1740, lord mayor. He re- 
built Warden Hall, greatly improved the roads in the neighbourhood, and repaired 
and ornamented the churches, in each of which he erected spacious galleries. He 
married Anne, daughter of Humphrey Brooke, M.D. and dying in 1744, left his 
estate to his widow for life; and the reversion to his only daughter Selina, married 
to William Milles, esq. whose heir was his son of the same name. 

Torrel's Hall manor is supposed to have been taken from the capital manor, but of 
this there is no decisive evidence: the house is nearly a mile northward from the 
church. Its most ancient owners, since the survey, were of the family of Torrel, 
succeeded by that of Jocelyn, one of whom sold it to Richard Wiseman, esq. whose 
posterity enjoyed it for several generations, till it was purchased, in 1688, by John 
Brocket, esq. of the Middle Temple, whose son John, in 1718, sold it to Charles 
Blount, merchant, of London, after whose death his widow held it in jointure, and 
WilUam, their son, dying in 1752, the estate was purchased by John Rooke, esq. 

An estate called Asfeldens, supposed a corruption of Astelins, has been usually 
conveyed with the manor of Torrels; the mansion is in Roding Berners. 

This parish has three distinct constables; one for the township, one for Torrel's 
Hall hamlet, and one for the hamlet of Bird's Green, part of which is in Roding 
Beauchamp. 

The church-yard of the two Willingales is on ground which commands an exten- 
sive prospect over all the Rodings. The church of Willingale Dou is dedicated to 



Toiier.s 
Hall. 



Asfeldens. 



Church 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 283 

St. Christopher, and has a nave and chancel, with a square embattled tower, containing chap. 
four bells.* 



In 1821, the population of this parish amounted to four hundred and thirty-four, 
and, in 1831, to four hundred and sixty- six. 

* Inscriptions : " Here lyeth buried Anne Sackfild, widdovve, daughter of Humphrey Torrel, of Torrel's In.sti ip- 
Hall, in the county of Essex, esquire, late wife of John Sackfild, of Buckhurst, in the county of Sussex, ^^ons. 
esquier, which Anne departed this world the 13th of April, 1582, in the yere of her age four score." 

" Here lyeth the body of that most excellent lady Winifred Wiseman, wife to Richard Wiseman, of 
Torrel's Hall, esq. and daughter to sir John Harrington, of Hatfield Broadoak, in the county of Essex, 
knt. and bart. Ob. 7 Maii, 1684." 

" Here lyeth the body of sir Richard Wiseman, of Torrel's Hall, knt. who died SOth June, 1654. And 
the body of dame Lucy Wiseman, lws_second wife, and daughter of sir Thomas Griffin, of Braybrooke, in 
the county of Northampton, knt.^who died 29th June, 1660." 

"Near this place lies burifed Robert- ■Cple, patron of this church, and esquire of the body to king 
Charles I. who died Jan. 13, 1652; and JNIary his wife, daughter of Jeffrey Nightingale, of Newport-pond, 
in Essex, esq." There are also memorials of many of their children. Also of several of the family of 
Salter, of Warden's Hall : and the following on Mrs. Dorothee Brewster, wife of Thomas Brewster, esq. 
and daughter of sir Tliomas Jocelyn, knt. 



" Beholde heere youth and beauty lyinge, 

Nurst by Nature's hande and fed ; 

And then timely laid to bed ; 
From wayful griefs and woeful cryinge. 
Whose life is but a vital dying. 
Yet seeke her not whose name I keepe, 

In the grave ; for she's ascended ; 

Earth with earth alone is blended ; 



And angels singe though wee do weepe, 

She wakes in heaven though heere she sleepe : 

Vanish thy blood, thy life shall springe. 

From thy virtues ever deathlesse; 

Fame hath breath, though thou be breathlesse. 
My pen thus impes thy praises winge. 
Which stones shall speak and time shall singe, 
Ob. 27,Junii 1613, DevotoChristopheri Brooke." 



" Robertus Wiseman, de Torrels in com. Essex, eques aurat. Richardi Wiseman armig. primogenitus 
Alius, et hares, vir generosissimus corporis et animi dotibus ornatus, plus, candidus, quadratus, litis expers 
sibi et suis constans, philodelph. Philomus. literar. et literat. patron opt. vicinis amicabilis, sociabilis, 
hospitalis egenis et beneficus, omnibus aequus. Suminam existimationem et benevolentiam, ob facetum 
ingenium felicem memoriam suaevam et innocuam conversationem consecutus cum corporis castitatem 
quinque supra sexaginta annorura coelibatu comprobasset, et valetudine integerrima vixisset, Animani 
sponso suo Jesu Christo pie et placide reddidit atq. ; hoc dorraitorio quod ipse vivens se mortuum desig- 
navit, in spe resurrectionis ad gloriam requiescit desiderium sui omnibus bonis relinquens. Ob. 11, die 
Maii, 164)1." Translation: "Sir Robert Wiseman, of Torrels, in the county of Essex, first-born son 
and heir of Richard Wiseman, esq. a man of a very good family, well accomplished, both body and mind, 
pious, sincere, just, peaceable, steady to himself and friends, a lover of his brethren and of the muses; 
an excellent patron of learning and learned men, friendly, sociable and hospitable to his neighbours, 
hospitable and kind to strangers, just to all, having acquired the highest esteem and good- will for his 
cheerful disposition, happy memory, pleasant and innocent conversation — having shewn his preference 
for a life of chastity by his celibacy of sixty-five years, and having lived in a state of perfect health, 
piously and calmly resigned his soul to Jesus Christ his spouse, rests in this tomb (which, when living, he 
himself had provided), iu hope of a resurrection to glory. His death is lamented by all good men. He 
died on the llth day of May, 1641, aged 65." 

There are also inscriptions to the memory of sir John Salter, knt. alderman and lord mayor of London, 
who died in 1744, aged 60. Of Mrs. Dorothy Jocelyn, wife of 'i'homas Jocelyn, esq. who died May 17, 1602. 
Of Mrs. Anne Cole, wife of Richard Cole, esq. of Warden's Hall, who died Nov. 28, 1732, aged 7b years. 



284 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. 



WILLINGALE SPAIN. 

Willing- Spain's Hall here, in Finchingfield, and in Great Yeldham, having anciently 
pain. |jgjQj^g.gj| ^Q Hervey de Spain, have retained liis name as their distinguishing 
appellation. 

Spain's The chief manor of this parish has the mansion at a short distance from the church, 

Hall 

south-eastward. It belonged to Edeva in the time of Edward the confessor, and, at 

the time of the survey, was holden by Hervey de Ispania, as the under-tenant of Alan 

Fergent, by the name of Ulingehala, and was one of the three knights' fees which this 

Alan gave to Alberic de Vere, by the title of William de Ispania ; and which was 

consequently afterwards holden of the earls of Oxford. ^ ^■*%i""* 

In 1285, William de Monchensy d¥^ possessed ofthisjfhajior, which he held of the 

earl of Oxford; William, his son, was his heir. Tl^e^state afterwards passed through 

the families of Grey, Spice, Fortescu&'j^ 'B^dbury, Leveson, to sir Robert Wiseman, 

of Torrel's Hall, whose brother Richard was his successor; and his son, sir Richard 

Wiseman, marrying Elizabeth, daughter and co-heiress of John Towse, had Richard, 

on whom he settled this estate. He married Winifred, daughter of sir John Bar- 

rington, of Hatfield Broadoak, but left no issue: on his being killed in 1684, at the 

siege of Buda, where he went a volunteer with John Cutts, esq. afterwards lord Cutts, 

his sister and heiress sold this estate to John Brocket, esq. from whom it passed to 

William Brocket, esq. and his heirs. 

Mynchcns Myncliens is a manor here, that formerly belonged to the monastery of Clerkenwell, 
but by whom given is not known: it had previously belonged to the family of Scroop, 
of Masham. Stephen le Scroop died possessed of it in 1405, whose successor was his 
son Henry, the father of Thomas. It was retained by the monastery till its dissolution, 
and was given, by Henry the eighth, to sir Richard lord Rich, in 1539, who, in 1562, 
sold it to John Waylett, who died possessed of it in 1567. In 1578, it belonged to 
Edward Tomlinson and Anthony Page : afterwards successively passing to the families 
of Nicholas, Shaw of Colchester, to John Hammond of Walthamstow, and to Mr. 
Lynn of Spitalfields. 

Church. The church is a small edifice, dedicated to St. Andrew and All Saints, and has been 

formerly named Willingale All Saints : it is in good repair, and there is an elegant 
altar-piece, the gift of William Brocket, esq. A small wooden belfry contains two 
bells. W^illiam de Hispania, or Spain, gave this church to the priory of St. Lawrence, 
at Blackmore, for the health of the souls of his father and mother, of himself and his 
wife, &c. Fulk Basset afterwards ordained a vicarage, and divided the income of the 
living between the vicar and the convent, the nomination being in the bishop, and the 
presentation in the priory. The vicar's income, amounting only to forty marks a year, 
being found insufficient, bishop Braybrooke, in 1398, annulled the vicarage, and 



HUNDRED OF DUNMOW. 



285 



ordained the whole of the income to go to a rector, with the reservation of a pension C H A F, 

of forty shillings a year to the convent, to pray for the souls of William de Spain and '. — 

his relations. At the dissolution, the right of presentation passed to the crown, and 
the nomination remained in the bishop of London. 

In 1821, this parish contained two hundred and three, and, in 1831, two hundred 
and thirty-nine inhabitants. 



ECCLESIASTICAL BENEFICES IN DUNMOW HUNDRED. 



R. Rectory. V, Vicarage. C. Curacy. D. Donative. 

+ Discharged from payment of First Fruits. C. V. Clear Value. 



Parish. 


Archdeaconry. 


Incumbent- 


Insti- 
tuted. 


Value in Liber 
Regis. 


Patron. 


Barnston, R 

Broxted, V 

Canfield, Great, V. . 
Canfield, Little, R. . 

Chickney, R 

Dunmow, Great, V. 
Dunniow, Little, C. 
Easter, Good, V. . . . 
Easter, High, V. . . . 

Easton, Great, R. . . 

Easton, Little, R. . . 

Lindsel,V 

Mashbury, R 

Pleshy, D 

Roding Aythrop, R. 
Roding Berners, C. 

Roding High, R 

Roding Leaden, R.. 
Roding Margaret, R. 
Roding White, R. .. 
Shellow Bowels, R. 

Thaxted, V 

Tiltey,D 

Willingale Doe, R.. 
Willingale Spain, R. 


Middlesex. 


William Toke 

Richard P. Wish , . . 
John P. Gurney.... 

Thomas Toke 

S. Aldrich 

J. Smith 


1807 

1823 

1823 

1813 

1799 

1804' 

1824 

1816 

1816 

1827 

1815 
1801 
1780 
1811 
1791 

1817 
1837 
1818 
1808 
1806 
1806 

18U6 
1804 


£\3 

t 7 

tI3 

12 

10 

18 13 

C.V.20 

t 8 

14 14 

18 13 

10 

t 8 

9 14 

C.V. 9 10 

12 

C.V.12 

20 

12 13 

10 12 

26 

t 7 13 

24 

C.V.30 

16 

7 13 






H 


4 



7 

4 




7 

I 



4 
6 

4 



4 


J. Toke, Esq. 
R. De Beauvoir. 
J. M. Wilson, Esq. 
Christ's Col. Camb. 
H. Cranmer, Esq. 
Bishop of London. 
N, R. Toke, Esq. 
D. and C. St. Paul's. 
D. and C. St. Paul's. 
< R. Saumarez this 
I turn.Ld.V.Maynard 
Lord V. Maynard. 
Earl of Guilford. 
W. Chignal, St. Jas. 
W. Tufnall, Esq. 
Rev. J.Oldham. 
T. G. Bramston, Esq. 
Lord Roden. 
Lord Chancellor. 
Mrs. Harding. 
Rev. H. Budd. 
W. Willingdoe, R. 
L. V. Maynard 
L. V. Maynard 
T. B. Bramston, Esq. 
Bishop of London. 












William Toke 

Geo. Leepiningwell. 
Geo. Leepiningwell, 

Paul Saumarez .... 

J. P. H. Chesshyre . 

Richard Pain 

R. Chignal, St. Jas. 
T Slack 










J ohn Oldham 

F. G. Fortescue .... 
Charles Powlett. . . . 
J. C. Hare 








St. John Harding . . 

Henry Budd 

Rector of Willingdoe 

Thomas Gee 

Morgan Jones 

John Deedea 

J. B. Scale, D.D. 












1 



VOL. II. 



2p 



286 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. 



CHAPTER X. 



HALF HUNDRED OF HARLOW. 



Harlow On the east this half hundred is bounded by the hundreds of Ongar and Dunmow, 

hundred. 3,nd extends to Uttlesford northward : the river Stort forms its western boundary, 
and separates it from Hertfordshire, except at Hide Hall, and some lands near 
Hockerill, on the eastern side of that river ; and, southward, this district extends to 
the half hundred of Waltham. From north to south, it is twelve, and from east to 
west, six miles. In 1372, Humphrey de Bohun held this half hundred of the king; 
as did also Humphrey Stafford, duke of Buckingham, in 1458: on the attainder of 
Edward, the succeeding duke, it returned to the crown, and was afterwards granted 
to the Rich family; Richard lord Rich had possession of it at the time of his decease, 
in 1566, and descending to his successors, earls of Warwick, the right honourable 
Daniel earl of Nottingham, who married one of the co-heiresses of that noble family, 
enjoyed it by the same title. 

This half hundred is inclucled in the extensive agricultural district of " various 
loams," and its soil is of different kinds, but generally, with good husbandry, highly 
productive ; and much of it being appropriated to the rearing and feeding of cattle, pre- 
sents some of the best meadow and pasture lands in the county. It contains the follow- 
ing eleven parishes : Harlow, Latton, Netteswell, Roydon, Parndon (Great), Parndon 
(Little), Matching, Sheering, Hatfield- Regis, or Broadoak, Hallingbury (Great), 
Hallingbury (Little). 

HARLOW. 

Harlow. This town, the most considerable in the hundred which has been named from it, is 

agreeably situated in a pleasant and healthy part of the country, on the high road from 
London to Newmarket. It consists of one street of considerable extent, with 
numerous shops, and many good houses. There are two places of worship belonging 
to dissenters; one in Harlow Proper, the other in Potter's-street, on the London road. 
Formerly this was a place of more considerable importance than at present, and had an 
extensive woollen manufacture, and a market on Saturdays; but the trade failed, and 
the market was discontinued; the market has lately, however, been restored, to the 
great convenience of the inhabitants : it is now held on Wednesdays. 

The fair, on the ninth of September, which is kept on Harlow Bush Common, is 
one of much celebrity, and numerously and respectably attended, not only by the 
inhabitants of the immediate neighbourhood, but by persons residing at a distance. 



HALF HUNDRED OF HARLOW. 287 

III the central part of this common is " Bush Fair House," where the Essex Archery C H A P. 
Society hold their annual meetings. There is an old-established fair on the twenty- ' 

eighth of November, which takes place in the village of Harlow, only important as a ^"^^ ^^^^ 
mart for the sale and purchase of cattle. The fair formerly held here on Whit- 
Monday, has been discontinued. 

The petty sessions for the division are held here on Mondays. 

The lands of this parish, in Edward the confessor's reign, belonged to the abbey of 
St. Edmundsbury, to five freemen, and to Godwin, another freeman. At the survey, 
the abbey had retained its portion of these estates, and what remained had been given 
to Ranulph, brother of Ilger, and to Eustace earl of Boulogne. They are Avatered by 
the river Stort, which is navigable to Stortford. In circumference this parish is com- 
puted to be eighteen miles. Distant from Ongar seven, and from London, twenty- 
three miles. It contains six manors. 

The manor-house of Harlowbury is about half a mile north-north-east of the Hailow- 
church, and supposed to have been one of the abbot's resting-places, on his way to 
parliament. The large chapel near the house, being too close to the church to have been 
erected for the tenant of the estate, seems to confirm this supposition, Thurston, son 
of Wina, gave this estate to the abbey in the time of the Confessor; and it retained 
possession till the dissolution of religious houses ; after which it was granted by Henry 
the eighth, in 1544, to Katharine Addington, a knight's widow, and Thomas Adding- 
ton, esq., on whose death, in 1554, without offspring, his cousin Ralph, a lunatic, was 
his heir, succeeded on his decease, in 1564, by John Addington, son of Christopher, 
brother of William, the said Ralph's father: avIio, dying in 1587, was succeeded by 
his son William, who died in 1591, and in defect of issue, the estate passed to his 
brother, Thomas Addington, who, in 1617, sold it to Francis lord Guilford.* This 
estate, with the fine old mansion, is in the possession of W. Barnard, esq. The 

* To the unwearied perseverance of John Gladwin, tlie elder, in many lawsuits (which finally terminated 
in his favour) with a former lord of this manor, the copyholders are indebted for the advantage of a fine 
certain of two shillings only per acre, on all admissions to copyhold lands. A brass plate in the parish 
church records the death, in 1615, of this indefatigable and successful suitor, at the advanced age of 
ninety-five, and likewise commemorates the great achievement of his life, in the following inscription : — 
" Here lyeth buried the body of John Gladwin, ye elder, who departed this lyfe ye 17 day of Aprill, 
Anno Domini 1G15, being of ye age of 95 yeres ; who, in his lyfetyme, with longe and tedious sutes in 
lawe with yc lord of ye mannor of Harlowe, did prove the custom for the copie holdes, to ye greatc bene- 
fitt of posteritie for ever." 

The above plate, which exhibits a rude figure of this veteran, at full length, with clasped hands, as if in 
prayer, was originally consigned to the perishable casement of a wooden frame, but has recently been 
transferred, at the joint expense of the cojjyholders, to a more durable mounting, being now preserved in 
a marble tablet: it continues to fill the place it used to occupy in the middle aisle of the church, a 
memorial of the prowess of this sturdy champion in behalf of copyhold rights. 

Tlie appeal to the laws of his country by John Gladwin, was not confined to the settlement of the 



288 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



Brent 
Hall. 



BOOK II. ancient chapel has been converted into a barn; but is in a good state of preservation. 
It has a fine semi-circular headed door, the shafts of which have capitals like thoseof 
the Gallilee, or chapel of St. Mary, at Durham ; and there are some small windows, 
with rounded, and some with pointed, heads. 

The manor-house of Brent Hall, named also New Hall, is near the church : the 
wood, called Brentwood, belongs to it. It originally belonged to the lordsliip of 
Harlowbury; but whether the abbot had the demesne lands, as well as the lordship, 
is not certainly known. In 1355, it was holden of John de Insula de Rubio Monte, 
by David Fletewyke, whose son David was his successor. In 1442, it belonged to 
John Bugge, esq. who held it, not of the abbot, but of the king, as of his dutchy of 
Lancaster ; Stephen, his son, succeeded ; and Thomas Bugge died in 1548, holding 
the estate by the same tenure. 

In 1694, it was purchased by Henry Lamb, citizen and goldsmith, of London;* 
and from him or his heirs was conveyed to Robert Chester, esq. a South-sea director, 
on whose forfeiture, coming to the company, it was sold, and afterwards became the 
property of William Batt, esq. of Nunton, near Salisbury. 

The manor-house of Ketchin Hall is near Potter's-street, a mile and a half south- 
ward from the church. Tlie name of this estate has led to the supposition that it has 
originally formed that part of the chief manor which was appropriated to the main- 
tenance of the abbof s kitchen and table by pope Boniface the ninth. It was not 
holden of the abbot, after the reign of Edward the third; and, in 1317, belonged to 
sir Robert de Hastings, knt, and passed to Thomas Longeville, who had possession 
of it at the time of his decease, iii 1346; succeeded by his son John. In 1403, it was 
purchased by John Roundall of Robert Webb, and had become the property of John 
Bugge, esq. in 1442, who held it of Richard duke of York. Of this family, the suc- 
cessive proprietors were, Stephen, Thomas, Edward, and Anthony; who sold it, in 
1605, to George Benson, esq., and, in 1644, William Benson, esq. sold it to sir 
Abraham Richardson, knt. whose widow held it after him, and paid ingress fine in 



Ketchin 
Hali. 



foregoing question. In 
see him arraved in legal 



the following extract, from proceedings in chancery in the reign of Elizabeth, we 
armour, in the cause of charity and the poor : — 



Plaintiffs. 

Edward Buggs, the 

elder, 
John Gladwin, the 

elder, and 
John Gladwin, the 

younger ; 
Feofees in trust for 

the parish of Harlow.. 

* Of this gentleman it 
ball lodged in his watch. 



Defendants. 

William Sompncr, the 

elder. 
William Sompner, the 

younger. 
Nicholas Sibley, and 
Thomas Wood. 



Nature of Suit. 



Bill for 

Charitable 

uses. 



Premises. 

A tenement called the' 
Old Pole, and lands 
thereto belonging, in 
Harlow, conveyed and 
settled temp. Henry VIII. 
by John Swerder, to 
feofees in trust for the 
poor of the said parish. 



County. 



Essex. 



Proceedings in Chancery, temp. Elizabeth, B. vi. 17, 18. 
is remarkable, that in a contest with a highwayman, he was fired upon, and the 






HALF HUNDRED OF HARLOW. 289 

1663. Mr. Lamb, at the time that he bought New Hall, or Brent Hall, purchased also f H a f. 
this estate ; which afterwards belonged to Mr. Chester, and, being sold by the South- " 



sea Company, became the property of William Batt, esq. 

Hubert's Hall is three quarters of a mile from the church southward. It was holden Hubert's 
of Harlowbury, and supposed to have been one of the three hides, occupied by five free- 
men, which were added by the Conqueror to the lordship of St. Edmundsbury; but 
it does not appear that they were added to the abbot's demesne. The estate has been 
named from Robert Hubert, who, in the reign of Edward the third, granted to John 
Evy, vicar of Harlow, all his lands and tenements in the village of Epping. In 1501, 
this manor became the property of sir John Shaa, or Shaw, lord mayor of London ; 
who, at the time of his decease, in 1502, held it under Edward duke of Buckingham, 
as of his hundred of Harlow. Edmund, or Edward Shaw, esq. was his son and suc- 
cessor, who held this estate of the abbot and convent of Bury St. Edmunds, as of their 
manor of Harlow. It was afterwards, by Alice, his only daughter, conveyed, in 
marriage, to William Foley, esq. of Boxted, in Suffolk, who died in 1587, holding 
this estate of William Addington, esq. as of his manor of Harlowbury. His son, sir 
John Addington, died in 1593, and was succeeded in this possession by William, his 
brother. It afterwards was conveyed to the family of Reve, descendants of John 
Reve, of Long Melford, in Suffolk,* who retained possession till it was sold by Wilt- 
shire Reve, esq. to John Brown, esq. of Co vent-garden ; who left it to colonel John 
Brown ; from whom it was conveyed to William Selwyn, esq. 

The elegant seat of Moore Hall is a modern building, agreeably situated nearly a Moore .„ 
mile north-eastward from the church, in a pleasant part of the parish : it is enclosed in 
a park, and surrounded by gardens and pleasure-grounds, with shady walks and beau- 
tiful shrubs : the south-eastern front of the house is handsomely ornamented in the 
Doric style of architecture; before it, a fine spring is made to form a sheet of water well 
stored with fish; and, at some distance from the house, a very pleasant, retired walk, of 
considerable extent, presents views highly interesting, over a well-cultivated and richly- 
luxuriant country, including the town of Harlow, Dorrington-house, in Sheering, for- 
merly the seat of governor Feake, now of Mrs. Glyn; Down-hall, the seat of C. Ibbet- 
son Selwyn, esq. ; while northward are seen Sawbridgeworth, with Bishop Stortford, 
at the distance of seven miles, and agreeable scenery on the borders of Hertfordshire. 

The ancient record of Domesday informs us that Eustace, earl of Boulogne, and 

* Walter, son of John Reve, of Long Melford, was the father of Thomas Revo, alderman of Colcliestcr, 
who married Margaret, daughter of Gerard Shilbery, and by her had William and Anne. William Reve, 
of MoUenden Park, in Suffolk, had by his wife Rose, George, Robert (of Hornedge) , Thomas, D.l)., Henry, 
William, Francis, (of Hubert's Hall), John, Charles, Elizabeth, and Margaret. Francis Reve married 
Joan, daughter of Richard Jocelyn, esq. son and heir of sir Thomas Jocclyn, by wliom he had Robert, 
father of John, father of Wiltshire, whose son, of the same name, was the last of the family who hud 
this estate. — Arms of Reve : A chevron, vaire en point, between three roses. 



290 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

[iOOK II. his under-tenant, Bi-itman, held here half a hide and half a carucate, which had 
~ belonged to a freeman in Edward the confessor's reign : but that this was the estate 
•4-- of Moore Hall, is, as Mr. Morant observes, far from certain. This learned author, 
however, asTie informs us, from the post mortem inquisitions of the time of Edward 
the second, found that, under Robert lord Scales, who died in 1324, Matthew de 
Wodeham, and John Snow, held the manor called Le Mourhale, in Harlowe, by the 
service of one knight's fee. In 1458, Thomas Bugge died in possession of this estate,* 
which he held under Humphrey duke of Buckingham. From the Bugge family, it 
passed, by purchase, to the father of Benjamin Henshaw, esq. whose son, of the same 
name, marrying Elizabeth, sister of John Turvin, esq. of Gilston, had by her his son 
and heir, Benjamin Henshaw,f esq., from whose family the estate was purchased by 
John Perry, esq. of Black wall, who on his death, in 1810, left it to his sons, John 
Perry and Philip Perry: the former died in 1824, and on the demise of the latter, in 
1830, it became the property of his brother, Thomas Perry, esq. in whose possession 
it now remains. RofFey Hall, and several other farms, have been added to the 
Moore Hall estate. 
"^ Weld, or The manor named Weld, Sewales, Sewels, also written in records, Walda, Waldes, 
■ ^""^ ^'^^ Waldons, and Wells, is supposed to be named from the Saxon peald, a wood ; and 
probably the addition of se might be a contraction from south, to denote the south 
wood. In the time of the Saxons, it belonged to Godwin, a freeman; and at the 
survey had been granted by the Conqueror to Ralph, brother of Ilger, whose under- 
tenant was named Richard. Succeeding owners are not recorded, till the reign of 
.-|— Edward the fourth, when it belonged to the Colt farnily. Joane, widow of Thomas 
Colt, re-married to sir William Parr, had possession of it at the time of her decease, 
in 1475 ; Avhose son John was his successor : he died in 1521 ; and was succeeded by 
sir George Colt, his son: on whose decease, in 1578, he had for his heir, his cousin, 
{ George Colt, esq. who was the father of sir Henry Colt, knt., and he, on his death, in 
1616, left the estate mortgaged to Mrs. Howland, of Streatham; who having taken 
possession of it, it became the property of her daughter Elizabeth, duchess of Bed- 
ford ; and was sold by the duke, to Thomas Holt ; from whom it passed to Mr. White, 
\ of London, to various proprietors, and to Smith, esq. 

L- * John Bugge, esq. died in London in 1442 ; Stephen, his son, married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas 

Marshall, by whom he had Thomas, who by his wife ,' daughter of Tillesley, had Edmund, 

who married Alice, daughter of ■ Colt, esq., by whom he was the father of Anthony, who married 

Anne, daughter of A\lTliam Barrett, esq. and had Edmund, Thomas, and John. Edward, brother of 
Anthony, had a son named Richard, who died in 1636, and is buried in this church. His two wives were 

, daughter of Robert Streignsham, gent., and Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Bowles, esq. — Arms of 

Bugge : Tliree budgets staved, witliin a bordure, guttee. Crest : Within a crown, a tawny Moor's head, 
couped, crined proper, and escarsioned. 

f Arms of Henshaw : Argent, a chevron between three hens, gules. 



HALF HUNDRED OF HARLOW. 291 

The church, dedicated to St. Hugh, was originally built in the cathedral form, C H A l\ 

V 

with the tower in the centre, but having been accidentally burnt down by a fire, ___L__ 



which commenced on the 28th of April, 1708; it was re-editied, and the tower being Church, 
destroyed, its place has been supplied by a cupola ; and at the west end a tower of 
brick, Avith an open cupola, contains one bell. The re-building and ornamenting 

of this church was by the direction and interest of the rev. Taylor, the vicar, 

and much of the ornamental part at his own expense. Many gentlemen of the country 
gave their arms on painted glass, to embellish the windows.* 

Mr. Taylor also gave an organ, with a house for the organist to reside in, and 
another house, the rent of which he receives. 

A gallery was erected by Francis lord Guilford ; and a handsome railing, given by 
Robert Chester, esq. which incloses the font.f 

* The windows on the north side of the chancel contain the following arms : — Sir Charles Barrington, 
with quarterings, and six coats. The right hon. lord Guilford, with quarterings, in three parts, and 
eleven coats. The arms of sir Edward Turner, of Great Hallingbury ; of JohnComyns, esq. sergeant-at-law : 
of William Fytch, esq. The first south window of the chancel contains, the arms of White Kennet, D.D., 
dean, and afterwards bishop of Peterborough ; and of Humphrey Gower, D. D. master of St. John's college, 
Cambridge. The other south window contains the history of Solomon : and the windows of the church 
contain the arms of sir John, and sir Hum|)hrey Gore, knts. ; of sir Richard Child, ofWansted, bart. ; 
of William Lancaster, D. D. archdeacon of Middlesex ; and of Philip Betts, register to the archdeacon of 
Colchester. There are also the arms of the Bedford family. 

t This railing bears the following inscription, to be read either backwards or forwards : — 

" NI*ON ANOMHMA MH MONAN OflN." That is : " Wash your sin, not your face only." 

Inscriptions. — " Near this place lyeth the body of William Sumner, late tenant to John Reeve, the last Inscrip- 
lord abbot." 

*' Here lieth interred the body of Thomas Druncaster, principal secretary to king Henry the seventh, 1490." 

*•' Here lyeth buryed the bodyc of Janne Bugge, late wyfe of Edward Bugge, the elder, gent., having yssue 
by him 3 sonnes and 2 daughters; which Janne deceased the 23d day of August, in the year of our Lord 
God, 1582." 

Under the effigies of the persons it commemorates : " Within this aisle lieth buried the body of Alex- 
ander Stafford, of High Holborn, in the county of Middlesex, esq. descended of the most noble and ancient 
family of the Staffords, who departed this life the 28th Sept. 1652; and of Julian his wife, daughter of 
John Stacy, of London, merchant, who died Nov. 8, 1630." 

Under the figures of Faith, Hope, and Charity : "Near this place lieth interred the body of John 
VVright, gent, executor of Alexander Stiifford, esq. who, amongst many other charities, gave one hundred 
and sixty pounds to buy land for the use of the poor of this parish. He was buried June 1, 1650." 

A Latin inscription records the interment of Peter Gunning, fellow of Clare Hall, Cambridge, Margaret 
professor of Christ college, Oxford, and afterwards bishop of Chester and Ely, He died July, 1684, aged 71. 

"John Gladwin, the elder, who died April 17, 1615, aged 95." 

Pious and charitable gifts : — In 148U, John Swerder is recorded to have given the rents and profits of a Ciiarities. 
tenement;, and twenty acres of land, for the repairs and ornaments of the church. And, in 1560, Thomas 
Cromwell gave the rents and profits of two acres of land for the same pious purpose ; yet the greater part 
of the first, or both of these bequests, appear to have been for the poor, and became the subject of a trial 
at law. In 1590, John a God's-half, vicar of this parish, gave two acres of land and an orchard to the 



292 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. 



Chantries. 



Obits 



Chapel. 



Antiqui- 
ties. 



This church was origmally a rectory, appendant to the manor of Harlowbury, and 
in the patronage of the abbey of Bury St. Edmunds, which presented to it as a rectory 
till pope Boniface the ninth appropriated it to the maintenance of the abbot's table, 
when he was left at liberty to have the cure supplied by one of his own monks, or by 
such a secular priest as he should appoint. But, for the benefit of the parishioners, 
he condescended to have a vicarage ordained and endowed ; accordingly this was done 
by commissioners empowered by Robert Braybrooke, bishop of London, the 23d of 
December, 1398. From that time, the presentation to the vicarage continued in the 
abbot and convent till their dissolution, when it was granted to Thomas Addington : 
from him it passed to lord Guilford, and has continued in the gift of that noble family 
to the present time. 

There were two chantries : one of which was founded at the altar of St. Petronilla, 
the virgin : the other, at the altar of St. Thomas, was founded by John Stanton, the 
first rector of this parish, and it is found entered in the London Registry; to pray for 
the souls of himself, his father and mother, John, (formerly abbot of St. Edmund's), 
and others. 

John Waylet, Thomas Cramwell, and John Terling, by their respective wills, 
appointed obits to be kept for them in this church, and gave lands and tenements for 
that purpose. 

A new Protestant episcopal chapel is about to be erected at Potter's-street in this 
parish, distant three miles from the church. 

The late Mr. John Barnard, junior, in a communication to the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine, has described the remains of a Roman station near Harlow, hitherto unnoticed 
by antiquarians. The castellum, or place of strength, appears to have been in the 
neighbouring parish of Latton, on an elevated field, which was formerly almost sur- 
rounded by the water of the river Stort. The works are now plainly visible, and a 

poor. In 1659, John Wright gave one hundred and sixty pounds to purchase lands, the income to be for 
the use of the poor. Wr. Newman gave an almshouse for two dwellers, which is in the church-yard. 
Almshouses, given by Alexander Stafford, esq. and by Francis Reve, of Hubert's Hall, for four poor 
widows, are in the street, not far from the church. 

In 1816, a school was established here for the education (founded on the religious principles of the 
established church) of the children of the laborious part of the population. The instruction given is free 
of all expense to the parents, and includes reading, writing, and arithmetic, to both sexes ; and needlework 
to the girls. Beyond this limit, it does not profess to go. Since its first institution, two hundred and 
forty girls, and two hundred and fifty-six boys, have completed their education. And in the present year 
(1S33), the numbers under instruction are, one hundred and fifteen girls, and one hundred and four boys. 
The funds for the support of this school are chiefly furnished by private contributions and annual sub- 
scriptions, aided by the proceeds of one charity sermon in the year. There is anotlier school in Harlow 
conducted on the Lancasterian system. 

The ancient benefactions of this parish have recently come under the investigation of the commissioners 
of charities ; but their report has not yet been published. 



HALF HUNDRED OF HARLOW. 



293 



few feet below the surface are the foundations of very strong walls. It seems highly CHAP. 
probable that this was one of the forts formed by the Romans to defend the Trinobantes ' 

from the Cateuchlani ; as the Stort here, and for some miles up its course, divides the 
counties of Essex and Herts. This conjecture is rendered plausible by the appearance 
of four of these stations, on the Essex side of the river, in the short space of nine 
miles, viz., this at Harlow, or Latton; one at Hallingbury, called Wallbury, distant 
four miles ; one at Bishop's Stortford, three miles ; and another at Stansted Mont- 
fitchet, two miles farther. 

Among the antiquities found here, a few years ago, was a small bronze head of 
Silenus, a large brooch, and fragments of a cup of highly polished red or Samian ware, 
on the outsides of which were figures of a cock and a triton. The coins have been 
very numerous and interesting: among the British, is a helmeted head, with 
cvnobelina; reverse, a hog and taschovanit. Another with a head on one side; 
on the other, a man striking upon an anvil : one with a star, between the rays of 
which are the letters, verlamio ; reverse, an ox. Among the Roman coins are 
several silver pieces of Sabina, Faustina the elder, and Conslantinus, junior. One of 
the British coins described by Mr. Barnard, is not in Mr. Ruding's work, nor in 
Pegg's Essay on the Coins of Cunobeline. It was found near Epping ; the metal is 
electrum; its weight, five dwt. ten gr. : on one side is represented a man in armour, 
on horseback ; on the reverse, Tasciooricon.* 

The populationf of this parish, in 1821, amounted to one thousand nine hundred and 
twenty-eight, and in 1831, to two thousand one hundred and one.:|; 

LATTON. 

This parish extends from Harlow southward to Epping, and westward to the river Latton. 
Stort : in length it is about four miles, and narrow in proportion. It contains few 
inhabitants, the houses distant from each other, and in no instance forming any town 
or village. Distance from London, twenty-three miles. 

Turgot and Ernulf, freemen, and another freeman, held the lands of this parish 
before the Conquest : and at the time of the survey, they were holden by the abbey of 
St. Edmund's-bury, by Eustace, earl of Boulogne, and by Peter de Valoines, whose 
under-tenant was Turgis. The possessions belonging to the abbey of St. Edmund's- 
bury were made the foundation of a priory; the portion belonging to Eustace, from 

* In consequence of the connexion between Cunobeline and Tascio, those coins which bear the latter 
name, without the former, are usually attributed to that monarch. — Rudiiig on Coinage, vol. 1. p. 200. — 
Gent. Mag. vol. cxi. part i. p. 6(5. 

f The number of the labouring classes in this parish far exceeds the demand for labour; which, con- 
sequently, produces much distress and high poor-rates. 

X The Editor gratefully acknowledges his obligations to T. Perry, esq. of Moor Hall, for valuable and 
important communications. 

VOL. II. 2 {2 



294 HISTORY OF ESSEX, 

BOOK II. the name of his under-tenant, retains the name of Mark's Hall; and the part belonging 

to Peter de Valoines, was conveyed, by a female heiress, to the family of Fitzwalter, 

and by degrees became incorporated with the other estates. There are two manors. 

Latton The lands of the manor of Latton Hall are believed to be what belonged to the 

Hall 

abbey of Bury St. Edmund's; understood to have been converted into a priory 

here, independent of the great abbey; but when and by whom founded is not known. 

It is supposed to have had the rents of Harlowbury till the abbot got them, jointly 

with this manor, appropriated to his table, after which we hear no more of the abbot 

here. The families of Tany, Colchester, Walleis, Sakeville, Bibesworth, Tyrell, 

Wery, Barley, and Coteys, have at different times been possessed of it. In 1566, 

Richard Westwood, and Margery his wife, conveyed this, with other estates, to 

James Altham, esq. and his wife Mary. He also purchased the manor of Mark, or 

Priory. Merk Hall, and the site of Latton priory. Of this ancient monastery no perfect 

account is to be found: it was for canons of the order of St. Augustine, dedicated to 

St. John the Baptist, and founded sometime before the year 1270. It is on the south 

side of the church, and now used as a barn. It consists of a nave and a cross aisle; 

the inside, of the lighter style of Gothic architecture, with pointed arches. The 

materials of this edifice are flints, stones, mortar, and Roman bricks ; and what appears 

to have been the site of the priory, is surrounded by a moat, beyond which, on the 

south, human bones are frequently found ; from which we may conclude this to have 

been the ancient burial-place. East of the church, on the outside of the moat, there 

appears rising ground and a hollow place, like the remains of an intrenchment. The 

interval between the rise and the moat has been named by the inhabitants, "the 

monks' bowling green." 

Mark The ancient manor-house of Mark, or Merk Hall, was near the church, and derived 

Hall 

its name from Adelolf de Merc, the under-tenant of Eustace, earl of Boulogne; 

Henry de Merc died in 1267, and his son of the same name in 1275; and, in 1290, 

Juliana, widow of Henry de Merk, or Merc, had it for her dowry. It afterwards 

successively belonged to the families of Colchester, in the reign of Edward the second; 

of Wallei, in that of Edward the third, followed by John de Ludewyk, William de 

Forde, John Bishopston, from which last it was conveyed, in 1375, to William 

Berland and his heirs, with the fair of Latton, and other lands and tenements in the 

hundred of Harlow. Elizabeth, the daughter and heiress of sir William Berland, 

conveyed this estate to her husband, John Baud, esq. who held it at the time of his 

decease in 1422; as did also his son, William Baud, who died in 1426; and his heir 

and successor was his uncle, Thomas Baud. It afterwards belonged to sir John Shaa, 

who died in 1503, leaving Edmund, his son, his successor ; and he let this manor for 

ninety-nine years, to Henry Parker, lord Morley, to whom it was afterwards sold by 

Thomas ShaAve, or Shaa, in 1538; and, in 1562, was purchased of lord Morley by 

James Altham, esq. by which that family became possessed of nearly the whole of this 



I 



HALF HUNDRED OF HARLOW. 295 

parish; his descendant, sir William Altham,* sold this estate to William Lushington, ^ H A F. 

esq. who rebuilt the house, and sold it, with the estate, to Montague Burgoyne, esq. 

and on this elegant seat more than thirty thousand pounds have been expended. The 
spacious apartments of this very elegant mansion are handsomely fitted up, and the 
whole is surrounded by a pleasant park-like lawn. The whole estate, including the 
manors of Latton Hall, Burnt Hall, and others, with various extensive farms, 
amounting in all to four hundred and seventy-seven acres, was sold by auction on the 
1st of June, 1819, to Arkwright, esq. for one hundred thousand guineas, inde- 
pendently of the timber, which was valued at about ten thousand pounds. The noted 
Harlow Bush fair is annually held on Latton common, in this manor; this and Harlow 
Bush common being united where the line of partition separates the two parishes. 

Latton church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, is near the hall ; on the north side Church. 
of the chancel there is a chapel, dedicated to the Holy Trinity and the Virgin Mary, 
built by sir Peter Ardern ;f and a chantry was founded by him, and dame Katharine 

* Edward Altham, esq. was descended from an ancient family in Lancashire, of the town and manor of 

Altham; he was sheriff of London in 1531. He married , daughter of Hildersham, esq. 

James, son of Edward, married, first, a sister and heir of sir Thomas Blanck ; secondly, Mary, widow of 
sir Andrew Judd, lord mayor of London in 1550; he died in 1583: Edward, son of sir James Altham, 
of Mark Hall, married Elizabeth, daughter and co-heiress of John Barnes, esq. of Wilsden, in Middlesex ; 
James, son of Edward Altham, esq. married Elizabeth, daughter of sir Francis Harrington, knt. and bart. ; 
their only daughter was Joan, married to Oliver St. John, esq. Sir Edward Altham, knt. succeeded his 
brother James, and married Joan, daughter of sir John Leventhorp, knt. and bart. : sir James, the eldest 
son, created knight of the bath at the coronation of Charles the second, in 1661, married Alice, only 
daughter of sir John Spencer, of Offley, in Hertfordshire : Leventhorp Altham, esq. succeeded his brother, 
and married Joan, daughter and co-heiress of David Edwards, esq. of Oswestry, in Shropshire : James 
Altham, esq. son of Leventhorp, succeeding his father in 1681, married Mary, the beautiful daughter of 
John Tinker, esq. and had by her Peyton, James, Mary, married to Roger Altham, D.D. rector of this 
parish, and of St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate, and archdeacon of Middlesex ; Jane, married to Richard Strutt, 
attorney-at-law, of Bishop Stortford; Elizabeth, wife of Daniel Turner, M.D. and Dorothy. John Tinker, 
esq. having entered into the service of the Venetian republic, acquired celebrity in sevei'al naval engage- 
ments, and, as a reward of his valour, received a golden chain, with a medal of great value, on which were 
the arms of Venice. He was afterwards master-attendant in the king's yard at Deptford. Peyton Altham, 
esq. succeeded his father in 1697, and was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge ; he married Mary, 

daughter of Beard, esq. ; sir William Altham succeeded his father. Arms of Altham : Paly of six, 

ermine and azure; on a chief gules, a lion passant, regardant, or; armed and langued, gules. Crest: 
A demi-lion rampant, in his paws the rudder of a ship. 

f Within the communion rails, under an arch in the north wall, and separated from the adjoining Inscrip- 
chapel by an iron railing, is a Gothic altar-tomb, erected, according to Morant, to the memory of sir t'^JQS. 
Peter Ardern, chief baron of the exchecjuer in the reign of king Henry the sixth and Edward the fourth. 
On the cover stone are still remaining the brass effigies of the deceased and his wife, with three shields of 
arms : first, paly of six, on a chief three lozenges, the middle one charged with a chess rook : second 
shield, a bend cotised, and charged with a mullet of five points, between six lions rampant : third shield, 
a chevron engrailed between three chess rooks : there has been a fourth shield. 

On the floor : the effigies in brass of a man in armour (at his feet a greyhound) and his lady ; beneath 



296 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. his wife, to the chaplain of which Brian Ronclyffe, one of the barons of the exchequer, 
in 1476, gare a messuage in Latton. There is a confessionary chair yet remaining 
in this church. A square embattled tower contains four bells. Latton church was 
appropriated to the priory, and a vicarage ordained, which continued in the gift of the 
convent till its dissolution, and has since gone with the manor. Sir James Altham 
settled the great tithes upon this vicarage, so that it may be considered a rectory. 

In 1821, this parish contained three hundred and seventy-eight, and, in 1831, three 
hundred and nineteen inhabitants. 

them, three sons and one daughter: on the dexter corner of the stone at top a shield of arms — within a 
hordure engrailed a lion rampant, charged with a mullet : sinister corner at top another shield, with the 
same arms, impaling paly of six, on a chief three lozenges, the middle one charged with a chess rook. 

A handsome marble monument, with a man in armour, and his lady kneeling before a desk ; beneatli, 
three sons and eight daughters ; at the top, these arms : paly of six, ermine and azure, on a chief gules a 
lion passant guardant, or. Crest : A demi-lion rampant or, holding a rudder sable. " Here lyeth buried 
the body of James Altham, esq. and lord of this towne, who dyed the xxvni of February, An. Dom. 1583, 
and lefte behinde hym the lady Judd, his wiffe, who was sometyme the wife of sir Andrew Judd, of 
London, knyght." 

" Near this place lie the bodyes of Leventhorpe Altham, fourth son of sir Edward Altham, and Jane 
his wife, who Avas daughter and co-heir to David Edwards, of Oswestry, in ye county of Salop, gent. ; 
he had issue by her four sons, namely, Edwards, James, John, and Edward, and four daughters ; Jane, 
Mary, Jane, and Thodocia. He dyed the "ilst August, 1681, being aged 63 : she departed this life, 15th Oct. 
1691, being aged 58." James Altham, esq. died Dec. 28, 1697, aged 35, who left behind him Mary, his 
widow, with four daughters ; Mary, Jane, Elizabeth, and Dorothy, and two sons, Peyton and James. 

" Near this place is the body of Peyton Altham, esq, who married Mary Beard, daughter of John Beard, 
governor of Bengali, by whom he had nine children, and left three sons, James, Edward, and William ; 
and four daughters, Charlotte, Elizabeth, Harriet, and Frances. He died Nov. 2, 1741, aged 45." Arms: 
Quarterly of eight, and an impalement : first, Altham as before described, with the crest. 

'< 1640.— To the sacred memory of Edward Altham, esq. who married Elizabeth, the youngest daughter 
and co-heir of John Barne, of Willsdon, in ye county of Middlesex, esq. The said Edward deceased ye 
8th day of April, 1605. The said Elizabeth deceased ye 7th of Jan. 1621; they had issue, sir James 
Altham, who married Elizabeth, the daughter of sir Francis Barrington, knt. and hart, by whom he had 
issue Joan, since married to Oliver St. John, esq. Sir James died the 15th day of July, 1610 : sir Edward 
Altham, who married Joan, daughter of sir John Leventhorp, knt. and bart. : captain Emanuel Altham, 
who died at East India, An. Dom. 1635 : Mary Altham, married to Ralph Hawtry, late of Riselip, in the 
county of Middlesex, esq. The said sir Edward Altham, and Joan his wife, lived happily together twenty- 
two years, and had issue James, married to Alice, daughter and heir of sir John Spencer, bart. .- Edward, 
John, Leveuthorp, Edward Emanuel ; Joan, married to Thomas Smith, esq. : Elizabeth ; Mary, married 
to William Halton, esq. : Bridgett : the said sir Edward Altham died May 28, 1632." Five shields of 
arms ; Altham impaling Barrington, Spencer, and others. 

" Underneath this place lycth the body of Yevelton Peyton, esq. descended from the ancient baronets 
of Islehani ; he had to wife the niece of sir John Roberts, bart. ; he left four daughters ; Elizabeth, Ann, 
Hannah, and Mary. This inscription was set up by Mary Altham, of Mark Hall, to perpetuate the memory 
of her worthy friend, who died March 11, 1710." 

North wall of the nave. Or, a fesse engrailed between three lions' heads erased, gules. " To the 
memory of Mrs. Jane Nicholls, widow of Richard Nicholls, esq. ; she was the daughter of Ralph Petley, 
egq. of Sevenoaks, in Kent, and relict of Stephen Lushington, esq. of Sittingbourne, in the same county. 



HALF HUNDRED OF HARLOW. 297 



CHAP. 
NETTESWELL. X. 



The parish of Netteswell is on the southern extremity of the hundred of Harlow, Nettes- 
aud lies south-west from Latton : in records, the name is Netheleswelle, Nethleswelle, 
Nethesvvelle, Nettleswell, Netyswell, Nicheswelle. The manor-house near the 
church, and the parsonage are good houses; the others are small, and few in number: 
distance from Harlow two, and from London twenty-two miles. 

This parish is not mentioned in Domesday-book, an omission not easily accounted Manor. 

for; but if it had been the property of a layman, and sutyect to livery and wardship, 

this omission could scarcely have occurred. It was one of the lordships given by 

king Harold to his great abbey of Waltham, and confirmed to it afterwards by Henry 

the second and Richard the first. On the dissolution it went to the crown, and was 

granted, in 1543, to Richard Higham, esq. on whose decease, in 1546, his brother — 4*^ 

William was his heir; who was succeeded by his son John, in 1558, and he, in 1560, «U« 

sold this estate to sir Richard Weston, one of the justices of the common pleas; 

succeeded, in 1572, by his son, sir Jerome, who died in 1603, leaving his son, sir 

Richard Weston, knt. afterwards baron of Neyland, earl of Portland, and lord 

treasurer- In 1634, sir William Marten, knt. had this estate, which belonged to sir 

Henry Marten, knt. L.L.D. in 1640. Sir William Marten was buried here in 1679, 

as was also his son Cuthbert in 1698. He married Anne, eldest daughter of sir 

William Nutt, by whom he had William Marten, esq. who married Mary, sister of 

sir Thomas Cross, bart. of Westminster, but had by her no issue, and, on his decease 

in 1717, left her this estate for life;* after her death to go to the first son of his niece, 

Anne Lewen, and to his male descendants, ordering expressly that Avhoever of them 

came to this possession, he should take the surname of Marten. On failure of issue, 

he left it to Matthew Bluck, esq. of Honsdon. This estate is in the possession of 

Collins, esq. 

Netteswell Street is on the road from Latton to Parndon, and contains a number Nettes- 
P 1 ^ , 1 , wellStieet 

oi detached nouses. 

She was buried here by her own desire, in the same grave with the rev. Stephen Lushington, one of her 
beloved cliildren, whose monument she erected. She died Sept. 16, 1763, aged 84. The rev. Stephen 
Lushington, M.A. died 5th November, 1751, aged 42. If death ever spared the man who was admired 
and loved by all, he had not died." 

" Near this place are the remains of Thomas Altham, LL.D. rector of Magdalen Laver, and vicar of this 
parish, and a justice of the peace for the county of Essex. Ob. 27th Oct. 1782, set. 49." 

On a very handsome marble monument : *' To the memory of Frances Elizabeth, wife of lieutenant- 
colonel sir Guy Campbell, bart. and eldest daughter of Montague liurgoyne, es(i. of Mark Hall, in the 
county of Essex, who departed this life at Montughi, near Florence, on the iiid of May, mdcccxviii. 
Her remains are deposited in the family vault in Sutton church." 

* Arms of Marten : Azure, three bends dexter, argent; a chief, ermine. 



298 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. Burnt Mill is on the river Stort, and received this name from its having been 

destroyed by fire: it has also a second time been burned down. 
Chinch. The church is small, and of one pace with the chancel; a wooden turret, with a 

spire, contains three bells. In one of the walls there is a portion of curious orna- 
mental brick-work.* The rectory, after the suppression of the abbey, was granted, 

«* with Netteswell-bury, to Highara, or Heigham, of Takeley. 

In 1821, this parish contained three hundred and six, and, in 1831, three hundred 
and sixteen inhabitants. 

ROYDON. 

Roydon. This parish occupies the south-western extremity of the half hundred, and is sepa- 

rated from Hertfordshire by the river Stort; on the south joined to Waltham half 
hundred, into which Roydon hamlet extends. The park above the river is hilly, and 
commanding extensive prospects over green meadows, has given rise to the conjecture 
that the name is from the Saxon Rop, and bun, sweet hill: in records it is written 
Reydone, Reyndon, Ruindune. The village is on the banks of the river: distant 
from Epping and Waltham abbey seven, and from London twenty-two miles. 

In Edward the confessor's reign this parish belonged to Inguar, and five others, 
all freemen; and, at the survey, was holden by Ranulf, brother of Ilger; and a 
berewick or hamlet which belonged to it, was holden under him by a freeman named 

, Richard. There are four manors. 

Roydon Roydon Hall, or Temple Rovdon Hall,f is eastward from the church, on the 

Hail " . 

village green; this manor passing by forfeiture to the cro^vn, was granted to Robert 
Fitzwalter, by king Henry the first, in 1285; and, five years afterwards, he had a 
charter for a market every Thursday, and a fair on the first and second of August. 
He held of the king, of his honour of Baynard, from whence it is believed to have 
descended from Ranulph to that family, and to have been forfeited by William Bay- 
nard, in the reign of Henry the first. This estate was given to the knight templars 
by Robert Fitzwalter, and, on the extinction of that order, in 1311, it was given to 

Inscrip- * Inscriptions : A monument on the north wall of the chancel bears an inscription in Latin to the 

tions. memory of William Marten, esq. who died Nov. 28, 1717, aged 84. There are also inscriptions on John 

Bannister, gent, who died in January 1607, aged 80; and Abraham Kent, A.M. formerly rector of this 

church, who died in 17M. 
" Here lyeth Thomas Lawrence, and Alys his wyfe, which Thomas dy*;d in x^pril 1522, on whose souls 

Jesu have mercy." 
Charities. Charities. — A free-school was instituted here by William Marten, esq. which is endowed with forty 

pounds per annum for teaching ten boys and ten girls. Thomas Lawrence, born here in 1522, gave an 

annuity of five shillings to the poor. 

t The manor of the rectory, or Temple Roydon, has been united to the chief manor, and goes along 

with it. The fee-farm rent of this estate was sold by king Charles the first, in 1629. 



■'.n 



HALF HUNDRED OF HARLOW. 299 

the knight's hospitalers, who enjoyed it till the general dissolution of religious houses, CHAP, 
and it was granted, by queen Elizabeth, to Francis lord Norreys and others. It ^- 
became the property of sir Robert Cecil, afterwards earl of Salisbury, who died in 
1612; and his family retained this estate till his grandson James, earl of Salisbury, 
sold it to sir Josiah Child, hart, from whom it descended to the right hon. John earl 
Tilney, and now belongs to the hon. W. T. L. P. Wellesley. 

The manor of Dounes, or Doune Hall, was holden of the prior of St. John of Dounes. | 
Jerusalem; and, in the time of Edward the third, seems to have belonged to the family ' 

of Wanton; passing to Robert Pakenham, one of their descendants, and afterwards 
to Harleston. It was holden of the prior by Ivo de Harleston, who died in 1403; 
John was his son, whose brothers, Henry and Robert, in 1466, conveyed the estate 
to sir Robert Danby and others; it was afterwards in possession of George Cplt, esq.-j 
and he, on his decease in 1616, held this manor and a messuage called the New Weare, I 
with the island, of the earl of Salisbury. It afterwards belonged to Edmund Field, \ 
esq. and to Paul Field, esq. of Stansted-bury; it is in the possession of Mr. Maw, 
mathematical instrument maker, London. Lady Houblon is lady of the manor. 

The ruin of Nether Hall is near the confluence of the rivers Lea and Stort. It jj^li * ' ^ 
was formerly the seat of the Colt family, who were from an early period settled here. 
The ancient mansion, which had been converted into a farm-house, was demolished 
in the year 1773; the gateway being left standing from the strength of the work, 
which rendered its destruction too expensive. It is of brick, and consists of two 
floors, with a half hexagon tower on each side of the entrance. Each floor is occupied 
by only one room, measuring twenty-seven feet by twenty-three and a half, and 
lighted by large windows; the ceiling of the upper story has fallen in: that of the 
first story is sustained on wainscot arches, resting in front on three blank shields, and 
a truss composed of a radiant rose ; and at the back on four trusses, the first and third 
of which represent griffins; the second and fourth, a bear and ragged staff": the most 
Avestern of the shields is supported by two horses; the second held by a spread eagle, 
supported by a lion and unicorn; and the third rests on a lioness and a bull ducally 
crowned. Near the chimney is a colt's head, in an ornament of the carving. This 
story has been waniscoted to the height of about eight feet : above the wainscot, 
on the plaster, are various figures in the compartments, indiff'erently painted, to 
represent the most eminent personages of sacred, profane, and fabidous history. On 
the summit of the gateway are some remains of two curiously twisted chimneys ; and 
beneath the windows, above the entrance, is a machicolation, and a trefoil ornament, 
with shields and fleurs-de-lis. These venerable remains of antiquity are in a state of 
rapid decay, and have lately become much altered in appearance. 

This manor was formerly holden of Waltham abbey, and is first mentioned in 
records in 1401, as being conveyed by Thomas, son of John Organ, of London, to 



300 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK If. 



Climcli. 



Nicholas CoUern and others: and Thomas Prudence, who previously had it of the 
oift of the said John Organ, in 1407, released all his right to Simon Barnwell. 

In the reign of Edward the fourth, this estate had become the property and place 
of residence of the Colt family, and Thomas Colt, esq. was employed by that prince 
in some post of honour abroad. He died in 1476, and was buried in this church. 
The estate continued many generations in this family; the last recorded possessor 
being George, son of sir Henry Colt, knt. in 1635.* The family of Archer, ,of 
Coopersale, afterwards succeeded to this possession. 

The church, dedicated to St. Peter, is in the village. It has a nave, north aisle, 
and chancel ; and an embattled tower contains six bells.f 

In 1729, this poor vicarage was augmented with two hundred pounds, the gift of 
the duchess dowager of Marlborough; to which, two hundred pounds of queen Anne's 
bounty Avere added. 

In 1821, the population of Roydon, with the hamlet, amounted to seven hundred 
and ninety-six, and, in 1831, to seven hundred and seventeen. 



Inscrip- 
tions. 



Cliaritics. 



* Thomas Colt, of Carlisle, was the father of Thomas Colt, esq. of Roydon, who, by his wife Joan, 

daughter of Trusbutt, of Suffolk, had John Colt, esq. his heir, who married Joan, daughter of sir 

John Elrington, of Hackney, in Middlesex; and also, secondly, he married Anne, daughter of sir John 
Anle : on his death, in 1521, he was succeeded by his eldest son, sir George Colt, who married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Henry Macwilliam, and, secondly, Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Stopham, of London. 
By the first he is said to have had two sons, Henry and John, and two daughters by the second ; yet his 
sons are supposed to have died before him, for on his decease in 1.578, his next heir was his cousin, 
George Colt, esq. who married Elizabeth, daughter of John Coniugsby, esq. of North Mymmes, in Hert- 
fordshire, and had five sons and six daughters. He died in 1615, in possession of numerous estates, and 
was succeeded by his son, sir Henry Colt, kut. who being improvident and thriftless, sold nearly the 
whole of the paternal estates, and, on his death in 1635, left only one messuage in this parish, a newly- 
built house in Little Parndon, where he dwelt, and Colt Hall, in Cavendish. George was his son, and 
heir to the remuant of the family possessions. Arms of Colt : Argent, a fesse azure, between three colts 
courant, sable. 

t Inscriptions : There were, sometime ago, inscriptions in memory of the following persons : Thomas 
Colt, esq. living in the reign of king Edward the fourth, and in the inscription styled " Edwardi Regis 
consul honorificus, prudens, discretus, fortis, tam consiliis quam armis." John, son of the above-named 
Thomas, who died iu Oct. l.'>21. Margaret Colt, daughter of John Heath, esq, tirst married te John 
Ducket, merchant, of London; then to John Swift, esq.; and lastly to Henry Colt, esq. 

Francis Butler, esq. late first secondary in the office of king's remembrancer in the court of exchequer, 
Westminster. 

Charles Nanfan, gent, of Spanish Town, in the island of Jamaica, who died in Aug. 1713. Also, Mrs. 
Elizabeth Nanfan, wife of captain John Nanfan, late in the hon. East India Company's service. She died 
in Nov. 1769. 

Charities and pious gifts.— An unknown benefactor left an annuity of four pounds for the repairs of 
the church. The rent of a house, called Prior's-house, was left to the poor, the donor unknown. 

A noble, payable yearly out of an estate in Roydon hamlet, was left to the poor by Mr. Newman. 



i: 



HALF HUNDRED OF HARLOW. 301 

CHAP. 



PARNDON. 



X. 



The two parishes named Parndon lie eastward from Roydon, and were not divided Pain^""- 
till some time after the survey of Domesday. The name is there written Perenduna; 
in other records, Parendon, Parringdon, Parenden, Perindun. In the reign of the 
Confessor, tlie owners of this district were Ulf, a king's thane; Alsius Bella, a free- 
man; another freeman; and the nunnery of Barking: at the time of the survey, it 
belonged to Eustace, earl of Boulogne, and his under-tenant Junain; to Ranulph, 
brother of Ilger, and his under-tenant Roger. 

GREAT PARNDON. 

The largest of these two parishes is what belonged to earl Eustace, and is of p^'^JJ^^.^ 
inconsiderable extent. The soil is of a superior description, and in a good state of 
cultivation. There are three manors. 

The manor of Great Parndon, at the time of the survey, belonged to earl Eustace; 
and afterwards to the Whitsand family; three co-heiresses of which carried their 
purparties of this estate, and the advowson of the church, to their husbands; and by 
this means the manor was parcelled out into smaller possessions. Agnes was married to 
Walter Jeround ; Lucia to de London; and Elizabeth to Talyferris, of Winton. 

Walter Jeround, who married Agnes Whitsand, had this estate, which has retained Jeround. 
his name : the mansion is on the north side of the church-yard : he was succeeded, in 
1307, by his son John. Taleferris de Wynton, or Winchester, died in 1332, holding 
a third part of the advowson of the church, and his wife's part of the manor; Richard 
was his son, but there is no distinct account of his succession to the estate. Ptichard 
de Nottingham presented to the living in 1325; and Richard Wynchester died in 
1348, holding the third part of the manor of Great Parndon of the king, as of the 
honour of Boulogne, by the third part of a knight's fee, and suit from month to month 
at the court at Witham, and the hundred of Harlow. Joane, his widow, enjoyed the 
estate after him, and died in 1361, leaving two daughters co-heiresses; Meliora, wife 
of William Rolf, and Katharine, wife of John-at- Church; of these no further account 
is found, except that Robert Chirche died in 1420, holding, apparently, his own and 
the other portion of the estate which had come to him. His only daughter Joan, was 
married to Richard Maister, who had possession of the estate in 1407. In 1467, it 
belonged to R. Steward. In 1529, Andrew Finch and others sold the manor of 
Great Parndon, and the third part of the advowson of the church, to John Hales, one 
of the barons of the exchequer. It afterwards passed to the crown, and, in 1553, was 
granted by Edward the sixth to the mayor, commonalty, and citizens of London, as 
governors of the hospitals of Bridewell, St. Thomas, and Christ's, and it has remained 
in this appropriation. 

VOL. II. 2 R 



302 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



Katha- 
rine's. 



Passe 
luers. 



Canons. 



BOOK II. The manor-house of St. Katharine's is on the south side of the church ; the estate 
belonging to it is what formed the portion of Lucia de Whitsand, and was named 
from her daughter Katharine de London. An unknown benefactor (supposed of the 
llokesburgh family) gave it to Waltham abbey; and after the dissolution, it was 
granted to Richard Higham, esq. who, in 1544, sold it to Andrew Finch, on whose 
decease, in 1563, it passed to his son, John Finch, who sold it in 1580 to Thomas 
Skipton ; it appears, from the records, to have belonged to Robert and Simon Adams 
in 1558, to Nathaniel Tracy in 1588, and in 1645 to John Weldon. 

The manor of Passemers is named from the family of Passemer, under whom it was 
holden in the reign of Henry the third, by Baldwin de Whitsand. The house is a 
mile eastward from the church, near a brook. The estate, a part of which has been 
sold off, was some time ago possessed by a family named Naylor ; succeeded by 

Sale, of Wadesmill, in Hertfordshire ; and George Brewer, esq. who conveyed 

it to Mrs. Pink ; who sold it to Jonathan Nunn, esq., whose widow enjoyed it after 
him, and left it to their daughter Hannah, married to Richard Glover, esq. of London. 

The manor named Canons, belonged anciently to a monastery of Canons of the 
Premonstratensian order, styled the canons of Perendune, or Parndon. It was 
founded, or endowed, by Roger and Robert de Perendune, and Clement, son of 
Reginald. In 1180, these canons were removed to Bileigh abbey, near Maldon; yet 
they retained possession of this estate, which was confirmed to them by the charter of 
Richard the first. On the general dissolution of monasteries, this estate passed to the 
crown ; and was granted in exchange by Henry the eighth to sir Thomas Darcy, 
gentleman of his privy chamber; who, in 1547, conveyed it to John Hanchet, and 
Bridget his wife : their daughter Martha married Edward Tumor, esq. In 1632, 
sir Edward Farmer had this manor, and resided here ; and in the last century it was 
purchased by sir Josiah Child, bart. and descended to the right hon. John earl Tilney; 
and the present possessor is the right hon. W. P. T. L. Wellesley. 

There was formerly a magnificent mansion, in a low situation, about a mile north 
from the church, to the right of the road from Harlow to Roydon; but the whole or 
greatest part of it has been pulled down : it is supposed to have been built with the 
materials of the monastery^ Kingsmore House is the elegant seat of Risden, esq. 

The church has a nave, south aisle, and chancel; and a tower, with a small spire, 
contains four bells.* 

In 1821, this parish contained three hundred and ninety six, and in 1831, two 

hundred and ninety-six inhabitants. 

* Charities. — In 1588, John Celye, Ceely, or Sealy, a native of this parish, gave one hundred pounds for 
the purchase of lands, or other property, the yearly income of which shall not be less than five pounds, 
to be for the assistance of the poorest people of this parish. — One shilling and eight-pence is yearly pay- 
able out of lands named Rum Mead, in Harlow, to be given to the poor. 
nscrip- Inscription. — " To the memory of Rowland Rampstone, late of .this parish, gentleman, who married 



Church. 



Charity. 



HALF HUNDRED OF HARLOW. 303 

CHAP. 
X. 
LITTLE PARNDON. 



This very small parish is delightfully situated near the river Stort : a freeman held p'"^^ 
it before the Conquest, and at the survey it formed one of the twelve lordships in this 
county, belonging to Peter de Valoines: by Alfreda, sister to Eudo Dapifer, he had 
his son and heir Roger, father of Peter, who married Gundred de Warren, and had 
by her three daughters, co-heiresses; Lora, married to Alexander de Baliol, brother 
to the king of Scotland : Christian, married to William de Mandeville, afterwards to 
Peter de Maine; and Elizabeth, married to David Comin. In right of his wife, 
Alexander had Benington, in Hertfordshire, to which this of Little Parndon * was 
afterwards added ; and Alexander Baliol having sold the estate of Benington to John 
de Bensted, in 1284, Little Parndon went along with it: the estate, after the decease 
of John de Bensted, in 1342, and of his wife, Petronilla, descended to John de Bensted, 
son of Ethnund; remainder to Edmund, son of John, and his heirs: John, son of John, 
died in 1376: and the next recorded possessors were of the family of Colt, of Roydon; 
who were succeeded by the Turnor family, in which it continued, till on the death of 
Cliarles Turnor, in 1726, and of his two daughters soon afterwards, the family became 
extinct. Sarah, grand-daughter of the last sir Edward Turnor, whose mother was 
Sarah, sir Edward Tumor's daughter, was married to Mr. Francis Gee. Edward 
Turnor, esq. of Sliillingley park, in Sussex, son of Arthur, second son of chief baron 
Turnor, was heir to the family. He gave this estate to Sarah, grand-daughter of the 
last sir Edward Turnor ; but after some dispute on the subject, there being another 
who claimed the estate, it was sold to Edward Parsons, esq., and is at present the 
property of William Smith, esq. 

The church is near the river Stort, and very small : the chancel has a north aisle.f Clmi ch. 

In 1821, this parish contained one hundred and three, and in 1831, ninety 
inhabitants. 

Mary, the eldest daughter of captain Turner, of Canons ; whose mother was Martha, daughter and heiress 
of John Hanchett, esq. He died Sept. 10, 159S." 

There are memorials of several of the family of Sparke, and of Robert Milward, of North Winfield, 
Derbyshire, and afterwai-ds of this town: he died Oct. 1763, aged 74 ; his wife Jane died May, 1766, 
aged 76. 

* Chauncy's Antiquities of Hertfordshire, p. 313. 

t Inscriptions.— On the floor of the chancel: " Here lyeth the body of Mrs. Sarah Turnor, ye wife of Inscrip- 
Edward Turnor, of this parish, esq. by whom he had six children, whereof four survived her, two sonnes, tions. 
Edward and Arthur, and two dauglitcrs, Sarah and Anne; she was tlie daugiiter and hayrc apparent of 
Jerard Gore, of ye cityc of London, esq. She departed thi.s life in ye 27th year of her age, ye I9th of 
February, Anno Dom. 165.." — Arms: Turnor impaling., between a fesse, three cross crosslets fitche. . 
with a crescent. 

" Here lyeth the body of Sarah Gore, wife of Gerard Gore, of the city of London, esq." 

In the nave : " Here lyeth buried the body of William Houghton, who continued a faithful minister of 



304 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. 



MATCHING. 



Matcliing. The parish of Matchmg, extending- south-eastward to the hundred of Ongar, is 
bounded on the north-west by Harlow : distant from Epping six, and from London 
twenty-three miles. 

Previous to the Conquest, Esgar, Elurid, Cild, Holefast, and another freeman, held 
the lands of this parish : at the time of the general survey they werein the possession 
of Robert Gernon, and Hugh his under-tenant, Geofrey de Magna ville, and William 
de Warren. This is a pleasant and healthy part of the country, the soil being of 
various loams, moderately productive.* There are four manors. 

.Matching ^pj^g chief manor-house is Matching Hall, on the south side of the church; and the 
lands belonging to it are what descended from Robert Gernon to the lords of Stansted 
Montfichet. In 1331, Humphrey de Walden held this estate of John de Lancaster, 
and left Andrew, son of Roger, his brother, his heir. The noble family of Vere 
having acquired the lordship of Stansted, this manor remained in their possession 
through many generations. The Walden family held it of them in 1401, and sir 
Alexander Walden died in possession of it in 1408, whose cousin Alexander was his 
heir; succeeded by John Walden in 1419, whose sisters, Katharine, wife of John 
Barley, and Margaret, married to Henry Langley, were his co-heiresses; afterwards, 
by purchase or otherwise, the whole inheritance passed to Thomas Langley, who held 
it at the time of his decease in 1471, as did also his son Henry in 1488, leaving his 

the word of God in this parish, thirty-eight years and five months, and departed this life, being aged 
71 years and upwards, Nov. 15, Anno Dom. 1659." 

North wall: " In the family vault of her son-in-law, Edward Parson, of this parish, esq. are deposited 
the remains of Mrs. Bridget AVoodley, widow of William Woodley, esq. of the island of St. Christopher, 
where he is interred. She departed this life the 13th day of February, 17.o6, aged 74 years, eminently 
distinguished by every conjugal, social, and Christian virtue, and most justly meriting this last testimony 
of filial duty and respect, from her affectionate son John Woodley, who erected this to the best of parents, 
iWDCCLxvi." Arms : Sable, a chevron between three owls, argent ; impaling argent, a bend between three 
wolves' heads, couped sable, langued gules. 

East wall of the chancel : " Near this place lyeth the body of Ann Tumour, wife of Arthur Tumour, 
esq. serjeant-at-law, and daughter of John Germy, of Gunton, in the county of Norfolk, esq., who was 
mother of sir Edward Turnour, knt. lord chief baron of his majesty's court of exchequer at Westminster, 
in the reign of king Charles the second." 

" Near this place lieth the body of Sarah Clarke, widow, who was the wife of George Clarke, of Watford, 
in the county of Northampton, esq., she was daughter of sir Edward Turnour, knt. : she departed this life 
the 30tb day of October, in the year of our Lord Christ, 17-22." 

''Near this place lyeth the body of sir Edward Tumour, knt who departed this life in Hillary 

Term, in the .... of the said king's reign- And also here lieth the body of dame Sarah Turnour, wife of 
the said sir Edward Turnour, knt. and daughter of Gerard Gore, esq. alderman of the city of London ; 
she departed .... Feb. 1651 , in the . , . . " 

* Average annual produce per acre, wheat 26, barley 32 bushels. 



I 



HALF HUNDRED OF HARLOW. 305 

widow Katharine, who died in 1487 ; their daughter and heiress was married to John chap. 
Marshall ; and had Elianor, wife of Henry, son of sir John Cutts, and Mary, wife of ^' 
John, son and heir of Richard Cutts. Henry Cutts, esq. died in 1573, leaving- his 
son, sir Henry Cutts, who held a portion of this manor at the time of his death in 
1603, leaving his cousin, Richard Cutts, esq. his heir, who died in 1607. The last of 
this family who had this estate was sir William Cutts, great grandfather of Richard 
Cutts, esq. and father of John lord Cutts : it was afterwards purchased by one of the 
family of Masham, and passed with the manor of Otes to the right lion. Samuel lord 
Masham, who gave it, Avith Otes and Little Laver, to the hon. Samuel Masham, esq. 
from whom it afterwards passed to Robert Palmer, esq. of London. 

Waterman's manor, also named Matching-green, had a mansion at some distance vvater- 
from the church northward, but it has disappeared. The origin of the name is '"^" '^ 
unknown; as also of a place here called Waterman' s-end. This manor belonged to 
Waltham abbey, but by whom given is not known. At the dissolution it was granted 
to Robert Clifford and William Wallbore ; from whom it passed, in 1547, to Geofrey 
Lukyn; and in 1550, Thomas Lukyn sold it to William Lukyn; and he, in 1554, 
sold it to sir William Petre, from whom it has descended with the family estates. 

In the reign of the Confessor, Esgar, and at the survey, Geofrey Mandeville, had Stock 
the manor of Stock Hall ; the mansion to which is a mile south-eastward from the ^^^^' 
church, near Matching-green. It became successively the property of Thomas Battayl 
in 1372, Margaret Boys, and a second Thomas Battayle in 1453, and of Robert 
Brown, of Rookwood Hall, in Abbess Roding, in 1488 : his son William Avas his 
heir; and in 1553, the estate was conveyed by sir Humphrey Brown to John Lyndsel 
and others. Thomas Aylett was in possession of this estate in 1607, whose successor 
was his son John. Afterwards Thomas Gittens, who married Susan, daughter and 
heiress of Thomas Aylett, sold it to Thomas Bennet, of North Weald ; who settled 
it on his son John Bennet, and Grace, daughter of Thomas Cook, of Nether Yeld- 
ham, whom he had married; and he sold it, in 1707, to James Brain, esq. who was 
high sheriff of the county in 1724. He gave it to his daughter, who Avas married to 
Daniel Quare, son of Mr. Jeremiah Quare, merchant of London. 

The manor of Ovesham, vulgarly Housham Hall, is only a farm, though formerly it c)vtsiiaui, 
was so considerable as to constitute a hamlet to Matching; and had a chapel, the foun- 
dations of which may be traced near Ovesham Hall, which is half a mile Avest of the 
church. Shering brook forms the boundary of this estate, and hence the name is 
supposed to be from Oppe or Opep, on the bank, or above the stream, and Ham, a 
manor-house. It is Avhat belonged to Holefast, in the reign of the Confessor, and to 
William de Warren, at the time of the survey; and by Alice, sister and heiress of 
John, the last earl of Warren, was conveyed, by marriage, to Edmund Fitzalan, earl 
of Arundel. It afterAvards belonged to the family of Scot; folloAved by that of Alleyn; 



306 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. and returning" again to the Scot family, became the property of George Scot, esq. 
of Chigwell. 

Kinges- ^^ estate, three quarters of a mile eastward from the church, has retained the 

name of its ancient possessors of the Kingeston family. It was holden by the heirs of 
Hugh de Kingeston, under John and Thomas de Vere, earls of Oxford, who died in 
1358 and 1370. Richard Cramp held it in the reign of king Henry the sixth, by the 
service of giving, at Christmas, two little vessels, new bound with iron, containing 
four bottles or Hasks full of new wine. 

Stone An ancient mansion, north east from the church, is named Stone Hall. 

Hall 

Cliiiicli. The church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, has a nave, north and south aisles, and 

chancel, with a tower containing five bells.* 

Harvey de Boreham, dean of St. Paul's, gave this church to the priory of Lees : 
and in 1274, the great tithes were appropriated to that convent, by John de Chishull, 
bishop of Loudon, who also ordained and endowed a vicarage here, reserving the 
nomination of the vicar to himself and successors, bishops of London. 

After the dissolution of monasteries, the impropriate tithes were granted to sir 
Richard Rich, who settled them on his charitable foundations at Felsted, leaving the 
right of presentation to the trustees, but the nomination to the bishop of London. 

In 1821, this parish contained five hundred and ninety-nine, and in 1831, six hun- 
dred and twenty-one inhabitants. 

Inscrip- * Inscriptions. — On the south wall of the chancel, the following is nearly obliterated : " D. O. M. Nicolao 

tions. Ashtono, honesta familia sato ; qui vixit annos lxxx et senos, integer cum mente et corpore prudens, 

candidus plus vultus semper placide severus non male mores expressit. Ab omni senium verior quam 
senectutis vitio singulari modo immunis. Constantiam nee in ipsa morte reliquit ; singulis composite 
valedicens, modeste et importune concilians, inter maerentes tiliara et Nepos ; non aliter qukm iter facturus 
ut ipse Rloriens, praedicabat, ad meliorem vitam decessit Kal. Feb. 1716. Pia, placida, gravis Anima 
Vale." Translation : " By favour of the supreme Being, all powerful and all good, to Nicholas Ashton, 
(sprung from a reputable family,) who lived eighty-six years, with soundness and integrity of mind and 
body. His countenance (where sweetness mixed with gravity ever sate) was no ill interpreter of his 
manners. He was very particularly free from all the vices of old men ; falsely called the vices of old age. 
His constancy forsook him not at his very death. Amongst his mourning daughters and grand-children, 
taking leave of every one without discomposure, and giving every one modest and reasonable counsel, no 
otherwise than if he had been to take a journey, (the comparison he himself made at the time,) he 
departed to a better life. Thou pious, gentle, and grave soul, farewell." 

" John Ballet, gent, died, 1638, aged 65. Elizabeth Ballet, died Dec. 13, 1649. John, her eldest son, 
died March, 1659. John, the father, in Dec. 1673." 

" Francis Cudworth JNlasham, esq. only son of sir Francis Ma.sham, hart, died May 16, 1731, aged 45." 
Charities. Pious benefactions. — The income or rent of a house on JMatcliing Green, known by the sign of the 
Cock, was given to the parish for beautifying the church ; but is frequently distributed to the poor. 

A house near the church-yard was built by Chymney, and designed for the entertainment of poor 

people on their wedding-day. 



HALF HUNDRED OF HARLOW. 307 

CHAP, 
SHEERING, or SHERING. X. 



This parish extends westward to the river Stort, and on the south is bounded by a Sheering, 
nameless stream flowing from Hatfield. Sheering Street, consisting of detached 
houses, on the road from Hatfield to Harlow, is distant from Epping eight, and from 
London twenty-five miles. 

In records the name is Sceringa, Seringe, Snaringe, Cherring. Peter de Valoines 

had this parish in the time of William the Conqueror, its former owners having been 

three Saxon freemen. 

The mansion-house of the manor of Sheering is a mile south-westward from the Sheering 

° _ , Hall. 

church: it belonged to Peter de Valoines, who married Albreda, sister to Eudo 

Dapifer, and had by her his son Roger, whose two sons were Peter and Robert. 

Peter dying without issue male, was succeeded by Robert, who, by his wife Hawise, 

left his heiress Gunnora, married to Robert Fitz waiter, to whom she conveyed this 

estate, which remained in the barony of Fitzwalter till the year 1432, when it passed, 

by .tlie marriage of Elizabeth, daughter of Walter lord Fitzwalter, to the family of 

Ratcliffe, of whom Robert was created viscount Fitzwalter in 1525, and, in 1529, 

earl of Sussex. Earl Robert, the last heir male in the direct line, sold Sheering, with 

the advowson of the church, to Lionel Cranfield, earl of Middlesex, who, in 1635, 

sold it to Thomas Hewit,* esq. sou and heir of sir William Hewit, knt. by Elizabeth, 

daughter of Richard Wiseman, esq. 

In 1723, this estate was sold, by lady Fibner, to Robert Chester, esq. one of the Dorring- 

• 1 1 1 1 Vi ton house. 

South-sea Company directors, on whose forfeiture it was sold by the Company to 

Samuel Feake, esq. who erected the capital mansion of Dorrington House. It 

occupies a delightful situation on this estate, about a mile south-west from the church, 

and is the property and residence of Mrs. Glyn. 

The large estate of Sheering Hall, in the possession of Mr. P. Paviott, presents an 
admirable instance of good management, directed by superior judgment; the portion 
of arable in particular, is made to produce crops of the greatest luxuriance. 

The manor-house of Cowickbury, also called Quickbury, and Cowick-barns, is a 



Cowick- 
bury. 



* He married Frances, daughter of sir John Hubbard, of Blickling, in Norfolk, by whom he had a 
daughter, married to sir William Beversham, knt. a master in chancery : he married, secondly, iMargaret, 
widow of Thomas Hillersdon, esq. of Elston, in Bedfordshire, daughter of sir William Lytton, of Kneb- 
worth, in Hertfordshire, knt. and bart. : by his second lady he had five sons and eight daughters, of whom 
his only surviving son was sir George viscountHewit, of Goring, in Ireland : dying without issue, in 1689, 
he left his estate to his four sisters ; Elizabeth, married to sir Richard Anderson, bart. ; Margaret, married 
to sir Edward Farmei , knt. of Little Parndon ; Arabella, widow of sir William Wiseman, bart. of Great 
Canfield ; and Mary, widow of sir Charles Crofts Read, knt. ; of these, the lady Arabella Wiseman was 
his executrix. The estate was sold, and remained sometime in possession of lady Filmer, a descendant 
of sir William Beversham.— 5ee Sir Henry Chimney's Antiquities of Hertfordshire, p. 17G. 



308 



HISTORY OF ESSEX. 



BOOK II. 



Churt-li 



Chapel - 
field. 



mile from the church north-westward; there is also another mansion-house, a quarter 
of a mile farther in the same direction, which is named Co wicks. This manor is 
supposed to be what in Domesday is named Cinca: in Edward the confessor's reign, 
it belonged to Alwin Godtun, and, at the general survey, was in possession of WiUiam 
de Warren, whose under-tenant was Richard. 

In 1098, Richard Guett, brother to the countess of Warren, gave this manor to 
the monastery of Bermondsey, in Southvvark, who held it as a knight's fee of the 
descendants of the family of Warren, of whom are particularly mentioned in records 
Edmund and John, earls of Kent; Joan, princess of Wales; Alice, wife of Thomas 
Holland, earl of Kent; Thomas, earl of Arundel; and Joanna, wife of sir John Grey. 
On the death of every abbot, the lord of Ovesham was to receive a hundred shillings. 
After the dissolution of monasteries, in 1540, this estate was granted to Thomas 
Jocelyn, esq. of New Hall, in High Roding, from whom it was conveyed, in 1556, to 
Robert Hurst, and became successively the property of Roger Hurst, of his son 
Thomas, who died in 1616, and of his son and heir Roger. The next recorded 
possessor was David Pettyt, esq. of Wansted, fifth and youngest son of George 
Pettyt, esq. of Ottford, in Kent, by Anne, daughter of David Polhill, esq.: he 
married Mary, daughter of John Cookes, esq. of Bewdley, in Worcestershire, and 
dying in 1745, left this estate, by will, to George lord Carpenter, who had married 
his only daughter: on the decease of this nobleman, in 1749, his son, James Turvin, 
esq. succeeded to this estate. 

The church is a plain ancient building, of one pace with the chancel, and of the 
same width: it is dedicated to the Virgin Mary. 

The rectory of Sheering continued in the gift of the owners of Sheering Hall 
manor, till it was sold, by lady Wiseman, to a gentleman, of whom it was afterwards 
purchased, with money left by archbishop Fell, to the college of Christ's church, 
Oxford. 

A field, named " Chapel-field," on the north side of the road to Netherton, marks 
the site of the ancient free chapel dedicated to St. Nicholas, which was founded and 
endowed by Christiana de Valoines, in 1278; the endowment was for two chaplains 
to celebrate divine service: Thomas de Shimpling was presented as chaplain by sir 
Thomas Loveyn, in 1322.* 

In 1821, the population of this parish amounted to four hundred and thirty-nine, 
and, in 1831, to five hundred and forty-seven inhabitants. 



HATFIELD REGIS, Or BROAD OAK. 

Numerous houses irregularly placed, and generally at some distance from each 
other, form here a considerable Village, where there was formerly a market-town of 
* Benefaction: A house near the church has been given for its reparation. 



HALF HUNDRED OF HARLOW. 30^ 

some importance. It is on the north-east part of the hundred, and extends to the chap 
Canfields and the Rodings. The Saxon name Hae^):elb, is descriptive of its former ^— 
state, of a heathy, uncultivated field : the terms Regis and Broad Oak, distinguish this 
place from Hatfield Peverell. The first of the above terms was applicable to this 
lordship as having formed part of the deriiesne lands of the Conqueror; and the 
extraordin^l^ tree of very ancient appearance, named Doodle-oak, has by most writers 
been supposed to have been that from which this parish has been denominated : the 
soil is well adapted to the growth of forest trees.* 

From the great rent of eighty pounds, which this parish brought to the sheriff. Hoisted 
immediately after the Conquest, it has been considered the largest in the half hundred, 
and this opinion is strengthened by the appearance of the foundations of buildings, 
extending above half a mile on the road towards Sheering and Harlow ; this place is 
called Holsted-hill, a corruption of Old Street-hill. The return of chantries, in the 
reign of Edward the sixth, makes it " a great and populous town." There has 
formerly been a good market here, and there is a fair on the fifth of August, which 
supplies a stock of lambs to this part of the country, chiefly from Norfolk. This 
lordship formed part of the royal demesnes of Edward the confessor, of Harold, and 
of William the conqueror. It contains five manors. 

The paramount manor remained in the crown till the reign of Henry the third, Hatfield- 
vv^ho, in 1217, made a grant of it to William de Cassingham, for his support in the 
king's service; but a part of the tithes had been previously granted to the priory of 
St. Botolph, in Colchester, by Henry the first. 

In 1237 this manor, with that of Writtle, was granted in fee to Isabel, sister and 
co-heiress of John, earl of Chester, married to Robert de Brus, earl of Anandale; she 
was succeeded by her son Robert, who was one of the competitors for the crown of 
Scotland, and married Isabel, daughter of Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester. His 1 1 
son and heir was Robert Brus, earl of Carrick in right of his lady Margaret, daugh- 
ter and heiress of Neil, earl of Carrick. He died in 1304<, holding this manorf of 
the king in capite, by the service of half a knight's fee, and the half hundred of 
Harlow, which belonged to this manor 4 his son Robert was his successor, who, 
asserting his right to the kingdom of Scotland, and being in 1306 crowned at Scone, 
was, by king Edward the first, deprived of this and all his other estates in England: 

* Mr. Arthur Young observes, " Sir John Barrington possesses, in Hatfield Forest, a very beautiful oak, 
for wrhich a timber merchant offered one hundred guineas ; near it is the ruin of a most venerable one, 
w^ich gave the name of Broad Oak to Hatfield." — Young's Agriculture 0/ Esses, vol. ii. p. 150. 

t In the record said to be in Broomeshoobery. 

X Robert, the father, had five sons and nine daughters ; Edward, his second son, was slain in Ireland ; 
Neil, Thomas, and Alexander, having been captured by king Edward the first, were sacrificed to his cruelty 
and revenge by the hands of the executioner; Neil at Berwick, in 1306; Thomas and Alexander at 
Carlisle, in 1307. 

VOL. II. 2 s 



310 HISTORY OF ESSEX. 

BOOK II. he married Isabel, daughter of Donald, earl of Marr; and secondly, Mary, daughter 
of Aymer de Burgh, earl of Ulster. By the second he had David, king of Scots, 
who died without issue: by the first he had Margery, married to Walter Steuart; 
she died by a fall from her horse, when, being with child, her son, Robert Steuart, 
king of Scotland, was taken from her by the Csesarean operation. 

The crown retained this manor till Edward the second gave it to Humphrey de 
Bohun, earl of Hereford and Essex, and to his wife Elizabeth, seventh daughter of 
king Edward the first, to them and their heirs ; but Richard de Waleys held the 
third part of it till his decease in 1330. Humphrey de Bohun died in 1321, and was 
succeeded by his son, John de Bohun, earl of Hertford and Essex, who died without 
issue in 1335, and was succeeded by his brother Humphrey, whose successor, on his 
decease in 1361, was Humphrey de Bohun, son of his brother William, earl of 
Northampton. He married Joan, daughter of Richard, earl of Arundel, and dying 
in 1372, left his daughters, Eleanor, married to Thomas of Woodstock, sixth son of 
king Edward the third, and Mary, married to Henry, earl of Derby, eldest son of 
John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, afterwards king Henry the fourth. Of these, 
Thomas of Woodstock enjoyed this estate till his murder in 1397. He left Anne, 
married to Edmund, earl of Stafford, slain in 1403, at the battle of Shrewsbury. In 
1421, a partition was made of the Bohun estates between this Anne and king Henry 
the fifth; the lady Anne had this, with other possessions, for her purparty; and it 
descended to Humphrey Stafibrd, her son, who, on account of his alliance to the 
royal family, was, in 1444, advanced to the title of duke of Buckingham, by king 
Henry the sixth; and, in 1459, was slain, fighting for that king at the battle of 
Northampton. His heir was his grandson Henry, the son of his son Humphrey, who 
had been slain at the battle of St. Alban's; this Henry Stafibrd being accused of 
treason, was beheaded in 1483, and this and his other estates were forfeited to the 
crown. Edward, his son, was restored to his honours and estates, but, in 1521, fell 
a sacrifice to the malice of Thomas Wolsey, and had his estates again seized by the 
crown: in 1547, this of Hatfield was granted, by Edward the sixth, to sir Richard 
Rich, lord Rich, and his heirs,* in which noble family it continued till the failure of 
issue male, by the death of Charles lord Rich, earl of Warwick, in 1673; when the 
estates being divided between the several co-heirs, this manor became the property of 
sir Charles Barrington, in right of his mother Anne, daughter of Robert Rich, earl 
of Warwick, which the Barrington family, his descendants, have retained to the 
present time.f 

* His son, Robert lord Rich, who died in 1581, held this manor, the park (then disparked) and all the pre- 
mises, with the ward-staff; which shews that the service of the ward-staff came as low as Elizabeth's reign. 

t The {)ari.sh of Barrington, in Cambridgeshire, is believed to have received its name from, or given it 
to, this ancient family, who trace their pedigree to sir Odoncl, or Odynel de Barenton, baron of Wegon, 



HALF HUNDRED OF HARLOW. 311 

Barrington Hall, their ancient seat, is about a mile and a half from the church; chap, 
when the family removed, part of this house was pulled down, and what remained ___!__ 



made to form the present residence, which was leased, with a considerable portion K^i"''"?- 
of land, to the family of Nicholls, who have held this estate for at least a century; the 

a descendant of Barenton, who distinguished himself in the service of Emma, queen of king Ethelred, 

father of Edward the confessor, and who had the custody of Hatfield Forest. His possessions were taken 
from him by the Conqueror : but his son, sir Eustace de Barenton, engaged in the service of Henry the 
first, obtained from him the custody of Hatfield Forest, and also allowance peaceably to hold all his lands 
here and elsewhere : Humphrey, his son, living in the reigns of Henry the first, Stephen, and Henry the 
second, had the privileges enjoyed by his father confirmed. Alberic de Vere granted him the manor of 
Barringtons, in Chigwell ; and he had the manor of Kelvedon, in marriage with Gresild, sister of sir 
Ralph Marcy : Humphrey, his son, lived in the reigns of Henry the second, Richard the first, and John, 
and was sheriff of Essex and Hertfordshire in 1197; formerly an office of much greater authority and 
importance than at present. He married Amicia, daughter of sir William, third son of sir Geofrey de 
Mandeville, earl of Essex, who gave him his lands in Sheperide : Sir Nicholas, his son, was the first of 
the family who resided at Barrington Hall. He was appointed woodward, and chief forester of Hatfield 
Forest, and summoned before him the regarders, verderers, and agisters in the forest of Essex. He married, 
first, Mary, daughter of sir John Bovil ; and secondly, Maud, daughter of sir Ralph Mortoft. By the first 
he had no issue, but by the second had seven sons and one daughter, Margaret, married to sir James Um- 
frevill. Sir Nicholas Barrington, the eldest son and heir, lived in the reigns of Henry the third and Edward 
the first ; and marrying Agnes, daughter and heiress of sir William Chetwynd, had by her three sons and 
four daughters : sir Nicholas, the eldest son, married Alice, daughter and heiress of sir Richard Belhouse, 
and had by her Nicholas, Thomas, Roger, and sir Philip ; Nicholas, the eldest son, married Emma, daughter 
and co-heiress of sir Robert Baard, and had by her four sons and one daughter. Sir John, the eldest son, 
marrying Margaret, daughter and heiress of sir John Blomville, had John and Edward : John, the eldest 
son, was living in the reigns of Henry the fourth and fifth, and was the first who assumed the name of 
Barrington instead of Barenton : he married Alice, one of the daughters of Thomas Battle, younger son 
of sir John Battle, of Ongar Park, by whom he had Thomas, Humphrey, and Elizabeth, married to John 
Sulyard, esq. Thomas Barrington, esq. was sheriff of Essex and Hertfordshire in 1451. He died in 1472, 
on the 5th of April, and Anne, his wife, died on the following day ; she was the daughter and co-heiress 
of sir John Holbeach. Humphrey, the second son of John Barrington, was the next heir. He married 

Margaret, daughter of Bretton, and on his death left by her his son Humphrey. Nicholas, son of 

Humphrey, died in 1505 : by his first wife Anne, daughter of Thomas Darcy, esq. of ToUeshunt Darcy, 
he had Richard and Nicholas ; by Elizabeth, his second wife, he had no issue. Richard, the eldest